Articles on dental equipment

Floss to Flush the Bacteria Away - Oral Health Care

Dr. Sumeeta Jayant, Dentist
Preventive dentistry is nascent in India and hence most dental treatments are invasive both on the subject as well as the subject’s pocket!Well in the past, my notes have always talked about habits which provide fair deal of protection from invasive dentistry and contribute fair deal in terms of overall wellbeing.This time it’s going to be Flossing. Well flossing is another great habit that goes a long way in overall protection of teeth, gums, and over all dental and general hygiene. For some reason this still falls under the radar for most Indians!Flossing is actually a great way to avoid frequent scaling & cleaning of teeth and trust me it’s neither time nor price intensive. All it needs is a little attention.Well technically speaking, Dental Floss is a cord of thin filaments used to remove food and dental plaque from in between teeth, specifically areas which are inaccessible through tooth brush.Does one really need flossing even when he is brushing twice a day?Well the upfront answer is yes, tooth brush’s bristles can’t adequately clean between the teeth. As a result cavities start forming in them. Floss is made specifically for this reason. Floss removes tartar from tight spaces between the teeth without hurting or abrading the gums. Abrasions could otherwise happen in case one were to force toothbrush too hard in those extremely narrow areas.Toothbrush also cannot clean under the gumline effectively. (Gumline is the line which separates gum from the exposed part of the tooth). Floss does that very effectively. Well tartar is bad but what if don’t remove itTartar buildup can lead to Gingivitis (Gingivitis is a condition where subject has inflamed, reddish, swollen, and bleeding gums). If left unchecked, tartar can even spread deeper below the gum causing Periodontitis, an even more serious condition which is characterized by severe inflammation and eventual tooth and bone loss. Well we wouldn’t want to go there!So tartar is a real baddie but then how can it impact anything beyond the mouthWell there lies the real thing. Deposit in mouth can lead to bacteria and they love to flourish in unhygienic food laden mouth. These can lead to issues in rest of the body. Stuff like diabetes, heart issues, respiratory problems are some of the noted outcomes. In my earlier notes, I had also written about how unhygienic mouth can lead to pregnancy issues in women.These are the worst parts, what’s the great part?Food particles in the mouth decay to promote bad bacteria. These bacteria in turn cause bad breath. Now one can either stay with bad breath or use gums and fresheners to kill bad breath. So essentially, to wipe out one bad foreign element, we are introducing more foreign elements that might not be healthy for the mouth. I say, floss them out.Flossing also keeps teeth white and shiny.Well all these put together would make great sense, because not only does it provide sanity of the mouth, it helps you retain that great treasured smile of yours.How does one floss?Great questions. It’s pretty simple actually. Take a 15 to 18 inch long floss cord. Roll it around the pointing fingers of both the hands from the ends and hold it with thumbs. Slide it between the teeth and wrap it around each tooth in ‘C’ shape. Now polish the tooth with up and down motion.If you have problems holding the floss with fingers, get a floss holder. That would do great.Do not worry about a little blood in first couple of usages. That’s only because of the inflamed gums caused due to plaque build. You will be comfortable after a few usages.If all this is a little confusing, go meet your dentist and ask him/her to demonstrate on how to floss effectively. They will be more than happy to do it for you. In the process they will also have a look at your mouth. And most of them would do it without a fee. I would do that for sure.Do I have to floss daily?Well that’s ideal but since flossing is not really part of our brushing habits it becomes a hassle to add another process to the brushing ritual.I typically recommend to start with 3 days a week (any 3 days of your choice – pick 2 days of the weekend and 1 day from the other 5). The advantages of this simple yet extremely effective method are so amazing that it would become a part of daily ritual anyway. Trust me :-)

