Articles on fertility

Stress Can Affect Your Fertility

Dr. Swetha Thumula, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
STRESS has become the buzz word of modern living; we tend to get stressed even over the slightest inconvenience and blame it for all our problems, even for making a woman infertile. But is stress really to be blamed for women failing to conceive?According to an article published on WebMD News, there is no evidence that stress level adversely affects a woman’s chance of getting pregnant in a single cycle of the treatment. As per researcher Jacky Boivin PhD, health psychologist at Cardiff University in ”A lot of people worry that their stress, anxiety, tension, and worry might reduce their chances of pregnancy with a specific treatment cycle, but there is no evidence of that,”However, Boivin and her team, doesn’t claim that stress has never affected fertility treatment. According to her, stress can impact the treatment and makes the patient give up soon. Hence, women undergoing fertility treatments should try to bring down their stress level.How much stress actually needs to be blamed for infertility is a question that is still to meet an apt answer. It is too early to come to a decision that whether stress impacts fertility or not.However, stress never allows a healthy and happy living; hence we must learn to control it. Here are some simple stress-busting tips that yield good results.Practice yoga and meditationHave enough sleepGo for vacationsRead interesting articles, novels or whatever that calms your mindPursue a hobbyIndulge in activities that you loveTake refreshing luke warm water bathsSeek professional helpA happy living is a healthy living. Cut down on stress factor,and as per fertility issues; there might be other reasons for it as well. A fertility expert can be the best judge, so try and seek professional help.

Fertility Tips for Predicting Ovulation

Dr. Satish Erra, Homeopath
Natural Fertility: 6 Tips for Predicting Ovulation)Here are 6 Tips for Predicting Ovulation Naturally:Predicting Ovulation Tip #1 – Counting Your DaysA cycle is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next period. Remember, the hormone levels are at point zero or neutral for the first three days.Keeping track of the average length of your menstrual cycles is one of the easiest ways to predict ovulation. In a 28-day cycle, for example, ovulation will generally take place between 12 and 15 days.This is the time that a women is most fertile and most likely to get pregnant. Therefore, the best time to have intercourse is between days 10 and 17 of your menstrual cycle.This first phase (Phase 1) should not be shorter than 10 day or longer than 17 days. If too short, the uterine lining does not have enough time to thicken and the egg does not have time to mature.If too long, this means a women’s estrogen production is low.Predicting Ovulation Tip #2 – Changing Cervical MucusAs you approach ovulation, your cervical mucus changes in both volume and texture.You are most fertile when your cervical mucus discharge is clear and stretchy, like egg white texture. For conception, have intercourse during each cycle on the days when your cervical mucus (vaginal discharge) feels elastic, wet and slippery.Predicting Ovulation Tip #3 – Cervix ChangesWhen levels of estrogen are heightened, as they are around ovulation, the cervix will become more pliable, soft and change positions upward away from the vagina.The cervical opening will also become wider. To check the position of the cervix, reach into the vaginal canal with your finger. The tip of the finger will touch the tip of the cervix. Note any subtle changes that vary before and after ovulation.Predicting Ovulation Tip #4 – Lower Abdominal DiscomfortSome women may experience mild aches and pain in the lower abdominal area. Referred to as mittelschmerz (a German word meaning “middle pain”), abdominal pain can last anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours and is a sign that ovulation is occurring.Predicting Ovulation Tip #5 – Body Temperature IncreaseThis change in temperature occurs because of the release of the egg and the production of hormones that accompany it.While this temperature is too slight to be felt, it can be measured using a body temperature thermometer.Predicting Ovulation Tip #6 – Ovulation Timing Self-TestAn ovulation predictor kit is an option in predicting ovulation. A positive result means that your hormone levels are high, signalling that ovulation will occur within 12 to 48 hours.

