Articles on vitamin and mineral supplementation for dialysis p

What to Look for in Blood Tests for Patients on Dialysis

Dr. Arvind C, Nephrologist
Blood tests can tell how well the dialysis is working, how well nourished you are, the state of your bones, how much acid thereis, in your blood , as well as your blood count. Monthly blood tests to check the levels of urea/creatinine, waste products produced by metabolism within the body, help to determine the adequacy of the dialysis prescription. Another test, called Kt/V is also performed to assess patient progress and dialysis adequacy. Abnormal electrolyte (Sodium, Potassium) levels may cause organ dysfunction for eg the heart and therefore the need for regular checks. Serum albumin levels tell us how well nourished the patient is, and is the most important test to indicate future morbidity. Calcium and phosphate levels give us an indication of bone metabolism. Hemoglobin levels indicate the degree of anemia (low blood strength) and act as a guide to adjust treatment (blood transfusion/erythropoietin injections).Blood Sugar levels are important in diabetics. Tests for HIV and Hepatitis B & C viruses are done as a routine on admission into the dialysis unit and every 3-4months thereafter.There are other important tests that are done less frequently and include lipid levels, liver function tests, iron studies,etc.Creatinine: This is the waste produced by muscles. A high creatinine level may indicate that not enough dialysis is being done Potassium: This mineral is normally present in the blood. If the level gets too high or low it can cause the heart to stop. The normal level is 3.5-5.0 mmols/l. Crisis levels are less than 2 or greater than 6.5. Urea: Urea is produced when the food we eat is broken down. The normal level is 20-40mg/dl/l, but in dialysis patients urea levels are much higher. A high urea level will often cause sickness(nausea & vomiting) Phosphate: Phosphate is one of the substances in the blood necessary to keep bones healthy. The normal level is 3-4.5mg/dl. A high level can cause itching and bone disease. Diet and phosphate binders can help to control the level. Calcium: This mineral is needed to keep bones healthy. The normal level of calcium in the blood is 9 - 11 mg/dl. Glucose: The normal level of blood glucose is 100-140mg/dl. For diabetics on HD it is important to remember that apart from high glucose levels, hypoglycemia (low sugars) may also occur

Be Water Wise for Healthy Kidneys

Dr. Deepak Sharma, Nephrologist
Keep your kidneys healthy by being “waterwise.” This means drinking the right amount of water for you. A common misconception is that everyone should drink eight glasses of water per day, but since everyone is different, daily water needs will vary by person. How much water you need is based on differences in age, climate, exercise intensity, as well as states of pregnancy, breastfeeding, and illness.About 60-70% of your body weight is made up of water, and every part of your body needs it to function properly. Water helps the kidneys remove wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Water also helps keep your blood vessels open so that blood can travel freely to your kidneys, and deliver essential nutrients to them. But if you become dehydrated,then it is more difficult for this delivery system to work. Mild dehydration can make you feel tired, and can impair normal bodily functions.Severe dehydration can lead to kidney damage, so it is important to drink enough when you work or exercise very hard, and especially in warm and humid weather.Here are 6 tips to make sure you’re drinking enough water and to keep your kidneys healthy:1.    Eight is great, but not set in stone. There is no hard and fast rule that everyone needs 8 glasses of water a day. This is just a general recommendation based on the fact that we continually lose water from our bodies, and that we need adequate water intake to survive and optimal amounts to thrive. The Institute of Medicine has estimated that men need approximately 13 cups (3 liters) of fluid daily, and that women need approximately 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid daily. 2.    Less is more if you have kidney failure (a.k.a. end stage kidney disease). When the kidneys fail, people don’t excrete enough water, if any at all. For those who are receiving dialysis treatment, water must actually be greatly restricted.3.    It’s possible to drink too much water. Though it is not very common for this to happen in the average person, endurance athletes like marathoners may drink large amounts of water and thereby dilute the sodium level in their blood, resulting in a dangerous condition called hyponatremia.4.    Your urine can reveal a lot. For the average person, “water wise” means drinking enough water or other healthy fluids, such as unsweetened juice or low fat milk to quench thirst and to keep your urine light yellow or colorless. When your urine is dark yellow, this indicates that you are dehydrated. You should be making about 1.5 liters of urine daily (about 6 cups).5.    H2O helps prevent kidney stones and UTIs. Kidney stones and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are two common medical conditions that can hurt the kidneys, and for which good hydration is essential. Kidney stones formless easily when there is sufficient water available to prevent stone-forming crystals from sticking together. Water helps dissolve the antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections, making them more effective. Drinking enough water also helps produce more urine, which helps to flush out infection-causing bacteria.6.    Beware of pills and procedures. Drinking extra water with certain medications or before and after procedures with contrast dye may help prevent kidney damage. Read medication labels and ask questions before undergoing medical procedures involving contrast dyes. Always consult with your healthcare provider first though, especially if you are on a fluid restriction.Remember….when“water wise,” healthy kidneys are the prize!  

