Articles on infection

Basic Knowledge of Infection Control in Dental Clinic

Dr. Yogesh Rao, Dentist
INTRODUCTION The unique nature of dental procedures, instrumentation and patient care settings require specific strategies directed to the prevention of transmission of diseases among dental health care workers and their patients.Dental practices should develop a written infection-control program to prevent or reduce the risk of disease transmission. The program should outline the policies, procedures, practices, technologies, and products used to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses among dental team members as well as healthcare-associated infections among patients.The practice setting should establish a working relationship with a qualified healthcare professional/facility to provide dental team members with appropriate occupational health services like vaccinations (hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, and varicellazoster) and postexposure evaluation and management.As a matter of fact, the dentist, dental assistant, dental hygienist and dental technician are at risk of exposure to disease agents through contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. So by studying and by carefully following the infection control and safety guidelines, all the team work can minimize the risks of disease transmission to himself and to the patients in the dental office.Diseases Transmission in Dental Office;The dental office should have an infection control program to prevent the transmission of disease from the following :Patient to dental team Dental team to patient:Patient to patient:Dental office to community ( include dental team’s family ):Community to dental office to patient To prevent such infections, following is a list of all those procedures and precautions that together constitute infection control. These guidelines should be followed each time treatment is performed because we are never certain of the patient's status, either because they themselves do not know or because they have chosen not to inform their healthcare providers of their condition. Following these guidelines for every patient is called "Standard Precautions".StandardPrecautions1. IMMUNIZATION 2. PATIENT SCREENING 3. HAND WASHING 4. BARRIER TECHNIQUES - • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Rubber dam, Pre-procedural rinsing5. NEEDLE & SHARP INSTRUMENT SAFETY • Occupational Exposure To Blood/Body Fluids7. SURFACE DISINFECTION8. radiographic asepsis 9. laboratory asepsis10. infectious dental waste management &disposalModes of Diseases Transmission :Direct contact with blood or body fluids:Indirect contact with a contaminated instrument or surface:Contact of mucosa of the eyes, nose, or mouth with droplets or spatter:Inhalation of airborne microorganisms Prepare personnel involved in patient care.An essential pretreatment procedure is the preparation of all personnel involved in patient care. This includes the utilization of personal protective equipment (gown, eyewear, mask and gloves) and hand hygienePersonal protective equipment ( PPE )    OSHA  requires the employer to provide employees with appropriate personal protective equipment . Examples of  PPE   1-  Protective clothing2-  Surgical masks3- Face shields4-  Protective eyewear5- Disposable patient treatment gloves , and 6- Heavy-duty utility glovesHandwashing and hand care :According to   the   U.S.  Centers    for   Disease   Control (CDC) , hand washing is the single most important procedure for preventing the spread of infection. So , you must wash your hands each time before you put on gloves and immediately after you remove gloves . Handwashing is also required if you touch contaminated instruments or surfaces during working .We should always use liquid soap during handwashing . Bar soap should never be used because it may transmit contamination.Guidelines for the use of protective clothing  1) It should not be worn out of the office for any reason .2) Change these work clothes at least daily, or more often if  soiled, especially if they become visiblycontaminated with blood.3) It must not be worn during eating or in resting rooms  .4) It should be washed and laundered separately . Protective clothing requirements : 1) Should be made of fluid-resistant material ( cotton , cotton/polyester, ordisposable jackets or gowns .2)  Clothing should have long sleeves and a high neckline to minimize the amount of uncovered skin .3) Must cover dental personnel at least to the knees when seated.Protective masks :Purpose :the mask worn over the nose and mouth to protect the person from inhaling infectious organisms spread by the aerosol spray of the handpiece or air-water syringe . Types : the two most common types of masks are the dome-shaped and flat types,dome shape and flat shapeGuidelines for the use of protective masks  :• Masks should be changed for every patient or more often, particularly if heavy spatter is generated during the treatment or if the mask becomes damp.• Masks should be handled by touching only the side edges to avoid contact with the more heavily contaminated body of the mask.• Masks should conform to the shape of the face .• Masks should not contact the mouth when being worn because the moisture generated will decrease the mask filtration efficiency .Requirements : masks should be at least with 95% filtration efficiency to remove particles 3 – 5 microns in diameter .Protective eyewear :Purpose  eyewear is worn to protect the eyes against damage from :   • Aerosolized pathogens .• Flying sharp debris such as scrap amalgam and tooth fragments .• Splattered solutions• Caustic chemicalsGuidelines for the use of protective eyewear  :1) OSHA  requires the use of eyewear with both front and side protection ( solid side shields ) .2) Members who wear correction glasses or contact lenses must wear protective eyewear with a side shields or a face shield . 