Preserve Fertility to Ward-Off Infertility Treatment

Dr. Bhavatej Enganti, Urologist
They best way to avoid an infertility treatment is to protect your fertility. Infertility is the newest form of epidemic that is estimated to trouble one out of every six couples. Infertility problems do not surface until a couple tries to conceive. It is important to know about the reasons behind infertility and the ways to prevent it. This will help you shun the chances of going for a infertility treatment in future.Here are some tips that can help prevent infertilityMinimize the exposure to chemicals – Chemicals like Ovotoxicant, Endocrin Disraptors, Pthalates, VCH, PAH that are mostly present in cigarettes, car fumes, road tar, pesticides, plastic food containers etc. These are responsible for hormonal imbalance, ovulation malfunction, miscarriages, PCOS, endometriosis etc in women.Pesticides (found in non-organic food and unfiltered water), Formaldehyde (found in floor polishes, air fresheners, deodorants etc), Bisphenols (found in plastic containers, dry-cleaning chemicals, paint fumes, petroleum based liquids found in household products etc. are especially harmful for men.Stay away from unfiltered water – The water for daily use is open to all types of contamination. Hence, a duel filtration system is mandatory both for the kitchen and the shower. Yes, in the shower as well, as the chemical may seep in through your skin or respiratory system while bathing.Stick to a fertility diet –Add nuts, vegetables, seasonal fruits (all organic stuff), seeds, grains, legumes (not canned), organic meat, sea fishes etc to your platter. Cook food in olive oil, clarified butter (ghee) and for all non-heated oil requirements use flaxseed oil, nut or olive oil. Stay away from animal estrogen and the dangerous Trans fats found in doughnuts, candies, fries, pies, chocolates, chips etc.Get checked for STD– The preconception schedule must begin with a thorough check up for STDs in both partners. Chlamydia is the most common form of STD that cause sperm abnormalities and develops sperm antibodies in men. In women it may cause scarring, miscarriages and blocked Fallopian tubes.Follow a prescribed preconception plan – We often do not understand that sperm cells and eggs needs time to mature. Hence, it is important to follow a proper preconception plan for at least 4 months before you try to conceive. This will allow improving the quality of both the sperm and eggs and ensuring the embryo they form is healthy.Say not to addictions– Unhealthy addictions can harm the fertility in both genders to a great extent. An extended study revealed that 2-3 cups of coffee daily can bring down women fertility rate to nearly zero. They are twice more prone to miscarriages.Cigarettes, alcohol and drugs may bring down the sperm count and motility rate in men to a great extent. Hence, if you are planning a family, stay really far from your addictions.Ask your doctor for pregnancy and pre-conception supplements– No matter how healthy are your platter; your body is not likely to get all the required nutrients needed for the proper growth of your baby. To ensure that you have a successful and healthy pregnancy, pregnancy and pre-conception supplements are mandatory. These supplements prepare your body to conceive and give birth to a healthy child.These tips will help you boost your fertility naturally and restrain yourself from seeking infertility treatment in future. Still have doubt? Get in touch with your fertility expert to know more about preserving and boosting your fertility.

7 Deadliest Male Fertility Killers

Dr. Bhavatej Enganti, Urologist
Infertility is a serious problem of recent time, it is more serious than you might actually imagine. The number of couples suffering from infertility related issues is increasing day by day. The reason behind it is yet of be established firmly. Some may blame the indiscipline and disorganized lifestyle, where people hardly get time for themselves. Most of them are not on proper dietary practice, where junks have replaced health from their plates and addictions have replaced exercise and workout from their lives.However, these factors are undoubtedly associated with infertility but there are few secret killers that might have gone unnoticed. These are some chemicals like Bisphenol A or BPA and Phthalates that are present in perilous quantity in petty things around us. These chemicals affect male fertility directly.Now, what are the things containing these male fertility killing chemicals that we come across regularly? Here is a little synopsis on the 7 deadly male fertility killers.1. Cash receipts – Believe it or not, most cash receipts that you receive are coated with Bisphenol-A (BPA) which can result in male fertility related problems, including low sperm count.2. Canned Food – Fast and progressive life has opened a vast door for canned and ready to eat food items. These storage cans are often coated with BPA,that enters our system with the food items stored in those cans.3. Toiletries-Perfumed soaps, shampoos, body wash and even the vinyl curtains in our bathroom contains Phthalates (chemical plasticizers), which is directly associated not only with male infertility but also to cancer, allergies and birth defects.4. Sex Toys – The presence of Phthalates is also found in an increased level in sex toys, hence, men who are addicted to these items may have problems when it comes to impregnating a woman naturally.5. Pesticides – The presence of strong chemicals in pesticides adversely affect male fertility. So if you are handling these chemicals, make sure you take optimum precautionary measures. Talk to your doctor for solutions before it is too late.6. Heated car or bike seats – Hot car and bike seats can reduce the sperm count by increasing the temperature of the testicles. So think twice before taking that hot seat.7. PCB contaminated fishes - Though the production of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) has been banned but still these chemical exists and is often gets accumulated in fishes. So, try and avoid preserved or canned edible fish products.However, there can be other reasons behind male infertility too apart from the involvement of these above mentioned chemicals. Get in touch with a male fertility expert to seek solutions before time runs out.