Natural Sources of Essential Vitamins

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Our body performs several functions throughout the day. It churns out blood that carriy nutrients and oxygen to different cells; it sends nerve signals across body pathways. It also formulates chemical messengers that shuttle from one organ to another. To do all of that, your body requires at least 30 vitamins, minerals, and dietary components that your body can’t manufacture in sufficient amounts. So you need to get them from daily diet. Vitamins and minerals are often called micro-nutrients because unlike the case with macro-nutrients — protein, fat, and carbohydrates — your body needs only tiny amounts of micro nutrients. Yet failing to get these small quantities can prove to be fatal sometimes.Types of VitaminsWater-soluble vitamins B and CFat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.Vitamin A (retinol)This vitamin is essential for growth and healthy skin and hair. It is a powerful antioxidant that plays a key role in the body's immune system. Vitamin A can be obtained from dairy products, yellow & green vegetables & fruits, fish etc.Vitamin B complexIt includes B1(thiamine) , B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic acid), B6(pyridoxine), B12( cobalamin) , Folate ( folic acid).The body requires relatively small amounts of vitamins B1, B2 and B3.Vitamins B6 and B12 help the body to use folic acid and are vital nutrients in a range of activities, such as cell repair, digestion, the production of energy and in the immune system.Vitamin B12 is also needed for the breakdown of fat and carbohydrates. Deficiency of either vitamin will result in anaemia. Vitamin B6 is found in most foods, so deficiency is rare. The best dietary sources of the B vitamins are milk, seeds, whole grains, pulses, etc.Folic acid (folate)Folic acid work closely in the body with vitamin B12. It is vital for the production of healthy blood cells. Lack of folic acid is one of the main causes of anaemia, particularly in people with poor diets. Vitamins B6 and B12 help the body use folate, so are often given alongside folic acid supplements. In pregnancy, low folate levels increase the risk of the baby's spinal cord system not developing completely (spina bifida). Folate can be obtained from liver, whole grains, enriched food products etc.Vitamin CVitamin C is one of the most potent antioxidant vitamins. We need vitamin C for growth, healthy tissues, wound repair and an efficient immune system. In addition, it also helps with the normal functioning of blood vessels and helps absorb iron from plant sources as opposed to the iron in red meat. Fresh fruits and vegetables are the main sources of vitamin C – eating five sdrvings a day will easily meet the body's needs. Too much vitamin C can result in a sensitive, irritable stomach and mouth ulcers.Vitamin DVitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth. It helps the body to absorb calcium. The action of sunlight on the skin enables the body to manufacture vitamin D – even on a cloudy day. For this reason, most people will get enough vitamin D through their everyday activities. Foods rich in vitamin D are oily fish, liver, cod liver oil and dairy products. Many foods are also 'fortified' with low levels of vitamin D, such as margarine and breakfast cereals.Vitamin EVitamin E is important in cell maintenance and also plays an active role in the maintenance of a healthy heart and blood circulation. It is one of the body's main antioxidants. Deficiency only occurs in cases of severe mal-absorption or certain rare genetic disorders. Vitamin E can be obtained from consumption of nuts & seeds, fish, oils, whole meal & whole grain products.Vitamin KVitamin K is involved in the blood clotting process and in the maintenance of strong bones. It is found in small quantities in meat, vegetables and wholegrain cereals. Your body also makes vitamin K in the large intestine, through the activity of 'healthy bacteria'. For this reason, there is no recommended daily amount. Diets rich in fatty and sugary foods can adversely change the balance of the gut flora, as can the additives and pesticides that are often a part of modern food production.

