DefinitionDisorder of one of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an impaired ability to listen, speak, spell, read, write, think (e.g. planning) or to do mathematical calculations (not due to mental retardation [MR] or sensory deficits [e.g impairment in hearing, vision etc].Common Elements in the Definitionsü Brain dysfunctionü Uneven growth pattern/psychological processing deficitsü Discrepancy between potential and achievementExclusion of other causesTypes of Learning Disordersü Dyslexia– Difficulty in reading ü Dysgraphia– Difficulty in writingDyscalculia– Difficulty in mathematical abilitiesEtiology - Often genes + disorderTobaccoAlcoholHead InjuryOtherMales predominateFamilialUp to 5-10% of "seemingly normal" schoolchildren have this hidden disability. Dyslexia affects 80% of all those identified as learning-disabled. SpecificLD is now believed to be a result of functional problem with brain"wiring" rather than an anatomic problem and is genetically inherited.Preschool children Language delayPronunciation problems Slow in acquiring vocabulary Difficulty in rhyming words Trouble with learning numbers, alphabets, days of the week, colors and shapesSchool-going children Presenting problems-more commonly with school performance-difficulty is in one particular subject Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds Confuses basic words (run, eat, want) Makes consistent reading and spelling errorsTransposes number sequences &confuses arithmetic signs Poor spelling, slow reading Has difficulty in left right coordinationHas difficulty in tying shoe laces, organizing pencil box. Comprehension of these children is often superior to isolated decoding skills Reading Disorder(Dyslexia) There is generally a combination of difficulties in the ability to compose written texts as evidenced by grammatical or punctuation errors within sentences, poor paragraph organization, multiple spelling errors, and excessively poor handwriting. This diagnosis is generally not given if there are only spelling errors or poor handwriting in the absence of other impairments in written expression.SlowComprehension defectsVocabulary limitationsLimited experienceFigure notations – complex and denseDirecting– dense, readability very high, in high distraction positionSlowVocabulary limitationSpellingPunctuationOrganizationExperienceHandwriting– poor readabilityNote takingReading is very difficult ( + x )MultiplestepsPoor tool useSelf confidenceAnxietyWrittenOralEtiologyCourseFamilialCourseIQReadingrateStandardscoresComprehensionSpellingStandardscoreCan person read what they have writtenImpaired vision and hearing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) Mental Retardation Pervasive Developmental Disorders Communication Disorder Lack of opportunity, poor teaching Normal variations in academic achievement Anxiety Poor studying skillsConsensus ClinicalCriteria (CCC) for Diagnosis of Learning Disorders -adapted from DSM IV-TRIQ85 or more No vision impairment No hearing impairment Presence of adequate opportunity for learning with proper motivation GLAD score below 40%, at two levels below the child’s current class level Difficulty in reading / writing / mathematics that significantly interferes with academic functioning.Along with GLAD, Bender Visuo-motor Gestalt Test will be used to assess motor coordinationOnset during infancy or childhoodMost show a delay or impairment in developing functions and most undergo a steady course. Outcome depends on the severity of the disability, the age or grade when remedial education is started, the length and continuity of treatment, presence or absence of associated emotional problems, and parental and school supports. With appropriate remedial education and provisions,most children with LD can be expected to achieve academic competence and complete their education in a regular mainstream school. However, some children may still be unable to cope up and need to continue their education in special schools.1. Management of Primary Problem Remediation and AccommodationBehavioural & Psychological treatmentAllowing extra time A separate quiet room for taking tests Alternatives to multiple choice questions Providing access to syllabi and lecture notes Tutors ‘talk through’ and review the ‘content’ of reading material Tape recorders and recorded books Allowing use of computers with spell checkersCalculatorRead problemWordprocessingSpell checker (right-click)NotesPhotocopiesInstructor OutlinesNote takerFolder for each subjectWhere are the classesLibrary– contact personScheduleSupportServiceCourse load – start slowDisability certificate. Extra time to write examinations, grace marks, supplemental writer during their examinations and also the facility of integrated as well as inclusive education. TheNational Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Mental Retardation andMultiple Disability, 1999, recommends promotion of inclusive education. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2000), pledges to “ensure that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided education in an appropriate environment".