Mouthguards

Dr. Pankaj Rao, Dentist
A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums. A mouthguard is most often used to prevent injury in contact sports, as a treatment for bruxism or TMD, or as part of certain dental procedures, such as tooth bleaching. Mouth guards are an important piece of athletic equipment for anyone participating in a sport that involves falls, body contact or flying equipment. This includes football, basketball, baseball, soccer, hockey, skateboarding, gymnastics, mountain biking — any activity that might result in an injury to the mouth.    FUNCTIONS OF MOUTHGUARDS In their book Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Andreasen and Andreasen8 list 8 basic mouthguard functions:(1) Mouthguards prevent laceration and bruising during impact by acting as a buffer between the soft tissues of the lips and cheeks and the teeth.(2) Mouthguards prevent tooth fractures or dislocations by cushioning the teeth from direct frontal blows while redistributing the forces of impact.(3) Opposing teeth are protected from seismic contact with each other.(4) The mandible is afforded elastic, recuperative support that can prevent fracture or damage to the unsupported angle of the lower jaw.(5) Mouthguards help reduce neurologic injury by acting as shock absorbers between the upper and lower jaws. Without a mouthguard, the trauma of the jaws violently jarring together can distribute the impact from the condyles of the mandible against the base of the skull, resulting in concussion.(6) Mouthguards can provide positive reinforcement in the prevention of neck injuries.9(7) Mouthguards provide a psychologic benefit to athletes. Findings suggest athletes feel more confident and aggressive when they have the proper protection.10(8) Mouthguards fill edentulous spaces and thereby help support adjacent teeth. This allows removable prostheses to be taken out during athletic competition.                                                                                                                                                                                               Types of mouth-guards:Custom-fitted - Built and fitted to the shape of your mouth by a related professional. These mouthguards have been proven to reduce the number and extreme harshness of mouth injuries in sport and during training.Boil and bite-once the lining is softened in boiling water, the person bites on the mouthguard to help it take the shape of their mouth. The process of biting down onto the softened lining can decrease the guard thickness and therefore its effectiveness. These mouthguards can be uncomfortable to wear. Ready-made -these are ready to wear available over the counter at sports shopsand chemists. While these are the cheapest mouthguard, they also offer the least amount of protection. They are (taking up a lot of space for its  weight) and hard to keep in the mouth due to their poor fit.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Custom made mouthguards Teeth related Health Services Victoria (DHSV) recommends custom fitted mouthguards as these provide the most effective protection.A custom made mouthguard should: Fit snugly and be comfortable Allow (usual/commonly and regular/ healthy) breathing and swallowing Allow the wearer to speak Be odorless and (having no taste/rude and offensive) Be thick enough (4mm) to provide protection against hit/effect. Caring for your mouthguard case- 1)Take the mouthguard along to your teeth-related visits to secure/make sure of it still fits correctly. A mouthguard may need to be replaced as changes occur in your mouth, such as the eruption of permanent teeth or restoration.                                                         2)Mouthguards need to be rinsed in cold water before use. After use, dry and store in a plastic  container with air vents to allow the air to circulate. 3)Once in a while, clean it with soapy water and rinse completely.4)Mouthguards should be kept in a cool place as they can distort if left in the sun or hot water. 5)Remember: Mouthguards should be worn during training sessions and match play if there is a risk of contact with another person or object including balls, bats, sticks or racquets. fig-1 custom and boil&bite mouth-guardMouth guards should ideally be replaced after each season because they can wear down over time, making them less effective. Replacement is especially important for adolescents because their mouths continue to grow and teeth continue to develop into adulthood. Many athletes who play several sports have new mouth guards made when they go for their six-month dental checkup.Summary Dentists are encouraged to ask patients if they participate in team sports or other activities with risks of injury to the teeth, jaw and oral soft tissues (mouth, lip, tongue, or inner lining of the cheeks). The council  recommend that people of all ages use aproperly fitted mouthguard in any sporting or recreational activity that may present/cause a risk of injury. 