5 So Called Healthy Foods That Aren’t Exactly Healthy

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Next time you walk into the grocery store, do a small experiment. Pick 10 foods and look at their packaging. Most of those packages will probably have a ‘health benefit’ listed on them. Over time, many of these foods have naturally been associated with healthy eating.Here’s a list of common 5 ‘myths’ that we come across:Diet Namkeen: You know that ‘namkeen’ isn’t exactly healthy. It’s fried, it’s got sugar, a lot of made from highly processed rice base or maida (processed flour). Not exactly what you would call healthy. That’s an accepted fact.Now, if we reduce some of the fat and add some carbohydrates, and label it ‘diet namkeen’, it doesn’t become healthy! It’s still namkeen. It’s still got plenty of sodium, plenty of simple carbohydrates and some fat. So, don’t trick yourself into believing that you will be healthier by eating diet namkeen. Read about unhealthy south indian snacks.Margarine: This one is an old classic. Margarine was made popular in the 80’s, where the common belief was that margarine is a healthy replacement for butter. But plenty of research has shown that it’s not.Margarine is typically produced by a method called hydrogenation that is known to create trans-fats, the worst kind of fat. Its consumption has a direct correlation with an increase in LDL cholesterol (the bad type of cholesterol) Read more about the unhealthy side of margarine.So, if you want something buttery, just have butter!Sports Drinks: The name, ‘sports drinks’ says it all. Sports drinks were developed for sportspersons. Athletes and sports people play for hours. As a result the ‘energy’ stored in their body as glycogen gets depleted. Their goal is to keep up their performance. And sports drinks contain fast dissolving carbohydrates, quickly help replenish their depleting glycogen stores. Read about the best kind of health drink.So, if you’re not exercising for hours and if you’re focussed on your using your exercise time to lose weight or to burn fat, then your sports drinks aren’t going to help. Worse, if you’re not exercising, and having that sports drinks, then those fast dissolving carbohydrates aren’t going to get burnt and stored as your body as fat!Brown Bread: No, we’re not going to bash bread, to make it the reason you’re not losing weight, because it’s not. But we’re going clarify the thinking on brown bread.The moment you think of brown bread, the most natural thought is that is the quintessential healthy version of white bread. What if we told you it’s not always the case!Brown bread often contains more whole wheat than white bread, but most brown bread still contains processed flour (maida). So, while it is healthier than white bread, it is only marginally healthier than white bread. Just to give you a broad scale. The glycemic index of sugar is 74, white bread is 71 and brown bread is 69!Better than brown bread is multigrain bread. Always check the fibre content of the bread. The higher, the better.As a recommendation, if you’re diabetic or pre-diabetes, it’s best if you avoid bread.Egg Whites Only: There’s been a lot of contradictory research on the cholesterol contained in egg yolks and their effects on our cholesterol levels. Broadly a lot of the new research is showing that a controlled consumption of egg yolks does not negatively affect your cholesterol. Read about cholesterol reducing foods.And for a moment, let’s look beyond the cholesterol. Egg whites essentially contain protein. The egg yolk contains almost as much protein as the white, plus a cocktail of B vitamins, iron, iodine, choline and other micro-nutrients. All of these have strong nutritional benefits. Also note that the fat contained in food helps in absorption of nutrients in your intestine. So, you don’t need to shun the egg yolks. Enjoy the whole egg. Beyond the nutritional benefits, your omelette tastes far better with the egg yolk!We could just go on about these foods, but this is a good start. Eat less namkeen, skip the margarine completely, control your brown bread, and enjoy the egg yolk!

Pocket Full of Sunshine!

