Articles on medical ultrasonography

"Aging Is a Fact of Life but Looking of Your Age Is Not"

Dr Deepali Agarwal
YOUNG FOREVER : ANTI-AGING TECHNIQUE FOR BODY AND SOULHIFU   a  noninvasive treatment High Intensity Focused Ultrasound to uplift and tone loose skin.It is  new advanced technique  which gives remarkable results in skin rejuvenation and tightening treatment.The ultrasonic waves  generate heat to contract collagen and skin connective tissue down to the muscle level resulting in uplift and tightening of skin.HIFU is a very targeted treatment , hence will not harm or disturb the other area of the skin.It gives high satisfaction to the patients and is a totally non-invasive technique.It has a high peak power,shortening procedure time.Instant result will be checked from the second month to the ninth month ,good result will last 2-3 years.HIFU basically stimulates the  cells for collagen production and reach the deepest layer causing the shrinkage of SMAS layer .With just one treatment ,HIFU pushes mature skin to start working hard again .Smoother, firmer, and brighter skin in a few months after treatment.This treatment specifically targets deep foundation below the skin that is addressed in cosmetic surgery without cutting or disrupting the surface of skin.It is also the only procedure to use ultrasound imaging to actually see the layers of tissue we target during treatment and ensure the energy is deposited precisely to where it will be most effective. HIFU uses tried–and-true technology , which has received FDA and Health Canada Clearance for use in this new type of medical procedure.HIFU has:•No disfiguring• No downtime•No risk of infection•No post operative pain• No hospital stayHIFU IS:• One time Treatment• Real-time US guided Procedure  • 3D-con-formal treatment• Non-invasive face lifting• Day Care basis• Low overall cost• Enhancement of quality of life"YOU CANT HELP GETTING OLDER BUT YOU DON'T HAVE TO GET OLD"

Fibroid in Uterus Doesn’t Always Mean Hysterectomy (Removal of Uterus)

Dr. Mohini Vachhani, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Hello ladies! I am Dr Mohini Vachhani a Gynaecologist who is going to be regularly updating you with the medical news.Today I am going to talk about fibroid in the uterus. Ladies don’t get anxious and worried if your Ultrasound or in other words Sonography report says fibroid is found in the uterus.Fibroids are non-cancerous masses of the muscles of the Uterus. 20% of women, which means one in 5 women, suffer from fibroids.Although the actual cause of fibroids is not known, increased level of Oestrogen hormone in the body is associated with increased growth of fibroids. After menopause secretion of oestrogen by ovaries reduces and this causes shrinkage of fibroids.A fibroid may present itself in various ways. There may not be any complaints by the patient and fibroid is accidentally diagnosed on ultrasound examination. It is well known that a fibroid may get undetected from “womb to tomb.” There may be heavy prolonged bleeding with passage of clots (Menorrhagia) resulting in anaemia. There may be a presence of a lump in the abdomen which presents as a firm irregular mass arising from lower abdomen. The fibroid can cause pressure on bladder giving frequent urination. Pressure on rectum gives rise to diarrhoea or constipation. Pressure on the nerves in the back results in Sciatica pain, which starts from back and goes down the leg to the feet. Patient can get continuous dull ache due to changes called “degeneration” in the fibroid. Also presence of fibroid can result in Infertility or even repeated miscarriages. Very very rarely (one in a thousand) a cancerous change called “sarcoma” starts but it happens only when fibroid grows rapidly. The investigations that are necessary consist of a physical examination of abdomen and gynaecological check-up. An Ultrasound or Sonography examination will confirm a fibroid. A blood examination to check for Anaemia and for Thyroid Function is necessary as Hypothyroidism is associated with heavy periods also.Endometrial sampling (biopsy of lining of the uterus) is done to rule out cancer. Traditionally D & C is performed using general anaesthesia and sample is sent for histology. However, at “In Sync Gynae Care” we offer one-stop Menorrhagia Clinic where history, gynaecological examination, pelvic Ultrasonography and endometrial sampling is done in one sitting without the need for either anaesthesia or going to a hospital.The management of a fibroid depends on the symptoms suffered by a woman.  If the fibroid is diagnosed on ultrasound examination done for some other purpose and woman has no problem, there is no need to take any action. However annual sonography is necessary to keep check on the size of fibroid.A woman with symptoms needs to get treated. Anaemic patient with low haemoglobin requires Iron supplements. To stop bleeding, non-operative, operative and very recently destruction of lining of uterus by “hot water balloon,” “Novasure” or even MRI-guided ultrasound treatment is available.First line of medical treatment is Hormonal or Non-hormonal oral tablets.  Second line of treatment is use of hormone containing coil inside the uterus which releases continuous hormone to shrink the fibroid. Third line is use of injections every one month to shrink the fibroid. Non-operative line of treatment is offered in mild symptoms or when uterus is necessary for a woman to have more babies or when circumstances of women do not allow her for operation or she is approaching menopausal age. Surgical treatment includes removal of fibroid using Hysteroscope i.e. using a camera inside the uterus, with no cut on abdomen or by Laparoscope that is with a cut on the abdomen and camera is put inside the abdomen; destroying lining of the womb by “hot water balloon,” “microwave rays” or “Thermal Novasure Ablation;” shrinking the fibroid by blocking the blood supply to fibroid, by method of “embolisation.” Another new and effective way of destroying lining of womb is with the use of high intensity magnetic resonance guided ultrasound that does not breach the skin. It is delivered in an outpatient setting with minimal sedation and the woman can return to work the next day. Then there is also the possibility of Hysterectomy, which is the removal of uterus with fibroid. This can be done either by vaginal route where a cut is made in the vagina or by abdominal route when a cut is made on abdomen. Newer methods are through keyhole surgery where 2-3 small cuts are made in the abdomen and camera and instruments are inserted through the openings. This is called Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.In summary, Ladies, once a fibroid is confirmed by Ultrasound, management option depends on what is the need of hour. If woman has no complaints and diagnosis is coincidental then there is no need to take action. However, she should have an annual follow up with the scan. If woman is in late 40s or early 50s and bleeding is not a major problem, i.e. she is not severely anaemic and bleeding does not affect her lifestyle, she can be managed with medical drugs. However, if she is in her 30s or 40s and her family is complete, fibroid is large and it affects her lifestyle and she is anaemic, surgical management is an option after failure of trial of medical management.So in short, diagnosis of a fibroid on Sonography does not always mean removal of uterus.

