Articles on sports nutrition

Pre-Workout Nutrition to Maximise Effects of Training

Dr. Ameet Thakkar, General Physician
Both pre and post-workout supplementation can greatly increase the effectiveness of your training routine. However, this must be done consistently and properly. Without proper nutrition and right kinds of training, your body won't have a maximal response when it comes to building lean muscle mass. From this perspective, training and diet are equally important and should not be considered as separate factors.The food and supplements that you take, along with the work that you perform in the gym, are both part of your training and both are equally important. It's not about the athlete who trained harder, but it's about the athlete who trained smarter.When exercising and working out, your body goes through acute changes in the metabolic environment of muscle tissue. First there is a significant increase in blood flow to working muscles and also a sharp increase in catecholamines (e.g. noradrenalin, adrenalin). As a result, catabolism (muscle breakdown) develops during exercise, and anabolism (muscle building) immediately after exercise. Since these changes are acute, some lasting only a few hours, the pre exercise meal is crucial to optimizing the anabolic effect of exercise. BEFORE EXERCISEIn order to get the most out of your pre-workout meal, you need energy. This is where carbohydrates come into play. You need carbohydrates to store energy and to take advantage of increased blood flow to muscle tissue. CarbohydratesExercise places great demand on glycogen stores. The harder and more vigorous you train, the greater demand this puts on your glycogen stores. Glycogen is the sugar stored in the liver and muscles. Since high intensity exercise burns energy at such a high rate, the body is unable to supply sufficient oxygen to be able to use fat for fuel. Instead, it must use sugar found in the muscle and in the blood. If you consume simple sugars right before you exercise, you can reduce the amount of glycogen used during exercise, which will certainly help to increase and prolong performance. More importantly, higher glycogen and insulin levels appears to create an anabolic hormonal environment favourable to building muscle. Proper carbohydrate intake prior to exercise provides more energy to the muscles and provides a greater effect on the power from muscle fibers, primarily fast twitch muscle fibers that are used during weight lifting. Also, the effect of cortisol, a stress induced hormone, is reduced. This means that your body will be placed in a more conducive environment towards building muscle instead of breaking it down to get through the exercise session.ProteinAnother pre-workout strategy involves pumping more blood to your working muscles. Since the amount and availability of amino acids is often the limiting factor for protein synthesis, a pre-workout protein meal will enhance the delivery of amino acids to muscle tissue to proper muscular growth and recovery. Research has confirmed the effectiveness of a pre-workout protein drink. Research has confirmed that you deliver greater amounts of amino acids during exercise when you consume protein before a workout than after. There is also a significant difference in amino acid delivery in the first hour after exercise, with the protein drink providing a significant advantage before you workout.Net amino acid uptake throughout the muscle is twice as high with a pre-workout protein drink as compared to consuming it after. Phenylalanine disappearance rate, an indicator of muscle protein synthesis from blood amino acids, was much higher when amino acids were taken during the pre-workout stage. As a result, this indicates that the body and muscles respond more effectively to protein immediately before resistance exercise than after exercise. This is primarily because of an increased delivery of amino acids to the muscle.CaffeineCaffeine stimulates the central nervous system by blocking adenosine, a neurotransmitter that normally causes a calming effect in the body. The resulting neural stimulation due to this blockage causes the adrenal glands to release adrenaline, the "fight or flight" hormone. Your heart rate increases, and it releases glucose into your blood stream for extra energy. Caffeine is going to extend your endurance, make you more powerful, and it will have an ergogenic effect on muscle.Beta-AlanineWhen we exercise, especially when it’s high intensity exercise, our bodies accumulate a large amount of hydrogen ions (H+), causing our muscles pH to drop (become more acidic). H+ causes your muscles pH to drop, in turn decreasing your strength and causing you to fatigue faster. These limitations stop you from adequately overloading your muscles and forcing NEW muscle gains. Beta alanine prevents the drop in ph within our muscle by boosting the synthesis of another amino acid carnosine. Carnosine helps stabilize muscular pH by soaking up hydrogen ions (H+) that are released at an accelerated rate during exercise. Beta alanine can increase carnosine concentration by 65%. L-ArginineL-arginine is a vasodilator -- that is, it dilates the blood vessels, allowing more blood to pass through at once. Arginine stimulates protein production. It also help your body manufacture creatine, a protein that contributes to muscle mass and power. L-arginine is necessary to get rid of waste also- so it’s going to flush out toxins and it will help the body get rid of creatinine, the waste product associated with the process of manufacturing creatine.Creatine(ATP) molecules are the main fuel for the enzyme motors of the muscle in initial high-intensity muscle activity. During muscle contraction, ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) loses a phosphate molecule to create energy and gets converted to adenosine di-phosphate (ADP). Now in order to produce more energy, ADP must be converted back to ATP. Now when ATP is depleted, creatine acts as a source of phosphate and converts the ADP molecule to ATP molecule. The more creatine that is available to the body, the faster the body can produce ATP molecules, so that more and more energy is available for the muscle contractions. This is how creatine acts as a great energy source for short bursts of exercise such as sprinting, bodybuilding and other athletic activities. These increased amounts of creatine slow the possibility of fatigue and enhancesrecovery. Also creatine helps promote muscle growth and development, because it increases the number of satellite cells and nuclei in the muscle. You can’t grow bigger muscles without additional nuclei bringing recruited to take care of the extra muscle. Creatine intake along with training has been shown in many studies to cause a substantial increase in the number of satellite cells and myonuclei compared to strength training alone, and strength training with protein intake.It is advisable not to consume these ingredients without consultation with your physician or a qualified trainer