3) It must be cleaned and decontaminated after each treatment or patient visitaccording to the manufacture’s instructions .Types  :Two types of protective eyewear used during patient care :1) Glasses with protective side shield , and2) Clear face shields .Face shields : a chin-length plastic  face shield that protects your eyes, nose, and mouth from spatter may be worn and replace the protective eyewear .However , a shield cannot replace the mask because it does not protect against inhalation of contaminated aerosolGloves  :  Purpose : Glovesmust be worn by the dentist , dental assistant , and dental hygienist during all dental treatment to avoid contact with the patient’s blood , saliva , or mucous membranes or with contaminated items or surfaces .Types  : The   type  of   gloves   used   in   dental   practice     should be determined by the various procedures that are performed in the practice as follow :1) Examination gloves  usually are latex or vinyl . These are the gloves most frequently worn by the dental team duringpatient care .2) Overgloves   are made of lightweight  , inexpensive , clear plastic . Overgloves may be worn over contaminated treatment gloves ( overgloving ) to prevent contamination of clean objects ( telephone , pen ,opening drawers and cabinets ) that may be handled during treatment . Overgloves are discarded after a single use .3) Sterile surgical gloves are used   during    surgical procedures such as oral surgery or periodontal treatment . Sterile surgical gloves   are supplied in specific sizes and prepackaged unites to maintain sterility before use4) Utility gloves  are made from a puncture-resistant , heavy  material which are not used for direct patient care . Utility gloves may be washed , disinfected , or sterilized and reused  and must be discarded when they become old .Managing contaminated sharps :Contaminated needles and other disposable sharps , such as scalpel blades , orthodontic wires , and broken glass must be placed into a sharps container .OSHA , CDC and the EPA classify sharps as infectious waste . According to OSHA regulations , disposable sharps must be placed in a puncture resistant , closable , and color-coded or labeled with the biohazard symbol container immediately after use .Proper processing of contaminated  dental instruments in a six-steps  process as : 1)  Transport :   transport contaminated instruments to the processing area .2)  Cleaning  :   clean instruments with a hand-free , mechanical process such as an ultrasonic cleaner or instrumentwasher.3)   Packing   :  warp/package instruments in appropriate materials containing an external process indicator .4)  Sterilization : place the packages in a single layers or in  racks to increase circulation of the sterilizing agentaround the instruments . Operate the sterilizer according to the manufacture’s instructions . Allow packages to cool before removing them from the sterilizer .5)  Storage:  Store instruments in  a clean , dry environment  in a manner that maintains the integrity of the  package.Rotate   packages so   that those with the oldest sterilization date will be used first .6) Delivery : deliver packages to point of use in a manner that maintains sterility of the instruments  until  they are   used . Inspect each package for damage .Impressions and appliances should be rinsed thoroughly to remove all visible blood and debris. Gloves should be worn when handling impressions and pouring models. Certain types of impression material (silicone, polysulphur) can be disinfected by total immersion in glutaraldehyde (2%) or sodium hypochlorite (0.1%). Other materials (alginate, polyether) may be disinfected by submerging for several seconds in sodium hypochlorite (0.1%), which should then be wrapped in a hypochlorite saturated paper towel and kept in a closed container for the recommended disinfectant time.Packaging  instruments: Before sterilization the instruments must be packaged to protect them from becoming contaminated after sterilization .They can be contaminated by aerosols in the air , dust , or contact with nonsterile surfaces . An additional advantage to packaging instruments is that they can be grouped into special setups .Sterilization in the dental office : The three most common forms of heat sterilization in the dental office are : :Steam sterilization,:Chemical vapor sterilization, and :Dry heat sterilizationSterilization of hand pieces is recommended whenever possible : Hand pieces that are designed for steam sterilization between uses are preferred. When a hand piece cannot be heat or steam sterilized, chemical disinfection can be used as an alternativeMicroorganisms in WaterlinesThe primary source of microorganisms in dental waterlines is the public water supply It is possible that saliva may be retracted back into the waterlines during the treatment . This process is called suck back''Anti-retraction valves on dental units and thorough flushing of the dental lines between patients minimize the chance of this occurring.  Entering public water source has a colony forming units (CFU) count of less than 500; once that water enters the dental waterlines and colonizes within the bio-film, the CFU count skyrockets. There are two “communities” of bacteria in dental unit waterlines: One bacterial community exists in the water itself and is referred to as planktonic (free floating). The other exists in the bio-film attached to the walls of the waterlinesMethods to Reduce ContaminationSelf-contained water reservoirsChemical treatment regimens Micro-filtration Daily Draining and drying of linesSurface disinfectionSurfaces that are likely to become contaminated may be de-contaminated after treatment or protected with disposable coverings before they become contaminated. Effective cross-infection control is aided by a strict system of zoning and the use of sterilizable trays. Procedures should be adopted which limit the areas touched and contaminated each time a patient is treated.Between clinical sessions, work surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and decontaminated with ethyl alcohol (70%). If there is visible blood or pus, the surface should be cleaned and disinfected with sodium hypochorite (0.5%), followed by water rinse. Protective gloves should be worn and care taken to minimise direct skin, mucosal or eye contact with these disinfectants.