Ms. Tehzeeb, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Off late (at least in Mumbai where I live), I find myself hearing A LOT of conversation about Vitamin D deficiencies. What started off as a rich man’s disease or an upper middle-class disorder has now clawed its way into everyones lives. In fact, pills, powders and Vitamin D shots have become quite the trend off late. If I had to make a guesstimate, I would say that 80% of my clients have a Vitamin D deficiency and if I had a 100-rupee note for every time I overheard someone talk about their Vitamin D deficiency, I would have been able to make at least that one trip to Greece which I have been aching to take for a while now. Anyway, let us first get some basics in order:Vitamin D is a vitamin (duh!). Vitamins have some specific tasks which they are supposed to do in the body (energy, disease protection etc.).Vitamin D specifically is meant to help with immunity, building strong bones and ensuring that your muscles, heart, lungs and brain are all working wellVitamins and minerals are MICRO-nutrients which means that the body needs them in small amounts.Vitamins are of two types—either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Vitamin D specifically is a fat-soluble vitamin which means that for the cells to pick it up or absorb it and for it to perform it’s necessary functions, a small amount of fat is needed as a carrier.Have you ever seen a trail of baby ducklings follow the mommy duck? Think of Vitamin D as one of the baby ducklings and the fat as mommy duck. Baby ducklings (fat-soluble vitamins) can’t reach the other end of the pond/lake in the absence of the loving and guiding mommy duck (fat). Remember this fact and this metaphor and as you keep reading, you’ll know why I chose to elucidate on this specific pointer.Most lab tests measure Vitamin D in nano-grams/milliliter wherein an amount in the range of 30-100 is good. Anything below is insufficient/deficient and anything over could be toxic. As previously mentioned, most of us are deficient and I often hear people joke about how deficient they are. “Well, my Vitamin D is like REALLY low! I remember it being a single digit number!” “Oh my God. That’s terrible. Mine is low but not THAT low.”Now that you’ve understood the basics, let’s answer some comprehensive queries:Why are so many people getting deficient in this vitamin?Recently, my apartment got revamped and my parents and my brother can’t stop talking and raving about their suave new purchase–black-out curtains! Basically curtains that would make it impossible for sunlight to reach your bedroom. In fact, even if you need to take an afternoon nap, these babies can create an illusion of it being night time because they make the room so dark. Now isn’t that fancy? Unfortunately though, by doing this, you’re seriously depriving yourself of Vitamin D. That’s reason #1. Reason #2: We are excluding the mommy duck (fat) as though she were a step-mom and acting like we no longer need her. If you’re going to have fat-free milk and fat-free yogurt, how in the world will your body cells pick up the fat-soluble Vitamin D? Work on these two pointers and that in itself should be of enormous help in upping your levels.What are some food sources of D? What’s the best source and why?Very few sadly. Cod liver oil and fish oil are good sources. Ghee is a great source! Add it back onto your diet so that you don’t go weak in the knees (bone health, get it?). Industrialists have started fortifying (artificially adding) Vitamin D into milk, cereal, breads and packaged juices. Although nothing beats some good, old-fashioned time under the sun. There is a reason why Vitamin D is called the ‘sunshine vitamin.’ It’s the best source of Vitamin D and the safest because if you’re absorbing Vitamin D from the sun, there is no chance of overdosing or toxicity. Nature is so beautiful and perfect that once your bodily needs of the vitamin are met, the chemical will stop converting the inactive form of Vitamin D to its active form.What happens if I have excess Vitamin D in my body?Abdominal painConfusionLethargyMuscle weaknessConstipation, diarrhea or bothShall I go on?So my levels are sort of low. Big deal! How does it change my life?Statement above was made by one of my really bold clients. He went onto add that he feels tired anyway and he could just live with a little more tiredness. “I probably won’t even notice.” I wasn’t about to just sit and watch while that’s the kind of neglect he decided to put his body through and I don’t intend to do that with all of you either. So news flash: it doesn’t end at fatigue. You risk getting cancer, Alzheimer’s, depression, weak bones, heart disease and an array of other diseases. Doesn’t seem like much of a party now, does it?Anything else I need to know about D?Studies show that it gets metabolized most optimally at the back of our thighs so put on those short shorts and step out for some sun time