Nutrition for the Elderly

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Are the seniors in Your Life Eating Well? No matter your age, it is important to get the right amount of nutrients every day. However, the elderly are often at a higher risk for certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies due to a variety of factors, such as low activity, slow body functions, comparatively a weaker immunity or poorly balanced diet and medication consumption. Talk to your dietitian and doctor about your changing nutritional needs as you age, and ask him/her about making changes to your diet or taking supplements to help prevent any of the nutritional deficiencies.Studies show that a good diet in your later years reduces your risk of osteoporosis, heart diseases and certain cancers. As you age, you might need less energy. But you still need just as many of the nutrients in food. To get the proper nutrition for the elderly, refer the following guidelines related to food and nutrition.Vitamin B-12Elderly men and women have a higher risk of B-12 deficiency because their stomachs do not contain an adequate amount of hydrochloric acid, which helps the body absorb the B-12 in food. For this reason, those over 50 should get the bulk of their vitamin B-12 through supplements or fortified foods like cereals, milk etc.ZincZinc is important for immune system health, wound healing, and blood clotting and thyroid function. Symptoms of zinc deficiency include loss of appetite, lack of taste or smell, hair loss, skin problems and depression. Men need 11 milligrams of zinc a day, and women need 8 milligrams, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. You can get this amount by eating foods like red meat, fish, poultry, cheese, legumes, whole grains and sunflower seeds.Calcium and Vitamin DAs you get older, your risks of losing bone mass and developing osteoporosis increase. Along with regular exercise, consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D can help keep your skeletal system strong and slow bone loss. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, men and women over the age of 65 needs between 1,200 and 1,500 milligrams of calcium a day, and good food sources include dairy products like milk and cheese. Early morning sunshine is the best source of vitamin D.Other Considerations regarding Nutrition for the ElderlyOffer nutritionally-dense foods. Since many seniors aren't eating as much as they should, the food they do eat must be as nutritious as possible. Encourage whole, unprocessed foods that are balanced in calories and nutrients for their size.Enhance aromas and flavors. Appealing foods may help stimulate appetite, especially in someone whose senses of taste and smell aren't what they used to be.Make eating a social event. Many seniors who live alone or suffer from depression may stop cooking meals, lose their appetites, and depend on convenience foods. If you are worried that your parent or grandparent isn't eating properly, make meals a family occasion.Encourage healthy snacking. Many seniors don’t like to eat large meals or don't feel hungry enough to eat three full meals a day. One solution is to encourage or plan for several mini-meals throughout the day.Nutrition for the Elderly-How can they stay on track Eating healthily is an ongoing commitment, but it’s easier than you think. Here are some tips for staying on course:Ask for help. Admit when you need a hand to shop, cook, and plan meals and find someone to help. It’s important for your health not to revert to frozen dinners or takeout food.Variety, variety, variety! Try eating and cooking something new as soon as boredom strikes.Make every meal “do-able.” Healthy eating needn't be a big production. Keep it simple and you’ll stick with it. Stocking the pantry and fridge with wholesome choices will make it easier to prepare quick, tasty meals.Set the mealtime mood. Set the table, light candles, play music, or eat outside or by a window when possible. Tidying yourself and your space will help you enjoy the moment.Break habits. If you eat watching TV, try eating while reading or use the time to catch up with your spouse or a friend. If you eat at the counter, set the table instead.