The Invisible Killer: Know More About Cancer Causing Infections

Dr. Sandeep Nayak, Surgical Oncologist
Many people are surprised to learn that cancer can be caused by an infection. Infections with certain viruses and bacteria have been recognized as risk factors for several types of cancer in humans.Worldwide, infections are linked to about 15% to 20% of cancers. This percentage is even higher in developing countries, but it is lower in the developed countries. This is partly because certain infections are more common in developing countries, and partly because some other risk factors for cancer, such as obesity, are more common in developed countries.Hepatitis Causing Liver CancerPeople who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) virus may develop a chronic infection that can lead to cirrhosis. The damage that results increases the risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). The risk of liver cancer is greater for people who have chronic HBV or HCV infection than for the general population. These viruses are transmitted by unsafe sex or unsafe blood products. Presently HBV can be prevented by vaccination. There is no vaccine for HCV.HPV InfectionHuman papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection with most sexually active men and women being exposed to the virus at some point during their lifetime. HPV can cause cervical and other cancers including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils (called oropharyngeal cancer). This infection can be prevented by taking a vaccine which is presently indicated for young women to prevent cervical cancer.Stomach CancerHelicobacter pylori (H pylori) bacteria which infects stomach causing gastritis can damage the inner layer of stomach. This damage can lead to cancer over years. H. pylori infection is common in developing countries and is spread by unhygienic food. There are tests to diagnose this and treatment to cure the infection. Prevention is by maintaining food hygiene and quality.Spread of These CancersMany of the infections that influence cancer risk can be passed from person to person, but cancer itself cannot. A healthy person can’t “catch” cancer from someone who has it.So to conclude, there is an unequal burden of infection-related cancers among the developing countries. This is particularly true for cervical cancer caused by certain genital papilloma viruses, liver cancer caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses, and stomach cancer caused by H. pylori.  Even though the infections described here can raise a person’s risk of certain types of cancer, most people with these infections never develop cancer. The risk of developing cancer is also influenced by other factors. For example, infection with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) bacteria might increase your risk of stomach cancer, but what you eat, whether or not you smoke, and other factors also affect your risk. 