5 Foods You Should Be Eating Every Day

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Our lives are getting busier by the day. We have lots to do, and little time to take care of ourselves. But even with such hectic lifestyles, there are simple ways to make sure that you and your family stay healthy. Today, we'll talk about 5 common foods that you should be eating daily.Water: Simply put, water is your lifeline. 60% of the body is water. It is the basis of everything that happens in your body. It helps supply nutrients to your body, helps improve skin, internal cleansing, and even promotes weight loss. So drink at least 8 glasses of water a day and have 2 glasses of water as soon as you wake up. This will kick start your body's internal systems, and your metabolism.Almonds: A handful of almonds are smart snack to incorporate in your daily routine because almonds are high in protein, heart-friendly due to high levels of good monounsaturated fat and very filling. They are high in vitamin E and magnesium, a mineral that helps produce energy, regulate blood sugar levels, and can help improve blood flow. Loaded with fiber, calcium, potassium, riboflavin, just a handful of almonds a day is a great way to ensure you’re getting the nutrition your body needs. You can have them raw or soaked. If you soak them, eat them with their skin on to get maximum nutrition.Tea: Tea is loaded with antioxidants that are very beneficial for your health. To get the maximum health benefits, have your tea without milk or sugar. This can be black or green tea. Besides antioxidants, green tea has shown heart health benefits, it helps in weight loss, and can even help in protecting your teeth and skin.Yogurt: It is a staple in most households. It contains calcium, which keeps your bones and teeth strong and healthy. Further, it is rich in “good bacteria” that helps maintain gut health and helps you to process food and absorb nutrients better. It is also a good source of protein. Just 1 cup of yogurt provides phosphorus, potassium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and protein. Regular consumption of yogurt has also shown that it helps with reduction of belly fat. Just make sure your yogurt isn't heavily sweetened. If you like it sweet, add some fruits and chopped almonds in it.Apples: Apples contain both insoluble and soluble fiber, which not only make them filling, but also help reduce cholesterol to keep the heart healthy and reduce the risk of heart disease. Further apples contain antioxidants that can help reduce your risk of cancer. Apples are healthy, but if they are not available, most seasonal fruits are nutritious, so make sure you eat at least 1 serving of fruit every day.There you have it - our list of healthy foods you should be eating everyday if you want to stay healthy. All these foods are easily available and are hugely beneficial for your health. So make sure you include these in your daily diet.

6 Essential Nutrients for Women

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
A woman's body needs a lot of nourishment. There are many vitamins and minerals that ensure a healthy body. However, as you reach puberty and age more, a few nutrients become vital for healthy functionality, reproduction as well as vitality. On this International Day Of Action For Women's Health, 28th May, learn more about the women's health so that you or women around you stay healthy.Here are top 6 nutrients that are a must for women of all ages:1) Vitamin B12 - Women suffer from extreme fatigue as soon as they reach late 20s or mid-30s and vitamin B12 has proven to be extremely efficient in not only curbing the feeling of fatigue, but also in promoting swiftness and alertness in the body.2) Vitamin D3 - Lack of vitamin D3 is detrimental for breast and ovarian cancers which plague a large number of women. This vitamin also builds immunity against certain autoimmune diseases and provides adequate strength to muscles, bones and teeth.3) Iron - Adequate levels of iron in the body ensures that you never run out of energy and are always active. In addition, iron plays an important role in maintaining efficient functioning of the brain.4) Vitamin B6 - Vitamin B6 mainly promotes the maintenance of a healthy and regular sleep pattern and protects against sleep-related disorders such as insomnia. It also helps in the correct regulation of your appetite while maintaining hormonal balance, thus protecting you from mood disorders.5) Folate - Women who are expecting or have recently given birth certainly benefit a great deal from adequate consumption of folate. These women are highly vulnerable to a number of spinal and brain defects which are effectively prevented by the nutrient. It also helps to make the body highly resistant to colon and breast cancers.6) Calcium - Calcium is like a wonder drug for all women as it solves a majority of problems which hinder their daily life. It plays an important role in maintaining a stable blood pressure and is extremely efficient in controlling certain noxious symptoms of PMS. It is important also to maintain their bone density as they age.

Importance of Vitamin D for Women

Dr. Sangeeta Malu, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Vitamin D is a vital nutrient required for all kinds of bodily functions. It is important especially for women who suffer from more deficiency diseases as compared to men. The major source of vitamin D is sunlight. Some fish like salmon and mackerel also have vitamin D. Any kind of deficiency disease needs to be avoided at all costs. A healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet are key factors in avoiding such health problems. How Does Vitamin D Affect Women? In women, Vitamin D helps prevent various health issues. Some are:Vitamin D increases fertility by at least 6%. Also it lowers progesterone and estradiol which often causes infertility. In pregnant women, it is beneficial for mother and also the child.It reduces chances of breast cancer as it lowers rate of cancerous cell growth in the breast. That is because it actively works in all cells of the body.Brittle bones and arthritis is a common problem in women. However adequate quantity of Vitamin D will improve bone strength. Vitamin D deficiency can drastically increase the chance of hip fractures in women. Most women with osteoporosis or other bone issues are found to be lacking in Vitamin D.Vitamin D provides support to certain killer cells in the immunity system of the body. Such killer cells destroy harmful pathogens.In pregnant women it can create many problems like gestational diabetes or even pre-eclampsia.In some women, deficiency of vitamin D may lead to irregular hormone production and hormones regulate all bodily functions.Vitamin D or "sunshine vitamin" as it's sometimes called, can help avoid or even cure many diseases. It can help avoid lifestyle diseases, polycystic ovarian syndrome and other problems. Scientific studies have shown the benefits of getting a daily dose of this essential Vitamin. Thus, the importance of vitamin D for women cannot be overruled.