Food and Nutrition: Boost Your Mood With Some Food

Dr. Sangeeta Malu, Dietitian/Nutritionist
If you thought poor nutrition only affected the poor, think again. Millions of human beings across the world suffer from under-nutrition. Under nutrition refers not to lack of access to food, but to the body's inability to absorb nutrients. As the saying goes, you are what you eat. This doesn't apply only to your physical health, but to your mental health as well. Here are some things you should know about foods and your moods.  Say NO! to these foods1. Dump the junkMost fast foods contain trans-fats, artificial colors, monosodium glutamate (MSG), artificial sweeteners and other synthetic ingredients and have little nutritional value. These ingredients have been linked to irritability and depression in the long run.2. Sugar and glutenThe sugar and gluten present in some foods affect mental health. Consuming them in high quantities will suppress BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) activity BDNF is a growth protein which keeps brain neurons healthy. This can lead to depression, schizophrenia and other mental problems in people.Say YES! to these foods1. Omega-3 fatty acidsFoods like flax seed, walnuts and salmon contain Omega 3, which affects neurotransmitter pathways in the brain, and improves heart function by reducing bad cholesterol and increasing good cholesterol.2. L-Tryptophanis an essential nutrient for brain function. This amino acid is responsible for the production of a chemical called serotonin, which is used to treat people with depression. This can be found in red meat, dairy products and turkey.3. MagnesiumThis vitamin helps maintain physical and mental health. Leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and avocados contain magnesium, and their regular consumption will keep your mood light and your body healthy.4. Folic acid and vitamin B-12Both these essential nutrients increase metabolism and production of blood cells, which keep the brain healthy.Low levels of these nutrients are associated with depression and mood swings. Folic acid is present in fruits and leafy vegetables, and vitamin B 12 in seafood, meat and dairy products.What we eat determines how we feel! So, eat right and boost your mood with nutrition dense food!

Diet And Exercise - What To Choose?