Dental Tips for When You Go on a Vacation

Dr. Ratnika Agarwal, Dentist
While vacations are an opportunity to relax, your dental health should not be away on vacation. We at are here to provide five tips to maintain your oral health routines while on vacation. Your toothbrush – don’t leave home without it Stick to your routine — continue to brush your teeth at least twice per day and floss daily. Carry travel-sized packets of floss or dental picks in your purse or pocket if you’ll be out for most of the day. If you’re travelling, a collapsible toothbrush and a roll of floss fit nicely into your purse or carry-on luggage. If you have a cottage, stock up on toothbrushes, floss and toothpaste for the season.See Us Before Leaving ( It's  important if you are leaving for abroad)Book a dental exam well before your vacation. We can detect problems before you may experience any symptoms, and any necessary treatment can be taken care of before you leave. If a family member has braces and will be away for several weeks, it is a good idea to schedule an appointment with the orthodontist prior to leaving.If you plan on participating in any sport or activity where there is a strong chance for contact with other participants or hard surfaces — basketball, cricketball or skating in the summer — you may want to talk to your dentist about a mouth guard.Be preparedDo your research before your trip on the dental care available in the area where you will be staying. This will save you precious time in case of a dental emergency.Eat healthyIndulging in sweet and sticky foods while on vacation may be fun, but try to minimize the amount you consume. Best bet? Stick to fruits and vegetables as they contain the essential vitamins and minerals teeth and gums need to stay strong and healthy.Drink plenty of water, every day. It is the best way to stay hydrated, no matter if you’re sitting on a beach or hiking in the hills.Beware of the raysModerate exposure to sunlight is the best natural source of vitamin D, which is used by the body to absorb calcium and phosphorous, helping to keep teeth and bones strong. However, prolonged exposure to the sun can increase your risk of cancers, including to the lips and the mouth.When applying sunscreen, don’t forget your nose and lips. Use a lip balm that contains protection against UVA and UVB rays If you are suffering from any Dental health problems and searching for high quality medical treatments and care at the most affordable prices, then you can consult @Smile Up Dental Care & Implant Center located in Kharadi, Pune ( Contact: 8237802848 & 020-27041188)

Right Way to Brush and Floss

Dr. Himani Sanwaria, Dentist
This article is about how to best brush and floss your teeth. According to current guidelines you need to brush your teeth twice per day once in the morning and once in night and floss once every day. It is also important to have correct brushing and flossing techniques otherwise neither is effective.When flossing you should pass the floss through the contact points of the teeth. Before removing the floss it needs to be guided down the sides of each tooth pass the gums. After guiding the floss through the contact points of the teeth make fold into the floss in the direction of one or the adjacent teeth. This will cause the floss to take the shape of that tooth. The floss then should be guided along the surface of the tooth pass the gums and towards the tooth. It should only be taken a few millimetres below the gums or until the floss stop going further. Pushing too hard can be damaging. This process should be repeated for the other tooth in the same contact area. Every tooth in contact with another must be flossed.Currently available is a product known as interdental brush. These small brushes are able to clean area between the teeth that are still in contact but with gums receded leaving significant gap. Your dentist can advise you on whether interdental brush is recommended for your teeth.It is also important to have a good tooth brushing technique. Tooth brushing should take roughly two minutes each time. Brushing is done best by holding the brush with the bristles at a 45 degree angle into the gums where the gums meet the teeth. Then the toothbrush should be moved in small circular motions or in vibratory motions. Attention has to be paid to each tooth and to all sides of the tooth including the side facing the lips, side facing the tongue and the side at the back of the last tooth on each side. It should be done systematically so that no teeth are missed. Surface of the tongue, lips and cheeks in the oral cavity should also be cleaned after brushing the teeth.Mouth washes can also be used which is optional to keep away bad breath and to stop plaque build up. But it should be used after tooth brushing only. Mouth rinse with a mouthwash after meals is ineffective.Don’t forget, a good oral hygiene regime should be coupled with regular visits to the dentist to ensure compete dental care.