Recurrent Infections in Children - Homeopathy to the Rescue

Dr. Mahesh M, Homeopath
Cold, cough, fever, blocked nose, breathing with mouth all the time, antibiotics twice a month, decreased appetite and a restless, listless child... I am sure you are worried sick if your child has one of these or more problems. Somewhere you are aware of a feeling that this isn't right, all the medicines you are pumping into that delicate body. But what else to do? First, understand what is happening to your child. What is normal and whether your child’s reactions and problems are within normal limits. It is normal for a child till the age of 5 years to fall sick once or twice a year. Thrice is still permissible. Anything more than that comes under the category of frequent infections. Secondly, once a child has cold and cough, the fever must rise to a good 102 to 103 degrees and then within a couple of days the child must be fine again. Also, there must not be any remnants of the cold and cough in between these episodes. The child must feed well, sleep peacefully and wake up fresh and be raring to go. If this is not what happens with your not, then the child is suffering a low immunity. Typically people will tell you that these problems will go away by the time the child is 5. Observe closely what happens. In most cases, the recurrent infections will give way to a deeper chronic problem such as asthma. So the problem isn't going anywhere but inside.Homeopathy is a true solution in these cases because while the child is not afraid of the doctor and will actually want to take the medicines we give. It is gentle and does not cause any unwanted effects on the child - even newborns. That apart, the main reason to give homeopathy to children with repeated infections is that it builds their immune system and lays a foundation for a strong body and chemical free constitution. Appetite improves and the child develops all round. Think about it. After all, today the biggest challenge to us is to keep ourselves free of all the noxious elements in the environment without us adding to it voluntarily. In such a scenario, homeopathy is your handy tool. Gift your child the freedom of health.

Hpv Infection in Men: Risk, Symptoms and Prevention

Dr. Rahman, Sexologist
Sexual Conditions OverviewSexual conditions, or STDs, include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Vaginal or penal discharge and burning or pain during urination can indicate a STD. STD treatment and prevention includes medication and practicing safe sex.HPV Infection in MenMuch of the information about HPV virus (human papillomavirus) centers on women, since having the virus increases their risk of getting cervical cancer. But HPV virus in men can cause health problems, too. It's important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection.HPV infection can increase a man's risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women.Risks of HPV Infection in MenSome of the 30 or so types of HPV associated with genital cancers can lead to cancer of the anus or penis in men. Both of these cancer types are rare, especially in men with a healthy immune system. The Symptoms of HPV in MenThe types of high-risk HPV that can cause cancer rarely present any symptoms in men or in women. Genital warts are the first symptom you may see with low-risk HPV strains that cause warts but not cancer.How to Prevent Spreading HPVAbstinence is the only sure way to prevent HPV transmission. Risk of transmission can be lowered if a person has sex only with one person who is not infected and who is also monogamous.To lower the risk of HPV transmission, men can also limit the number of sex partners and pick partners who have had few or no partners in the past.Condoms can provide some protection against HPV transmission. Unfortunately, they aren't 100% effective, since HPV is transmitted primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The virus can still infect the skin uncovered by the condom.In a recent study of young women who had just become sexually active, those whose partners used a condom each time they had sex were 70% less likely to get an HPV infection than were women whose partners used a condom less than 5% of the time