Watch Out for These Infertility Symptoms

Dr. Swetha Thumula, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Am I infertile? This is the toughest question that some of us have to face while we try to conceive. Infertility cannot be identified until a couple tries to have a baby. Though it is mostly associated with women, male infertility is equally common. If you are trying to have a baby (having unprotected sex) for over a year without success, you may be suffering from infertility. Women over 35 need to see a doctor if they fail to conceive after six months of trying. Younger women may wait for a year or so before they seek professional help. However, seeing a doctor earlier makes solutions easier. Here are some infertility symptoms that you may help you to identify your problem.Some prominent infertility symptoms in womenInfertility symptoms greatly vary as they depend upon the causes. Here are some common infertility symptoms in women.Unusual heavy or light menstrual bleedingIrregular period; the number of days varies every monthNo period at all or excessive pain during periodsChange in sex driveLoss or thinning of hairSudden change in hair colour or acneAbnormal hair growth over the lips, on the chin, on the chestSudden weight gainPainful intercourseMilky discharge from the nipples that is not relevant to breast feedingSome prominent infertility symptoms in menA large number of men still don’t believe that too can have infertility issues. However, if you see any of these symptoms happening to you, it is time to see your doctor. These might be some infertility symptoms.Sudden thinning of hair leading to baldingChange in sex driveLumps or pain in testiclesSmall and hard testiclesErectile dysfunction of ejaculatory disorderIf you find any of these infertility symptoms, see your doctor immediately. Fertility treatments yield better results if they are started earlier.

Hot Bath Tubs Can Kill Male Fertility

Dr. Bhavatej Enganti, Urologist
Are you a man madly in love with hot bath tubs or hot and relaxing Jacuzzi baths? It’s time to fall out of your love if you are planning a family. According to the researchers of the University of California, the constant exposure to the ‘wet heat’ can kill your fertility.Though this theory initiated as a speculation, a study conducted by a group of Urologists in the University of California helped it gain more factual ground. The study was conducted on a group of men who were used to hot bath tubs or hot water bath on a regular basis. They were exposed to water with higher temperature for at least 30 minutes in a week. When their semen samples were examined, it showed low sperm production and poor sperm motility rate compared to those who were less exposed to this type of heat.Men who have already been diagnosed with fertility disorders, over exposure to heated water can worsen the matter for them. However, the silver lining in this cloud is that the effect can be reversed. If you discontinue taking hot water baths for a considerable time; things tend to change for good. Men who kept away from hot bath tubs or hot water baths could see an increase in the production of healthy sperm having good motility rate in their semen. Their sperm count increased up to 49 percent.However, in some men this reversed infertility was not seen even after they reverted from the wet heat. This was basically due the effect of tobacco or the “gonadotoxic habit”. Most of them were found to be chain smokers.To conclude, constant exposure to wet heat can affect male fertility adversely. So, if you are eager to become a father, stop spending hours in hot bath tubs. It might be relaxing your mind and freshening up your tired body, but it is killing your fatherhood hopes silently.