10 Common Dental Misconceptions

Dr. Abdul Rashid, Dentist
Here are ten misconceptions you probably had or still have at one point or another. It's high time that you clear things up and make amends with your dentist.MYTH #1: Whiter teeth means healthy teeth.FACT: The shade or color of your teeth doesn't necessarily correlate to how healthy they are. Few factors that dentists base the condition of your teeth are presence of cavities, gum health, and jaw bone health, Though a whiter and brighter smile can give you a boost of self-confidence, ensuring you have a healthy set of teeth should be at the top of your list.MYTH #2: Bleeding gums is normal. It happens to everyone!FACT: Bleeding gums is a sign of gum disease, which means there's nothing normal about it. It only means that you haven't visited your dentist for quite sometime now and that a lot calculus (hard deposits stuck on your teeth) have already accumulated, making your gums swell and bleed. Gum disease if left untreated may cause the loss of your teeth.MYTH #3: Braces are for kids and teenagers.FACT: Correcting alignment and problems in the bite at an early age is indeed the best time. But that doesn't mean that adults have no hope in achieving a well-aligned teeth as well. There are several options today that can help you achieve straighter teeth aside from traditional metal braces, all of which you can consult with your dentist.MYTH #4: I brush properly, I don't need to floss.FACT: Wrong. Brushing cleans only 65% of your teeth. What about the other 35%? These are the surfaces in between your teeth which the toothbrush cannot reach (even if you use ultra-thin bristles). Only a dental floss can remove food debris stuck in those areas. Neglecting to floss (which you should do at least every night) may lead to cavities you won't even notice because...yes, you guessed it right..they are formed in between your teeth and can be detected only by dental x-rays.MYTH #5: It's just baby teeth..it will be replaced anyway. No need for my kid to see the dentist.FACT: Baby teeth are as important as permanent teeth. A lot of parents are misinformed about this. Imagine your child experiencing severe toothache just because you haven't brought him/her to the dentist before. Cavities on baby teeth should be filled and restored before they lead to toothache or infection. They also play a big role in guiding the erupting permanent teeth to the right position. If a baby tooth is removed too early (might be due to severe decay), the space for the erupting permanent tooth is usually lost resulting in misalignment. MYTH #6: Dentist = PainFACT: So many people are afraid of the dentist. Dental phobia is a common reason why patients don't go for their appointments. They always associate the dentist as to someone who inflicts pain...a lot of it. Well, this is not true. Most routine dental procedures such as scaling, polishing, and tooth fillings can be done without anesthesia. Though some might experience some sensitivity and discomfort, these procedures are often well-tolerated.MYTH #7: Well-aligned teeth has only an aesthetic value.FACT: A beautiful smile can boost a person's confidence at any stage in his/her life. But, having straight teeth also means an easier-to-maintain good oral hygiene which is a habit we all want to develop at an early age. When there's crowding of the teeth, some surfaces (the overlapping parts) are not brushed properly, eventually leading to gum disease and/or tooth decay. In addition, correction of a bad bite produces an even distribution of biting forces on all the teeth, reducing the risk of trauma to the jaw joints as compared to someone whose teeth do not occlude properly or do not touch at all (open bite). Getting an orthodontic assessment from your dentist will determine if you have a malocclusion that needs correcting.                                                                        Example of an unhealthy biteMYTH #8: Dental scaling will abrade my teeth.FACT: Everything done in excess is bad for you. Dental scaling and polishing if done at the right intervals will not do any damage to your teeth. This interval is usually 6 months apart, unless otherwise recommended by your dentist or hygienist. Patients who are prone to gum disease may need to see their dental health practitioner every 3-4 months.MYTH #9: It's alright to wear my dentures 24/7.FACT: Removing your dentures before going to bed at night is recommended. This let's your gums breathe from the constant pressure of the dentures. It also gives you the opportunity to care for your dentures by soaking them in a denture cleaning solution. Dentures if left unclean might become home to a lot of bacteria causing sores and irritation to the gums and palate.MYTH #10: Dental treatments cost a fortune. FACT: The only reason you will have to spend so much on a dental treatment is because you didn't take care of your teeth as much as you should have. As the old saying goes, "Prevention is better than cure". Neglect, or rather, the result of neglect is always costlier than the routine dental appointments that pops up in your calendar twice a year.

Dental Care With Diabetes

Dr. Swasti Jain, Dentist
Proper dental careTo help prevent damage to your teeth and gums, take diabetes and dental care seriously:Make a commitment to manage your diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar level, and follow your doctor's instructions for keeping your blood sugar level within your target range. The better you control your blood sugar level, the less likely you are to develop gingivitis and other dental problems.Brush your teeth at least twice a day. Brush in the morning, at night and, ideally, after meals and snacks. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and toothpaste that contains fluoride. Avoid vigorous or harsh scrubbing, which can irritate your gums. Consider using an electric toothbrush, especially if you have arthritis or other problems that make it difficult to brush well. Get a new toothbrush at least every three months.Floss your teeth at least once a day. Flossing helps remove plaque between your teeth and under your gum line. If you have trouble getting floss through your teeth, use the waxed variety. If it's hard to manipulate the floss, use a floss holder.Schedule regular dental visits. Visit your dentist at least twice a year for professional cleanings and checkups.Make sure your dentist knows you have diabetes. Every time you visit your dentist, remind him or her that you have diabetes. Make sure your dentist has contact information for your doctor who helps you manage your diabetes.Look for early signs of gum disease. Report any signs of gum disease — including redness, swelling and bleeding gums — to your dentist. Also mention any other signs and symptoms, such as dry mouth, loose teeth or mouth pain.Don't smoke. Smoking increases the risk of serious diabetes complications, including gum disease. If you smoke, ask your doctor about options to help you quit.