Fungal Infection, Ringworm: What You Should Know

Dr. Jolly Shah Kapadia, Dermatologist
What Is Ringworm?Ringworm (also known as tinea) is a common fungal skin infection that often forms a ring-shaped rash. Does Ringworm Mean I Have Worms?No. Ringworm doesn’t mean worms are crawling under the skin. What causes Ringworm?Certain fungi called dermatophyte live off the dead tissues of your skin, hair, and nails. They flourish in warm, sweaty moist areas, such as the skin folds of the groin area or between the toes. Ringworm most commonly affects the skin on the body(tinea corporis), the scalp (tinea capitis), the feet (tinea pedis, or athlete's foot), or the groin (tinea cruris, or jock itch).Is Ringworm contagious ? How does it spread ?Yes. Ringworm is highly contagious and can spread in multiple ways.- You can get it from an infected person, animal, object and even soil. - It spreads easily from person to person, especially in locker rooms and neighbourhood pools. - Ringworm is so contagious, in fact, that you don't even have to touch someone to get infected. - The fungus can linger in places like locker room floors,as well as on hats, combs, and brushes. How can I get Ringworm from animals ?Ringworm can be transmitted from animals to humans. Cats are among the most commonly affected animals. If a cat has ringworm, a person in the house often gets the infection. Dogs, cows, goats, horses can also spread ringworm to humans. People catch ringworm from touching the animals, or touching their bedding, grooming items, saddles, carpeting, etc.Who are more likely to get Ringworm ?People who are more likely to get Ringworm are :- People who live in hot, humid climates- Athletes, especially swimmers; wrestlers.- Children in day care- People who work with animals- Obese people with deep, moist skin folds- Anyone,whose immune defenses are weak either by illness e.g. HIV, organ transplant, cancer or by medications; nutritional deficiency, anemia, diabetes What care should I take to avoid Ringworm ?Ringworm is difficult to prevent, but here are tips to reduce your risk:Hygiene at Home : - To prevent fungal infections from taking a foothold at home, your best defense is to keep skin clean and dry.- Change underwear and socks daily. - Let your shoes air out. - Take your shoes and socks off at home to expose your feet to the air.Caring for Gym Clothes : - Change out of your gym clothes right after a workout. Sweaty gear provides a perfect home for fungi to thrive and grow. - Wash exercise clothes after each use. - Wear clean clothes before each workout.Gym and Locker Room Hygiene : - Wear slippers in locker rooms and public pool & bathing areas.- Avoid sitting on wet benches. - Don't share workout mats, towels. sports gear or sheets.- Wash your hands before and after a workout- Wipe gym equipment before and after using it.General Care : - Shower after any sport that includes skin-to-skin contact.- Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. - Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.- Keep skin clean and dry. Dry yourself completely after showering.- If you have athlete's foot, put your socks on before your underwear to prevent spreading to your groin.- Take your pet to the vet if it has patches of missing hair, which could be a sign of a fungal infection.Is Ringworm serious?Ringworm can be itchy and annoying, but they're rarely serious.Common infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm are easy to get and to pass around. In healthy people, they usually don't spread beyond the skin's surface, so they're easy to treat.Should only the infected person needs to be treated for Ringworm?Since ringworm is so contagious, other people in the household may also need to be treated, even if they don't have any symptoms. If there's a chance they may have picked up ringworm of the scalp, they may need to use a special shampoo and be examined to determine if there is an infection.If I get ringworm once and take treatment for it will I get it again ?Yes, It's common to get infected again, especially with ringworm of the nails.How Is Ringworm Treated?Ringworm can be treated with antifungal creams containing clotrimazole etc. In cases of severe or resistant infections on the scalp or nails, your Dermatologist may prescribe oral medicines such as terbinafine,  itraconazole .Can Ringworm be treated with antibiotics ?Antibiotics kill bacteria. They won't work on ringworm,which is caused by a fungus. Ringworm is treated with antifungal medicines that you either rub on the skin or take by mouth. Ringworm of the scalp is treated with a special shampoo and an oral antifungal medicine. You may have to keep using whatever medicine you're prescribed for several weeks to fully get rid of the infection. Hope this information is useful to you. Do not hesitate to visit a Dermatologist Take proper adequate treatment for any type of fungal infection.

25 Simple Steps to Prevent Fungal Infections of Skin, Hair and Nails!

Dr. Madhavi Pudi, Dermatologist
1. Keep the scalp clean and dry.2. Do not share hats, combs or brushes with others.3. Children should use their own combs and brushes and should not share with other family members.4. Wear clean clothes every day.5. Make sure your clothes fit correctly, especially underwear, athletic supporters and sports uniforms. 6. Avoid tight fitting clothes, which can rub and chafe your skin and make you more susceptible to jock itch. 8. Wash your hands with soap and water to prevent any infection. 9. Toe nails should be kept short and clean .10. Feet should be dried completely and immediately after bathing.11. Wear clean cotton socks.12. Change your socks and shoes as needed to keep your feet dry.13. The clothing and linen of infected persons should be frequently laundered in hot water to rid them of the fungus.14. Clean sinks, bathtubs and bathroom floors well after using.15. Do not wear thick clothing for long periods of time in warm and humid weather. This makes you sweat more.16. Keep your groin area dry.17. Dry your genital area and inner thighs throughly with a clean towel after showering or exercising. Use powder around your groin area to prevent excess moisture.18. Wearing shoes that are well ventilated and made of natural material such as leather may help prevent fungal infections in the feet. Do not wear plastic lined shoes.19. Do not walk barefoot in public places.20. Wear shower shoes or sandals in warm, damp areas. This includes shower stalls, near swimming pools and locker rooms. This will help in preventing spread of fungal infections.21. By not taking the entire course of anti-fungal medication, resistant fungi may develop that no longer responds to common anti-fungal medication. This has the potential to turn easily treatable infections into serious ones.22. Failure to take the treatment in the proper dosage, or for as long as prescribed, runs the risk that the infection will not be adequately treated, leading to a persistent or recurrent infections.23. Do not let anyone else take your medication, it may harm them even if their symptoms are the same as yours.24. Regular veterinary care is very important and it is recommended that you should wash hands after handling your pets.25. Lastly, do remember to consult your nearby dermatologist, if you suspect any signs of fungal infections on the scalp and body.