Dr. Nitin Hundre, Homeopath
“Diet and exercise” – that’s the mantra that most people swear by, when it comes to losing weight the healthy way. But the word “diet” is more than just the food put on a plate. A very important component of a healthy diet is the amount of water a person drinks in a day.While drinking water is not a magic pill to shed those pounds faster, not being adequately hydrated could make weight loss a little harder. Why do you need to drink water? Water helps your body to function correctly. Water is required for a number of chemical reactions and metabolic processes that take place in individual cells, tissues and organs. But if you don’t drink sufficient water, these reactions and processes will not function the way they’re supposed to. And this could affect your overall metabolism.Let’s look at some of the ways water can help you in your weight loss program.You’re not hungry… you’re just thirsty!Sometimes, the body is not able to differentiate between hunger and thirst. So if you feel hungry and tempted to snack on high-calorie food, have a glass of water first. It could be that you are, in fact, just thirsty and the glass of water would make you feel full and prevent you from consuming the extra calories.Water can help you eat lessDrinking water some time before a meal has its benefits in overall weight loss, possibly because you feel full and therefore tend to eat smaller portions of food at mealtime.In one study, people who drank water before a meal ate about 75 calories fewer during the meal. That, in itself, may not seem like much. But 75 x 365 (days in a year) means 27375 calories less in a year, which corresponds to an approximately 4 kilo weight loss, without much effort on your part.Water can help you digest your food betterDrinking sufficient quantities of water is also important for your kidneys to function correctly and reduce the risk of kidney stones. Water also helps to prevent constipation. Research seems to confirm the benefits of water during weight lossThere is no place here to discuss all the studies that talk about weight loss and water. But let us look at two studies:In one study, there were 48 overweight and obese middle-aged adults who were put on a low-calorie diet. Some of them were asked to drink about 500 ml of water before each of their three meals a day. At the end of three months, those who drank the extra water lost about 2 kgs more than those who didn’t drink water. Another study looked at how people tend to gain weight as they get older. This study was carried out over 4 years. Those who had a higher intake of water and those who substituted their sugar-sweetened beverage consumption with water were less likely to put on weight over the years. To drink or not to drinkIf you are on a diet to lose weight, you will definitely be keeping an eye on your calories on your plate. But remember to watch your fluid intake as well!Here’s a quick list of what you should drink and what you should stay a mile away from, when losing weight.Keep these at reach:Water: If you’ve read this article, then you are already aware of how important and healthy it is to drink water and stay hydrated, when trying to lose weight100% fruit juice: make sure you check the label first. Fruit juice often comes with added sugars and those can be high in calorie, though high in nutritive valueVegetable juice: While vegetable juice is often as nutritious as fruit juices, they often come with fewer calories and a lot of fibreSkimmed or low-fat milk: by giving you the goodness of calcium with far less calories, the low fat milk option is much better than whole milk, when on a diet.Black coffee: coffee is a good source of anti-oxidants and largely calorie-free, just as long as it’s black.Green tea: another great source of antioxidants, green tea may also aid weight lossStay away fromCarbonated drinks: high in calories and low in nutrition, it’s best to avoid these – whether you’re on a diet or notFruit juices with sugar: some fruit juices have as much sugar added as carbonated drinks. Make sure you check the labels before buying theseEnergy drinks: once again, check the label on these products first. While energy drinks provide a boost of much-needed energy, they are often high calorie drinksAlcohol: alcohol is high in calories, and that is without counting the fried snacks or nuts that usually accompany a glass of alcoholAccording to a study, drinking 500 ml of water before every meal could help weight loss.

Sports Injuries In Young Athletes - An Overview

Dr. Senthilvelan.R, Orthopedist
The prevalence of injuries in young athletes is on the rise as more and more young children take upon more intense sports training. There are multi factorial reasons which contribute to overuse injuries in young athletes. Targeted interventions are necessary in prevention of these injuries.Children have numerous benefits when they stay active and physically fit by participating in sports, however there is concern regarding safety of intense sports participation of young athletes. Almost 1/3rd to 50 percent of injuries in this age group is as a result of overuse.Chronic overuse injuries are generally defined as injuries that occur because of increased levels of physiological stress without sufficient recovery time. A number of prevention strategies are available to prevent which target the athlete's neuro-muscular control mechanisms to reduce the likelihood of injury.Numbers of extrinsic risk factors are often implicated in over use injuries. These can occur in a number of scenarios. In the first scenario the athlete may attempt to rapidly increase training load after period of inactivity and this could result in stress fractures. In this situation the body does not have enough time to adapt to higher level of stress and is not adequately prepared to dissipate repetitive forces.A second scenario is when an athlete attempts to participate at a level that exceeds individual’s skill level. There could be potential mismatch between skill and fitness level to that of imposed physical demand and can potentially lead to injury.Coaches or PT masters at school should understand the physical fitness levels of children at school and design training in a  way to provide appropriate progression of training.Ways to prevent Overuse injuries:1. A young athlete needs to be assessed in regards to readiness of running and his/hers relative risk of running related injury. Determining the fitness level before running, length of running and prior running injuries and previous sports needs to be documented.2. Modifying training volumes for athletes who have recently undergone growth spurts are recommended to reduce stress on growing bones.3. Provision of individualized training programs taking into account their fitness level, and injuries._______________________________________________________________________________________