Child Dental Care

Dr. R. Rajkumar, Dentist
DENTAL TREATMENT FOR KIDSDentistry for Children: Paediatric dentistry is a very gentle method of dental treatment of children which aims to make a visit to the dentist a more comfortable experience for your children. We have purpose built area specifically designed to make your children feel relaxed and at ease. The Children's Dental Centre is dedicated to encouraging as many children as we can reach, to adopt good habits in dental hygiene.To this end, we offer reduced fee dental services to underprivileged children. Although the centre would like to offer its services as broadly as possible, it is necessary to establish eligibility guidelines pertaining to prospective patients.Children's Teeth Children's teeth begin forming before they are even born. The first primary, or baby teeth, to erupt through the gums are the lower central incisors. These are followed closely by the upper central incisors which come through around four months after birth. Although all twenty primary teeth have usually appeared by the time the child reaches three years old, the pace and order of eruption varies from child to child.Oral care should begin soon after birth. Gums should be cleaned after each feeding. You should begin brushing your child's teeth as soon as they appear.Pit and Fissure Sealings for Teeth of Children At the age of six years, permanent molar erupts in children. The deep grooves are prone to caries. In case of children, this grooves can be sealed in order to prevent decay. This is called pit and fissure sealings treatment for children.Dental Care for ChildrenYou should always clean your infant's gums after feeding. Gums should be wiped with a clean, damp cloth or gauze pad. Parents should brush children's teeth daily with a soft wet toothbrush and a pea sized amount of fluoride toothpaste. When children are very young it is necessary to supervise their brushing to ensure proper brushing habits are adopted. Your dentist will probably recommend regular fluoride treatments which will strengthen enamel and help your child’s teeth resist decay. To prevent your child suffering from nursing bottle mouth, you must give your baby a bottle at nap or bed time. Fill the bottle with plain water and not milk, formula or juice.ROOT CANAL TREATMENT OF MILK TOOTHIs Root Canal Treatment of Milk Tooth necessary?There was a time when countless milk teeth were extracted stating that they are just "temporary tooth" or "milk teeth know ,anyhow it is going to fall" and for so many other reasons. But the milk teeth are there for a specific purpose. Each and every milk teeth has to stay for a particular period of time. The change in dietary habits have resulted in a lot of milk teeth getting decayed at an earlier stage than before. These milk teeth have to be preserved whenever possible. They are the natural SPACE MAINTAINERS which are there to preserve the space for permanent teeth. Whenever a milk tooth is decayed badly, where a normal filling cannot be placed root canal treatment has to be considered before removal of tooth is considered.How many sittings it will require to perform root canal treatment for a milk tooth?It can be performed in single as well as multiple sittings. The pediatric dentist will decide the best method depending upon the situation.Is the procedure painful?No, it is not painful. If necessary the pediatric dentist can anesthetize the tooth and carry out the procedure.After root canal treatment will the milk tooth will fall on its own?Yes, after root canal treatment the tooth is almost like a natural tooth. It will fall on its own.After root canal treatment is follow up necessary?Yes, after root canal treatment the tooth has to be monitored at least once in every six months.Is there any way to prevent this?Yes, and the only way is to detect tooth decay early and treat it. If we detect tooth decay early we can save the tooth by a normal filling. It is better not to wait until pain develops, because once pain develops then preserving the tooth needs extensive treatment like root canal treatment. Hence it is always better to start the FIRST DENTAL VISIT when the first milk tooth erupts into the mouth (between 8-12 months of age). If the first dental visit has taken place at this stage one can completely prevent tooth decay if the parents strictly follow the pediatric dentists instructions.