How to Improve Your Energy Levels

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
As we get older there is a change in our hormones levels that can affect the energy levels in the body. But even then low energy levels that reduce with age means that you don't have the hyper activity of a 13 year old. If you constantly feel tired and out-of-it even when you haven't done much all day should make you get concerned. Maybe its a calling to make that lifestyle change before it translates into some health issues. We give you some easy to follow steps that can help clean your system internally, regulate your metabolism and spike your energy levels naturally.Apples & Strawberry (Cr/free digital)Based on a simple philosophy of eat well and exercise, this is how you can do it too:Balanced Meal: Eating a heavy meal or stuffing till the time we feel loaded gives a sleepy feeling. Ensure your meal are dominated by fresh seasonal vegetables and pulses. This will not only give the right nutrition for your body but will also detox your system simultaneously. Vitamins and minerals accelerate the basic chemical reactions in the body for various functions. Low intake of vitamin and minerals affects the immune system which slows down the body metabolism and shows decline in energy levels. Eat fruits and vegetables for vitamins and minerals and keep a faster body metabolism.Water: Sometimes feeling thirsty can be a reason for lowered levels of energy. If you are dehydrated then you will feel fatigued and lack energy. Keeping the body hydrated will keep the metabolism high and faster digestion of food in the body. Drink plenty of water to keep energy levels high. Sometimes drinking too much coffee or tea also leads to dehydration. Avoid as much caffeine as you can. Instead switch to green tea for all its health benefits.Sleep: Another reason that is often neglected is sleep. Maybe you are getting disturbed or not enough sleep resulting in a over worked mind & body. Sleep is essential as its the time when the body relaxes and repairs itself. Make sure you get atleast 7-8 hours of sleep. Avoid heavy meals or drinking just before sleep.Exercise: If you are inactive then weak muscle can slow you down in doing basic movements where you will feel tired very quickly. Doing  exercise improves blood flow in body and builds muscles to provide greater strength and energy to do work more efficiently. If you have never exercised before even then its never too late. Start with walking and then add different forms of exercise to help you get fitter. Or just start playing a sport to add some kind of physical activity to your routine.

Vitamin C and E Supplements Might Hamper Muscle Endurance

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Both vitamin C and E supplements are widely popular and are used together by many who want to improve their health and performance. But a New Norwegian study indicates that the use of these antioxidants can counter the effect of exercise – at least if you are in training for events that require plenty of stamina, such as a marathon.Study conducted in Norwegian, by Dr. Paulson, a researcher at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH) which shows that exercising increases muscle oxidant production, which participates in the signalling processes leading to muscle adaption. It is possible that high doses of vitamins C and E act as antioxidants and take away some of this oxidative stress, hence blocking muscular endurance development.Whilst the supplements did not affect maximal oxygen uptake but the results also showed that the production of new muscle mitochondria – found in cells and known as the power house of the cell, convert nutrients into the energy in muscle cells need to perform various functions. Their number gets increased only in the group without supplements.The high doses of the two vitamins, which are both antioxidants, remove some of the stress that muscles are subjected to before, during and after training.So the men and women with no intake of vitamin C and E supplement during training have more stamina because oxidative stress on their muscles increased the muscles adaptation.Researchers also said that the muscles’ natural ability to burn fat during endurance training is reduced due to intake of vitamin E and C supplements.Future studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms of these results, but researchers assume that the vitamins interfered with cellular signalling and blunted expression of certain genes.So, high dosages of vitamin C and E -- as commonly found in supplements -- should be used with caution, especially if you are undertaking endurance training.