6 Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries

Mr. Kaleem Mohammed, Physiotherapist
Most of us like to play some or the other sports. As long as we are injury free, it is always great fun, but sometimes sports injuries may take place, which can be a bummer!Sports injuries are commonly classified into trauma/acute injuries and overuse/stress injuries. The difference between the two is simple. Trauma injuries are due to a sudden twist or pull, or any other impact. Stress or overuse injuries occur when a part of our body is over-exercised without enough rest in between.Many lists describe the most common sports injuries in men. These lists have minor disagreements, but in general, they agree that the most frequent sports injuries are sprains (tearing of ligaments) and strains (over-stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons). Bruises or contusions are also a common result of trauma, but bruises rarely cause serious complications.Most common sports injuries include:BruisesKnee joint injuries: Pain, swelling, and stiffness ligaments or tendons injuriesAnkle sprain: Sprain, strains, fractures.Cuts and abrasionsDehydration: Excessive fluid loss causes heat exhaustion and heat stroke.Groin pull/strain: Symptoms include pain and swelling.Hamstring strain: Symptoms are a pain, swelling and bruising.Stress fractures: The impact of repeated jumps or running on hard surfaces can stress and break bones.Playing sports is much fun. Getting hurt is not.Follow these 6 steps to prevent injuries so you can stay in the game:1. Warm UpIt is not a good concept to just bolt on to the field and start playing. You should not even start stretching until you are a little warmed up. So take a light jog to get loosened up and ready to play. Increasing the heart rate and circulation; this loosens the joints and increases blood circulation to the muscles. Full-Body Stretch helps muscles to prepare them for physical activity and prevents injuries.2. Wear Protective GearProtective gears are anything you wear that helps keep you from injuries. The gear you use depends on the type of sports.The helmet is a most frequently used protective shield. It keeps you safe from head injuries when you are playing football, cricket, ice hockey, or baseball. Make sure you are wearing the right and comfortable helmet for your sport. Other sports require eye protection, mouth guards, pads, wrist, elbow, and knee guards, and a protective cup (for boys only). Moreover, don't forget your feet. Shin-guards are a must have gear for preventing trauma induced fractures in sports such as soccer and hockey.3. Proper healthy nutritionHealthy nutrition can enhance sporting performance because protein rich diet should provide enough protein to promote muscle mass growth and injury repair. Water is an excellent choice of fluid for athletes to help performance and prevent dehydration. Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like whole grain bread and cereals, should form the basis of the diet.4. Early intervention and restMost of the sports injuries such as painful pulled muscle or sprains and strains are treated immediately with R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol.Many sports physical therapists and athletes remember this short-form to help with sports injuries.Rest (minimizes motion and pressure over of the injured joint)Icing (apply an ice pack) to reduce pain and swelling and decrease blood flow to injured areaCompression (light pressure wrap to stop bleeding and swelling)Elevation (to drain the fluids from injured area to prevent swelling)5. Slow-fast-slow RhythmDuring physical activities, adding interval (slow-fast-slow) training into your exercise routine helps to improve your heart’s ability to beat at a high rate for prolonged periods. That is a real plus for your aerobic fitness. Moreover, oxygen is circulated in your body at a slower rate, so it increases your ability for a longer stay during workouts. The simple rule is that always warm up before any sports or exercise, and always cool down at the end by gently stretching your muscles and breathing out slowly.Further, when starting any weight bearing exercise after a while, always take precaution that you do not start off with a heavyweight, but a much lighter one that you can easily exercise with. Don’t worry if anyone is looking!If you manage to follow these simple five rules, you can easily avoid most types of sports injuries and continue to enjoy the sports you like.6. Do not over-stretch yourselfIt is critical to take part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits. When you begin a new sport, begin steadily and slowly to avoid muscle pull. If you have not undertaken a strenuous exercise for some time, it is especially crucial to building up your endurance and strength gradually to avoid injury. It is essential when taking part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits.