Endometriosis and Infertility

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
When couples start their family, they have many dreams. Subsequently many of them, if not all, plan to extend their family to give a sense of accomplishment. That is a journey from being couples to being parents. But unfortunately, in some couples the journey is not smooth and some of them have to struggle a lot for it. Yes, you are right. We are talking about difficulty to conceive, popularly known as “Infertility”.To achieve successful pregnancy, there must be production of sperms, transport of them and proper deposition of them into the vagina by the male partner. In female partner, the deposited perms must travel through vagina and uterus to reach the Fallopian tubes (the tubes that are attached to the both sides of the uterus) where the sperms must meet the egg (ovum). The ovum is produced by the ovary and released into the abdomen at the time of ovulation (rupture of the surface of ovary to release the ovum). That ovum must be taken by the tube and thus inside the tube an embryo (earliest form of the baby) is formed, which then travels through the tube into the uterus and the uterus attaches the embryo firmly with it and thus the pregnancy starts. So, if there is defect in any one of them there will be difficulty in achieving pregnancy.Perhaps you have heard that infertility may be due to problems in male (defect in production, transport or deposition of sperms) or female (defect in ovaries or ovulation, bock in the tubes and defects in the uterus). But sometimes there may be more than one problems in either of the couples or apparently no reason is found (everything is normal, so pregnancy depends on chance factor). To clarify the latter, in normal healthy couples with regular unprotected timely intercourse, the chance of pregnancy in one menstrual cycle is only 15%, so it may be matter of time for some couples to conceive. But another important reason for infertility in female is endometriosis.What is endometriosis?Endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. It responds to hormones secreted by the ovaries during normal menstrual cycle. It tends to thicken from the time of ovulation (as described above) and if pregnancy occurs, it continues to grow and supports the embryo to help in continuing pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, it is shed off outside the body and is seen as “menstrual Bleeding” or “Period”. Unfortunately in some women, the endometrium may be present outside the normal position. That condition is called endometriosis. It is commonly present around the ovaries, tubes, surrounding the uterus (outside normal lining) but may be present anywhere in the body (even in lungs, urinary system and rectum). As this endometrium (outside the uterus lining) also responds to the hormones in the same way as normal endometrium (that lines the uterus), there will be bleeding around this abnormal endometrium at the time of menstruation. But this bleeding, unlike normal menstrual bleeding cannot come outside the body and so the blood accumulates and forms a chocolate coloured material (old blood is chocolate coloured) and leads to adhesion between organs. Adhesion is a condition where different organs of our body attaches abnormally with each other leading to various problems. Sometimes this chocolate coloured blood may be surrounded by a membrane formed by body tissue and is then called “Chocolate Cyst” that is found around the ovaries.What is the reason for endometriosis?Unfortunately, despite extensive research throughout the world, the reason for endometriosis is not known. It is said to be due to some genetic factors or some environmental factors. Sometimes, delaying pregnancy is stated as the reason. In some women, however, it is caused by backward flow of menstrual blood (that enters into the tubes during menstruation). Usually these women have abnormal development of uterus (problems in uterus since birth), so that all the menstrual blood cannot come outside the body)What is the problem with endometriosis?Endometriosis usually causes pain. The pain may be long standing and usually occurs at the time of periods (dysmenorrhoea) or sometimes even between periods. The nature and site of pain depends on where it is located. If it is located very deep inside abdomen, it can cause pain during sexual intercourse (dysparaeunia). In some cases there may be pai duing passing urine or stool or bleeding during urination or with stool.In around 50% cases, it can cause infertility. The cause of infertility is not always properly understood. But it has been seen that endometriosis can cause adhesion and thus can makes it difficult for the Fallopian tubes to pick up the ovum from the ovaries. Apart from this pain during intercourse often makes the woman avoid intercourse. In addition it can interfere with ovulation, sperm transport, meeting between sperms and eggs and also the process of attachment of uterus with the embryo.However, endometriosis does not always cause pain or infertility. In some women, there may be both pain and infertility, some women only one symptom and in some women no symptom is found but endometriosis is discovered accidentally during treatment for other purpose (like during laparoscopy for appendicitis or during Caesarean Section).How endometriosis is diagnosed?Endometriosis is suspected by history of pain or infertility and examination findings. Like some women may have pain during examination of abdomen or vagina by doctors, even sometimes vaginal ultrasound causes pain. In ultrasonography (or sometimes CT scan is done) there may be presence of cysts or adhesion can be detected. But the “Gold standard” of diagnosis is laparoscopy. It is an operation where (“Microsurgery”), making a small opening in the abdomen under anaesthesia, a telescope is introduced and the area is seen through camera in a television monitor. At that time the chocolate cysts, adhesions and condition of the organs can be seen and diagnosed and if there is any doubt, biopsy can be taken. But in all cases, laparoscopy is not needed and treatment is started after the doctors presume the diagnosis by history from the patients, examination and the ultrasonography reports.Endometriosis is a peculiar condition in the sense that women with severe endometriosis may not have any symptoms, while women with very mild disease may have severe pain or infertility.How endometriosis is treated, in general?As mentioned earlier, endometriosis does not always cause symptoms and so, it does not always need treatment. The common reason for treatment is presence of pain and infertility. Endometriosis-related pain is