Choosing Electric Tooth Brush

Dr. Himani Sanwaria, Dentist
Electric toothbrush provides a different kind of experience compared to brushing with a regular toothbrush or manual toothbrush. With a powered toothbrush, all you need to do is place the toothbrush at a 45° angle and let the toothbrush do all the work. An electric toothbrush is ideal for people who suffer from arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and any other painful or movement-restricting conditions. Since the electric toothbrush’s rotating head does all the work, the user is exempt from constantly applying effort with their wrists and hands; making dental care a much easier task.Choosing the appropriate electric toothbrush for you is easy for you if you have knowledge about the different types available in the market. The three major types of electric toothbrushes you can choose from are:Vibrating: This is used just like the manual toothbrushRotating-oscillating: This toothbrush is so easy to use. Since it is already rotating, you just have to move it from tooth to tooth. The effort on brushing is less compared to the vibrating typeSide to side: These move side to side at a very high speed that it makes them vibrate against your teeth.Complete action: These are electronic toothbrushes that have dual heads. The first head rotates while the other moves from side to side.Do you want to change your toothbrush from manual to electric? Here are the things you have to look for:Free case protector that comes along with it. It ensures that your toothbrush will be safeguarded against having dents and cracks during travelling.Small head: This will enable you to reach the back molar teeth easily, which are prone to have tartar deposition, as well as force you to brush one tooth at a time.Long lasting battery life. You want your toothbrush to work for a longer time. Frequent charging of batteries can be a hassle for some individuals in this fast pace life.Comfortable movements: It does not matter which type of electric toothbrush to pick. Be sure that you are comfortable with whatever action of toothbrush you want to pick. Ask your dentist which one they recommend and why.Electric toothbrushes are home care instrument for disease control and help make your oral hygiene routine more effective. Few studies have proven electric toothbrushes remove significantly more plaque compared to manual toothbrushes and are better at combating gum disease. Despite the studies, your dental health will remain healthy (despite which type of toothbrush you use) as long as you consistently take care of your teeth.

Do You Have Regular Dental Check Ups?

Dr. Meeta Malik, Dentist
So how often do you really need a dental check-up? Your colleague in the next cubicle goes three times annually, and your best friend sees the dentist just once a year and your parents have never been to the dentist unless they have a problem. Confused? Here's the professional answer to all your doubts. Even though many of us might think that our teeth are in good shape, regular visits to the dentist are very important. Your oral health depends on two factors: brushing and flossing regularly and seeing your dentist every six months for an oral examination and professional teeth cleaning. You will not be alone in wondering why you need to visit a dental professional so often if you are taking good care of your teeth and gums. But even the most diligent of us can miss hard to reach areas of the mouth and leave them vulnerable to tooth decay and periodontal (gum) disease.Your six monthly oral examination will ensure that your dentist spots any problem at an early stage and addresses these adequately. Moreover, regular professional teeth cleaning will ensure that one prevents many oral health issues from occurring in the first place – saving you both physical and financial pain that is sure to occur if you neglect your teeth and allow problems to develop. Periodic and timely care and prevention of diseases in the mouth are the best possible care you can give your teeth. Tackling problems early will save your teeth from Root Canal treatment of worse still, having to be extracted. So, spend your money and time wisely - get to the dentist on a regular basis rather than after things have gone wrong!