Things You Must Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Dr. Parmjit Singh Walia, Dermatologist
Over the last few years, a lot of patients have been coming to our clinic who are actually not suffering from HIV or any other sexually transmitted disease but are still struggling to find a solution to their problems related to their private parts. A major part of their suffering is rather related to reading a lot of database from Google or finding tedious ways to treat them with naturopathy. The fear of getting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is the one that perpetuates the vicious cycle of existence of these "NOT SO TALKED ABOUT"diseases. STIs are very common and easily transmitted through sexual contact. Many STIs are curable and all are treatable, but the only way to know if you have one is to talk about them, consult a dermatologist and get yourself tested if required.Common Symptoms of STIs:Talking to your doctor about your sex life might seem too personal to share but ideally seeing a dermatologist takes you to the fast track of solution of the problem. Here are some common symptoms that may alert you to the presence of an STI:Pain and/or burning sensation when urinating Discolored, smelly, or particularly heavy discharge Abnormal vaginal discharge Warts, lesions, or sores in the genital area Rash or itching in the genital area Painful intercourseLower abdominal pain, fatigue & Low back pain (females)Q: How can you protect yourself ? A: Protecting yourself sexually involves not only learning about STIs but practicing safer sex every time you engage in any sexual activity.Avoid or minimize direct oral, anal and genital contact by using a barrier method correctly and consistently. Avoidance of impulsive intercourse with a complete stranger Form a trusted, honest, and communicative relationship. Always examine your partner for any wart, ulcer or any other obvious lesion on the genital parts Limit your number of sexual partners. Talk to your partner about your STI status. Include STI testing as part of your regular medical check up. Learn the common symptoms of STI’s. Do not use drugs or alcohol in potentially intimate situations as they can inhibit your ability to make decisions and may affect your dexterity. Get vaccinated for Hepatitis B and C. Get vaccinated for HPV if you are a woman between the ages of 9 and 26.Q: How do you get tested for STIs? A: There is no one test for all STIs. Get yourself examined by a dermatologist and get the tests recommended as it saves money and avoid unnecessary investigations.Q: How are STIs treated? A: The treatment depends on the type of STI. Only use medicines prescribed or suggested by your doctor. There are products sold over the Internet that falsely claim to prevent or treat STIs but the safety of these products is not known. Consult your dermatologist to speak about how you can protect yourself or to get tested and treated accordingly.

Fungal Infections

Dr. Parthasarathi Dutta Roy, Dermatologist
Infections are the basic form of infections and may get worse, if proper care and medical assistance is not taken giving chance to it to spread and suffer extreme at the final stage. When you compare other bacteria, the fungi are said to have high pathogens and the number of fungal species that can infect a person is more than 500. Mostly, the ear and upper respiratory tract are more prone to the fungus attack and infection as they come into permanent contact with the external environment which is always open to the microorganisms and other harmful fungi, which are found to be plenty in the environment.What is fungal infection?A fungal infection is a circumstance created by any fungus thinning out among humans and spreading without any idea and realized only after the condition or symptoms are felt or diagnosed. Some are unrelenting like athlete’s foot, infection and ringworm. You have drugs to treat such invasions in different pharmacies as per the advice of the skin specialists. Having said and proves, Prevention is better than cure and it is good and essential to maintain good hygiene, which is the primary defense against kinds of fungal infections and problems.Common fungal infectionsFungal infections are caused by many types of fungi like yeasts and dermatophytes. Basically, fungi invade the dead keratin and grow in it. The most common fungal infections include:RingwormJock itchYeast infection andAthlete’s footWhat is the treatment for fungal infections?Initially, it is essential to use an anti fungal component that is prescribed by our specialists and use as per the directions and instructions. Well, these elements are the topical treatments from which some are azithromycin, Diflucan and zithromax. These medicines are subscribed frequently to cure the fungal infections occurred externally in different arises on the body.