usually treated by medicines or sometimes by surgery. Before surgery, usually medicines are given to reduce the size and to reduce the blood loss during surgery. All these medicines can cause hormonal imbalance and thus deprives the endometriosis tissues of hormonal stimulation and thus reduces pain. As a result, during the treatment, patients usually cannot conceive because of this intentional hormonal deprivation. Unfortunately after stoppage of medicines, often the symptoms of pain come back.Surgery for endometriosis is usually done under laparoscopy but it needs properly trained and skilled surgeons to do these operations. Operations can range from “minor” (like separating the adhesions, draining the chocolate colored fluid) and “major” (like removing the cyst or removing major organs). The surgery has the advantage over medicines is that it confirms the diagnosis and removes the diseased tissues. But there are problems with risks related to anaesthesia and surgery. In particular, there is risk of injury to intestine and urinary tracts, even with the best hands, that may increase patient’s sufferings. Apart from this, even after surgery, the disease can come back again after few months or years.What is the cure for endometriosis?Only cure for endometriosis is total deprivation of hormones. That is possible if the woman attains menopause (permanent cessation of menses). This is possible by natural way (around 45-50 years of age when menses cease permanently) or by operations to remove the ovaries and uterus. Another simpler way is achieving pregnancy, as usually after pregnancy most endometriosis patients feel better in relation to pain.What happens if it is not treated?Endometriosis is not like cancer. It is not life threatening usually. That means it will make you suffer in the worst way by causing severe pain and infertility but cannot endanger your life. So, you can have the options of not treating it, even if you have the symptoms. And of course, if you do not have symptoms, endometriosis may not require any treatment.What is the treatment for endometriosis with infertility?First of all, you have to make sure that you have difficulty in conception (that means you have given sufficient time to attempt but failed). Then we have to see whether there is any pain or other problems and what the condition of the disease by examination or ultrasonography is. We also have to look for any additional problems like problems in male partner, problems in uterus or ovaries or the hormones (like FSH, LH, prolactin, thyroid etc).Then we have to plan the treatment. As there is no hard and fast rule, your doctor will explain you the options for you and you can decide what suits you the most, after judging merits and demerits of every option.You may choose directly for surgery. In that case, you may be offered medicines for 2-3 months before surgery to make surgery safer for you and easier for the surgeon. The extent of surgery varies, depending on the disease status and your opinion. Remember, your opinion is important. You can choose for extensive operation (that may mean removal of both the tubes, that may be needed in advanced disease, leaving only option for IVF for pregnancy in future) or only diagnosis (just introducing the telescope and see) or minor operations (like separation of adhesions or removal of the cysts), after judging the merits and demerits of each options. But remember, you should not have any medicines for endometriosis after operation as most of the medicines (with some exceptions) interfere with pregnancy. This is, because, after operation is the best time to conceive and that time gives you the highest chance for pregnancy. If natural conception (or 1. ovulation induction- giving medicines to stimulate growth of your eggs, or 2. IUI- inserting your husband’s sperms by special process inside your uterus) does not occur within 12 months after operation, that’s probably the best time to consider IVF (“Test tube baby”). Of course, if you had extensive surgery or have advanced age (more than 35 usually), your doctor may advise you to go for IVF directly after operation without wasting the time.You can opt for trial of treatment by medicines. You must know why I have used the word “Trial”. This is because, during medicine treatment, you cannot conceive. But you will be seen after 2-3 months to see if the disease has disappeared or decreased in size significantly. If this is the case, you can start infertility treatment (Ovulation Induction or IUI or IVF in some cases) directly. But if the disease did not respond to medicines by this time, you may need surgery, the extent of which has been described above.You also have the options of not treating endometriosis at all. In that case, you can request your doctor to start infertility treatment directly. But remember, endometriosis (even treated endometriosis- after medicines or surgery) can interfere with any form of infertility treatment. It can lead to decreased response to medicines used for ovulation induction, thus reducing success rate(normal success rate is 20-25% in a menstrual cycle- that is without endometriosis). It can lead to low success rate after IUI (normal success rate is 25-30% in a menstrual cycle). Even with IVF (where normal success rate is 40-50% per cycle of IVF), the effectiveness of IVF may be reduced in presence of endometriosis.What if I do not go for any treatment at all?Infertility is a peculiar thing. Very few men or women are absolutely infertile. That means they do not have ability to achieve pregnancy naturally. Majority of them are subfertile. That means most of them have lower than normal chance (compared to healthy couples) to achieve pregnancy in a normal menstrual cycle. Often we find that patients planning for treatment and in the mean time, they conceive naturally. That means even without treatment, there is some chance of pregnancy. But that chance decreases in presence of any disease (like endometriosis) or increased age. And of course, nobody usually relies on chance. But the important message is that do not forget to have regular sexual intercourse eve if you are awaiting any test or endometriosis treatment. Of course, it’s stressful situation for both the partners. Stress affects conjugal relationships and lead to many couples avoiding conjugal life. Indeed stress can affect the hormone levels in females and affects sexual performances in males. It’s easier for us to advise you to stay stress-free but is difficult to practice. Nevertheless, try relaxation as much as possible. Think that majority of the couples ultimately conceive by some form of treatment. Have faith in yourself and have faith in your doctor.