Basic Knowledge of Infection Control in Dental Clinic

Dr. Yogesh Rao, Dentist
INTRODUCTION The unique nature of dental procedures, instrumentation and patient care settings require specific strategies directed to the prevention of transmission of diseases among dental health care workers and their patients.Dental practices should develop a written infection-control program to prevent or reduce the risk of disease transmission. The program should outline the policies, procedures, practices, technologies, and products used to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses among dental team members as well as healthcare-associated infections among patients.The practice setting should establish a working relationship with a qualified healthcare professional/facility to provide dental team members with appropriate occupational health services like vaccinations (hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, and varicellazoster) and postexposure evaluation and management.As a matter of fact, the dentist, dental assistant, dental hygienist and dental technician are at risk of exposure to disease agents through contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. So by studying and by carefully following the infection control and safety guidelines, all the team work can minimize the risks of disease transmission to himself and to the patients in the dental office.Diseases Transmission in Dental Office;The dental office should have an infection control program to prevent the transmission of disease from the following :Patient to dental team Dental team to patient:Patient to patient:Dental office to community ( include dental team’s family ):Community to dental office to patient To prevent such infections, following is a list of all those procedures and precautions that together constitute infection control. These guidelines should be followed each time treatment is performed because we are never certain of the patient's status, either because they themselves do not know or because they have chosen not to inform their healthcare providers of their condition. Following these guidelines for every patient is called "Standard Precautions".StandardPrecautions1. IMMUNIZATION 2. PATIENT SCREENING 3. HAND WASHING 4. BARRIER TECHNIQUES - • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Rubber dam, Pre-procedural rinsing5. NEEDLE & SHARP INSTRUMENT SAFETY • Occupational Exposure To Blood/Body Fluids7. SURFACE DISINFECTION8. radiographic asepsis 9. laboratory asepsis10. infectious dental waste management &disposalModes of Diseases Transmission :Direct contact with blood or body fluids:Indirect contact with a contaminated instrument or surface:Contact of mucosa of the eyes, nose, or mouth with droplets or spatter:Inhalation of airborne microorganisms Prepare personnel involved in patient care.An essential pretreatment procedure is the preparation of all personnel involved in patient care. This includes the utilization of personal protective equipment (gown, eyewear, mask and gloves) and hand hygienePersonal protective equipment ( PPE )    OSHA  requires the employer to provide employees with appropriate personal protective equipment . Examples of  PPE   1-  Protective clothing2-  Surgical masks3- Face shields4-  Protective eyewear5- Disposable patient treatment gloves , and 6- Heavy-duty utility glovesHandwashing and hand care :According to   the   U.S.  Centers    for   Disease   Control (CDC) , hand washing is the single most important procedure for preventing the spread of infection. So , you must wash your hands each time before you put on gloves and immediately after you remove gloves . Handwashing is also required if you touch contaminated instruments or surfaces during working .We should always use liquid soap during handwashing . Bar soap should never be used because it may transmit contamination.Guidelines for the use of protective clothing  1) It should not be worn out of the office for any reason .2) Change these work clothes at least daily, or more often if  soiled, especially if they become visiblycontaminated with blood.3) It must not be worn during eating or in resting rooms  .4) It should be washed and laundered separately . Protective clothing requirements : 1) Should be made of fluid-resistant material ( cotton , cotton/polyester, ordisposable jackets or gowns .2)  Clothing should have long sleeves and a high neckline to minimize the amount of uncovered skin .3) Must cover dental personnel at least to the knees when seated.Protective masks :Purpose :the mask worn over the nose and mouth to protect the person from inhaling infectious organisms spread by the aerosol spray of the handpiece or air-water syringe . Types : the two most common types of masks are the dome-shaped and flat types,dome shape and flat shapeGuidelines for the use of protective masks  :• Masks should be changed for every patient or more often, particularly if heavy spatter is generated during the treatment or if the mask becomes damp.• Masks should be handled by touching only the side edges to avoid contact with the more heavily contaminated body of the mask.• Masks should conform to the shape of the face .• Masks should not contact the mouth when being worn because the moisture generated will decrease the mask filtration efficiency .Requirements : masks should be at least with 95% filtration efficiency to remove particles 3 – 5 microns in diameter .Protective eyewear :Purpose  eyewear is worn to protect the eyes against damage from :   • Aerosolized pathogens .• Flying sharp debris such as scrap amalgam and tooth fragments .• Splattered solutions• Caustic chemicalsGuidelines for the use of protective eyewear  :1) OSHA  requires the use of eyewear with both front and side protection ( solid side shields ) .2) Members who wear correction glasses or contact lenses must wear protective eyewear with a side shields or a face shield . 