Successful Surgery and Your Nutrition

Dr. Shreedhar Archik, Orthopedist
“Doctor, any dietary restrictions?”  Or Doctor, “what should I eat to prevent infection after surgery?”…and so on…I get bombarded by different questions but the baseline anxiety is same “food’ and its implications on surgical outcome.Nutrition and diet is a vast subject.Let’s see how our nutrition affects our surgical outcome.If you have undergone any surgery in the past you will easily recollect a list of investigations given to you by the doctor before the surgery is scheduled. I will try and decipher how these investigations matter to your surgical result. Complete blood count or CBC as it is known popularly is the commonest test ordered.  Our hemoglobin level is the first indicator of our wellbeing. In Indian population a level of 12 gm. % is considered normal. If you don’t suffer from any specific illness and are otherwise healthy then you should be around this level. Patients generally have more complications if their starting hemoglobin is low. One might argue that why not use a blood transfusion to increase the level of hemoglobin. Blood transfusion lowers your immunity and it has its own risks like transmitting diseases. I might go ahead and say “avoid blood transfusions at all costs unless it is lifesaving i.e. one has sustained a major injury and is bleeding profusely and without a timely blood transfusion is likely to die.In routine elective surgery it is always better to wait and get the hemoglobin up by taking tablets and /or injections.Message1: Don’t undergo an elective surgery with a hemoglobin of less than 10Your serum albumin level is another good marker of malnutrition. A level of <3.5 of albumin means you are severely malnourished and the likely hood of complications after surgery is very high. This is commonly found in elderly patients for obvious reasons. This level can be brought up by consuming proteins. However this should be done under a doctor’s supervision. Someone with a bad kidney can further damage his/her kidney by loading it with proteins.Message2: Don’t undergo an elective surgery with a albumin of less than 3.5Under the heading of CBC you will also see a lymphocyte count. Your immunity level is shown by this count. A lower lymphocyte count means your immunity or the ability to fight an infection is reduced. A lymphocyte count less than 20% should ring alarm bells.Message3: Don’t undergo a routine surgery if your lymphocyte count is <20%Mind you these are general guidelines and things will vary on a lot of factors. E.g. someone with rheumatoid arthritis is very likely to have low hemoglobin. It is always better to consult your treating surgeon. However, use these guidelines for a safe surgery.

9 Best Foods to Eat Before Workout

Dr. Richa Garg, Ayurveda
Most of us often wonder about the foods to eat before yoga/workout/walk. Especially, if you are a beginner, it is better to know what works and what doesn't work as far as diet before your workout class is concerned.Here is a list:1. JuicesYou can consume juices that contain fruits or vegetables as a part of your diet. You can get rid of the toxins in your body with the help of these juices. Also, you can feel refreshed after consuming them. Try to go for cucumber, celery, amla, aloe vera or spinach in your juices.2. BananasBananas are rich in fibre and Potassium. Also, they are gentle on your stomach and they give you energy for your yoga practice. Consume 2 bananas at least an hour before your practice.3. ApplesThe best thing about apples is that they contain some amount of sugar which can energise you a bit. They also supply fibre and vitamins. They can also hydrate you a bit which is important before a workout.4. RaisinsNatural sugars are always preferable over other forms of sugar. Raisins can energise you before the yoga class with their natural sweetness.5. AlmondsIf you wish to keep it simple, but healthy, eat a few almonds before your yoga class. Apart from supplying your body with Magnesium and Potassium, they also supply vitamins and ensure that your stamina levels stay high.6. Water-melonThey hydrate you and also energise you before you get ready for your yoga class. Enjoy a water melon which helps you enjoy your workout.7. OatmealIf you want some snack that contains healthy carbs before your practice session, choose oatmeal. It is easily digestible and a healthy carb-source.8. YogurtIf you are not lactose intolerant, try a bowl of yogurt with fresh fruits before workout. It cools down your system and also provides some proteins to your system.9. ApricotsApricots, dried ones, act as energizers before your yoga workout. You can carry them easily in your pocket if you are heading somewhere else for your practice.