Thyroid and Female Infertility

Dr. Swetha Thumula, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Over a million people across the world suffer from thyroid problems. In most cases people take thyroid issues very casually. This is because people are unaware of the fact, that thyroid can be the reason behind other serious ailments. Most women undergoing treatment for female infertility have been diagnosed with severe thyroid malfunctionality. If thyroid goes untreated, it can become the greatest reason behind infertility in both men and women.The cellular functions in our body are regulated by the thyroid hormones. The abnormality in these hormones may lead to infertility in both sexes and recurrent miscarriages in women. The Indian Thyroid Society has the opinion that nearly 70 percent of the women suffering from PMS or premenstrual syndromes are diagnosed to suffer from low thyroid levels. The low level of thyroid hormones reduces the production of progesterone giving rise to PMS symptoms in women. This has lead to thyroid testing become an integral part of the treatment for female infertility.Hypothyroidism or under active thyroid glands that does not produce enough hormones, has been directly linked to female fertility. The low level of thyroids intervenes with ovulation and cause infertility. Moreover, hypothyroidism may also cause autoimmune or pituitary disorders and give rise to infertility in women. Standard thyroid test may not always also detect the low level of ovarian tissues. Special detection methods as the part of treatment for female fertility are required to detect whether thyroid is causing infertility or not.Symptoms of Thyroid AbnormalitiesWeight gainFatigueConstipationMuscle and joint paintsIrregular or abnormal periodsSleeplessnessSkin drynessHair may become thin and coarseEyebrows may shed and nails might become brittleWomen enduring these symptoms must get in touch with a doctor and go for TSH. However, hypothyroidism can be controlled with thyroid supplements that can restore fertility. It is advisable to keep monitoring the thyroid levels at regular intervals and continue the prescribed medication. This is important even you are considering a treatment for female infertility.Tips to overcome thyroid problems:Losing weight and lowering the level of stress30 minutes daily walk and avoiding elevatorsConsulting doctor immediately if any of the above mentioned symptoms are felt or seenA healthy and active lifestyle, balanced diet and regular checkups will keep your thyroids glands performing well.

Infertility Factors in Males and Females

Dr. Kaushal Kadam, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
In medical terms, infertility is referred to as a woman’s inability to conceive, even after a year of unprotected intercourse. Although infertility is considered to be a concern often associated with women, not many people know that male-related infertility accounts for one-third of the cases. Studies also indicate that the infertility cause remains unidentified in 25% of couples planning to have a baby.Here are some common and not-so-common factors of female and male infertility:Infertility in WomenCommon Factors·      Tubal Disease – damage or blockage of the Fallopian tubes.·      Ovulatory dysfunction or an ovulation – egg is not released from the ovary every month.·      Endometriosis – affects the function of the Fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries.·      Uterine or cervical abnormalities – abnormalities in the shape or cavity of the uterus or problems with the opening/closing of the cervix.·      Gynecological problems - previous ectopic pregnancy or more than one miscarriage.Less Common Factors·      Premature menopause·      Use of medications that induce temporary infertility·      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)·      Absence of menstruationInfertility in MenCommon Factors·      Low sperm count or quality·      Problems with the delivery of sperm·      Erectile dysfunction·      Premature ejaculationLess Common Factors·      Inflammation of testes (Orchitis)·      Blocked testicle(s)·      Any drug treatment or exposure to chemotherapy, saunas or hot tubsSome common factors which can lead to infertility issues in both men and women are:·      Genetic abnormalities·      Lifestyle factors such as being overweight, stress, smoking, drugs or contact with/ingestion of harmful chemicals.·      Medical conditions like diabetes, epilepsy and thyroid (mostly in women).·      Age-related infertility - though it affects females more (after the age of 35), males suffer from it too.Medical tests could help to determine the actual cause of infertility, and artificial treatment options available to the couple thereafter.