3) It must be cleaned and decontaminated after each treatment or patient visitaccording to the manufacture’s instructions .Types  :Two types of protective eyewear used during patient care :1) Glasses with protective side shield , and2) Clear face shields .Face shields : a chin-length plastic  face shield that protects your eyes, nose, and mouth from spatter may be worn and replace the protective eyewear .However , a shield cannot replace the mask because it does not protect against inhalation of contaminated aerosolGloves  :  Purpose : Glovesmust be worn by the dentist , dental assistant , and dental hygienist during all dental treatment to avoid contact with the patient’s blood , saliva , or mucous membranes or with contaminated items or surfaces .Types  : The   type  of   gloves   used   in   dental   practice     should be determined by the various procedures that are performed in the practice as follow :1) Examination gloves  usually are latex or vinyl . These are the gloves most frequently worn by the dental team duringpatient care .2) Overgloves   are made of lightweight  , inexpensive , clear plastic . Overgloves may be worn over contaminated treatment gloves ( overgloving ) to prevent contamination of clean objects ( telephone , pen ,opening drawers and cabinets ) that may be handled during treatment . Overgloves are discarded after a single use .3) Sterile surgical gloves are used   during    surgical procedures such as oral surgery or periodontal treatment . Sterile surgical gloves   are supplied in specific sizes and prepackaged unites to maintain sterility before use4) Utility gloves  are made from a puncture-resistant , heavy  material which are not used for direct patient care . Utility gloves may be washed , disinfected , or sterilized and reused  and must be discarded when they become old .Managing contaminated sharps :Contaminated needles and other disposable sharps , such as scalpel blades , orthodontic wires , and broken glass must be placed into a sharps container .OSHA , CDC and the EPA classify sharps as infectious waste . According to OSHA regulations , disposable sharps must be placed in a puncture resistant , closable , and color-coded or labeled with the biohazard symbol container immediately after use .Proper processing of contaminated  dental instruments in a six-steps  process as : 1)  Transport :   transport contaminated instruments to the processing area .2)  Cleaning  :   clean instruments with a hand-free , mechanical process such as an ultrasonic cleaner or instrumentwasher.3)   Packing   :  warp/package instruments in appropriate materials containing an external process indicator .4)  Sterilization : place the packages in a single layers or in  racks to increase circulation of the sterilizing agentaround the instruments . Operate the sterilizer according to the manufacture’s instructions . Allow packages to cool before removing them from the sterilizer .5)  Storage:  Store instruments in  a clean , dry environment  in a manner that maintains the integrity of the  package.Rotate   packages so   that those with the oldest sterilization date will be used first .6) Delivery : deliver packages to point of use in a manner that maintains sterility of the instruments  until  they are   used . Inspect each package for damage .Impressions and appliances should be rinsed thoroughly to remove all visible blood and debris. Gloves should be worn when handling impressions and pouring models. Certain types of impression material (silicone, polysulphur) can be disinfected by total immersion in glutaraldehyde (2%) or sodium hypochlorite (0.1%). Other materials (alginate, polyether) may be disinfected by submerging for several seconds in sodium hypochlorite (0.1%), which should then be wrapped in a hypochlorite saturated paper towel and kept in a closed container for the recommended disinfectant time.Packaging  instruments: Before sterilization the instruments must be packaged to protect them from becoming contaminated after sterilization .They can be contaminated by aerosols in the air , dust , or contact with nonsterile surfaces . An additional advantage to packaging instruments is that they can be grouped into special setups .Sterilization in the dental office : The three most common forms of heat sterilization in the dental office are : :Steam sterilization,:Chemical vapor sterilization, and :Dry heat sterilizationSterilization of hand pieces is recommended whenever possible : Hand pieces that are designed for steam sterilization between uses are preferred. When a hand piece cannot be heat or steam sterilized, chemical disinfection can be used as an alternativeMicroorganisms in WaterlinesThe primary source of microorganisms in dental waterlines is the public water supply It is possible that saliva may be retracted back into the waterlines during the treatment . This process is called suck back''Anti-retraction valves on dental units and thorough flushing of the dental lines between patients minimize the chance of this occurring.  Entering public water source has a colony forming units (CFU) count of less than 500; once that water enters the dental waterlines and colonizes within the bio-film, the CFU count skyrockets. There are two “communities” of bacteria in dental unit waterlines: One bacterial community exists in the water itself and is referred to as planktonic (free floating). The other exists in the bio-film attached to the walls of the waterlinesMethods to Reduce ContaminationSelf-contained water reservoirsChemical treatment regimens Micro-filtration Daily Draining and drying of linesSurface disinfectionSurfaces that are likely to become contaminated may be de-contaminated after treatment or protected with disposable coverings before they become contaminated. Effective cross-infection control is aided by a strict system of zoning and the use of sterilizable trays. Procedures should be adopted which limit the areas touched and contaminated each time a patient is treated.Between clinical sessions, work surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and decontaminated with ethyl alcohol (70%). If there is visible blood or pus, the surface should be cleaned and disinfected with sodium hypochorite (0.5%), followed by water rinse. Protective gloves should be worn and care taken to minimise direct skin, mucosal or eye contact with these disinfectants.