Energy Drink Which Is Actually Healthy!

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
These days a lot of people for better health, higher energy, more strength and fitness are, adding health drinks in their diet to improve their daily nutrition intake. We have put together a simple analysis on which are the popular health drinks in the market and which one is the healthiest energy drink of the lot. The three most popular health energy drink brands are horlicks, bournvita and complan. All of them claim to enhance growth, provide added nutrition and even promoted as meal replacement option as they carry sufficient nutrition to compensate for a single meal.Reading the nutrition label of the best selling health energy drinks we found that the base of all the three health drinks are nearly same when compared to their carbohydrate, fat and sugar value. We require carbohydrates for energy, protein for muscle building, fat for basic functions etc. The health drinks contain a large number of vitamins and minerals which improve the cell functions in the body. Below are the nutrition content of horlicks, bournvita and complanComplan: Milk protein – 18 gms; Fat – 11 gms; Carbohydrate – 62 gms of which sucrose is 27 gm.Bournvita: Protein – 7 gms; Fat – 2 gms; Carbohydtare- 84 gms of which sugar is 70.3 gm.Horlicks: Fat – 2 gms; Carbohydtare- 79.2 gms of which sugar is 13.5 gm.The major portion of the health drink is carbohydrates that easily breakdown in our bodies to provide energy. The carbohydrates can be simple sugar like sucrose and glucose which instantly breakdown in our body to produce energy. Bournvita has highest amount of sugar and carbohydrates in total. Though each health drink is fortifies with important vitamins and minerals like iron, b vitamins, vitamin a, d and e which has various functions in the body is is beneficial. Horlicks contains the least sugar as compared to other healthy energy drink and contains fiber of the grain which is healthy for the stomach.Things need to be notedThese energy drinks are mostly consumed with milk and carry sufficient amount of fortified nutrition. Even though they highlight the vitamins and minerals on the packaging in reality carbohydrate is the major component of these health drinks. People who are looking to lose weight should avoid health drinks and look for more natural foods like fruits and vegetables which are packed with vitamins and minerals and are low in calories as compared to any other food.Bottom LineWe require only 4 teaspoon of sugar in day and anything above it gets stored as fat in our body. Carbohydrates also convert into glucose and provide energy to the body. Extra sugar in our diet increases blood sugar levels in the body reducing insulin activity and leading to long term health hazards and metabolic disorder like diabetes etc. Sugar leads to heart problems, weight gain and causes multiple problems in the body.So if you're really adding any of these powder in your milk, be specific with the proportion. Unheaped single teaspoon without added sugar is the best way to have it.

5 Important Things to Prevent Sports Injuries

Dr. Shekhar Srivastav, Orthopedist
Sports is being taken up by more & more people especially young ones as hobby & profession. With Gyms & fitness centres mushrooming across the country, there is a rush among general population to train hard becoming physically fit. Being fit definitely increases the productivity & also makes the person feel good about themselves. But this has also seen a spurt in sports related injuries in these group of people. Most common cause of injuries are due to overuse. These can be avoided if certain simple rules are followed.You cannot become fit overnight by starting exercises and pushing your body beyond its limit to get quick results. Most athletes & sports persons have years of training & hard work behind them to reach this level. Increase the intensity & duration of your exercises gradually in a phased manner to get desired result.Warm-up- Proper warm-up before starting any sports is essential to prevent injury. Warm-up increases the blood flow to the muscles, stretches muscles, increases flexibility to prevent injuries.Strengthening- Strengthening of required muscles is essential for balance & power during the sporting activity. Weak muscles may increase the stress on other parts of the body leading to problems.Stretching- Stiff joints are more prone to injuries during sports. Stretching of ligaments & tendons & flexibility of joints can prevent that.Rest- Rest is very important to allow the tissues to repair & recover. One should always have a rest day in a week in your training schedule to allow your tissues to heal.