First Aid/first Line Management in Important Medical Illnesses

Dr. Shashank Kumar Srivastav, General Practitioner
ELECTRIC SHOCK:--Turn off the source of electricity or move away the source using wood, card board or plastic board.-If burn injury is present, remove the clothing and rinse burnt area under cool running water for 10 minutes.-Make the affected person lie down and elevate his legs.-Do NOT throw water on the person or on the source of current.-Cover the person with a light blanket.-Call for ambulance immediately.CONVULSIONS:--Stay calm and composed.-Clear the surrounding area around the person.– Make a cushion below his/her head with something soft like blankets, jacket, sweater etc.-Note the time convulsion started.-Do NOT try to place anything in his/her mouth.-Do NOT try to restrict his/her movements or keep his/her jaws open.-Call for ambulance immediately or visit the doctor.NOSE BLEED/EPISTAXIS:--Sit upright and tilt your head FORWARD to allow drainage.-Pinch nose bridge firmly using thumb and index finger till bleeding stops.-Breath through your mouth.-Do NOT put anything inside the nose.-Loosen any tight clothing around the neck.-Place ice pack on forehead or around neck.-Check if bleeding has stopped after 10 minutes.-If bleeding persists, visit doctor immediately.EYE INJURY:--Do NOT rub the affected eye/eyes.-Wash hands thoroughly before touching the eyes.-If there is a suspected contact with chemical or foreign body, wash eyes with cold water for about 5-10 minutes.-If its a blow to the eye, apply ice pack and visit the doctor.-If eye looks red, there is pain, blurring of vision, visit a doctor.HIGH GRADE FEVER (above 102 degree F)--Monitor the temperature with thermometer.-Make the person rest in a comfortable cool temperature under a fan or an air conditioner.-If the person has chills, cover him/her with light clothing. -Give 500 mg paracetamol every 6 hourly round the clock.-Give the person sponge bath with lukewarm water.-Make him/her drink plenty of water or cool drinks.-If fever does not subside in 24 hours, visit a doctor.-If the temperature is over 106oF, call for an ambulance or rush the person to hospital.SUSPECTED STROKE/PARALYSIS:-Make the person sit/lie in a comfortable position.-Call for an ambulance or rush the person to hospital.If the person is unconscious-Make the person lie on his/her left side (recovery position) with head and shoulders supported.-Loosen any tight clothing around his/her neck and calm the patient.-Try to maintain breathing, if needed with open mouth.-Do NOT make the person eat or drink anything.-Call for an ambulance or rush the person to hospital immediately.ACUTE ATTACK OF ASTHMA:--Calm down the person and do not leave him/her alone.-Make the patient rest in a comfortable upright position.-Loosen any tight clothing around chest, neck area.-Get into well ventilated, open area.-If inhaler is handy, give 4 puffs of inhaler, at intervals of 1 minute.-If the person does not feel better, give another set of 4 puffs.-If the person is not relieved and feels dizzy, call ambulance immediately.

The 4 Most Faqs Regarding Liposuction

Dr. Sameer Karkhanis
1) Who are the best candidates for liposuction?The best candidates for liposuction are normal-weight people with firm, elastic skin who have pockets of excess fat in certain areas. You should be physically healthy, psychologically stable and realistic in your expectations. Before you decide to have surgery, think carefully about your expectations and discuss them with your surgeon. Age is not a major consideration; however, older patients may have diminished skin elasticity and may not achieve the same results as a younger patient with tighter skin. Liposuction carries greater risk for individuals with medical problems such as diabetes, significant heart or lung disease, poor blood circulation, or those who have recently had surgery near the area to be contoured.2) Should I diet and exercise to lose weight before or after liposuction?People about 25 – 30% above their ideal weight are candidates for body contouring surgeries. Liposuction is an excellent way to change body contours, but it is most effective when the treatment can be focused on a few problematic areas. Therefore, Liposuction is best used as a treatment for diet-resistant areas of fat rather than diffuse collections of fat.3) Is liposuction an alternative for diet and exercise?Liposuction is not an alternative for diet and exercise. The number of litres of fat that should be removed through surgery is limited. The international norm is set at 8 – 10% of the total body weight. When somebody is excessively overweight, diet and exercise should be their first priority. Liposuction is not a treatment for obesity its a body contouring/sculpting procedure.4) What happens if I gain weight after liposuction?When fat cells are removed through liposuction, those cells never return. If the patient consumes more calories than are burned, those extra calories are stored as fat in the remaining cells. The areas treated with liposuction will never be as prominent as they would have been, but the patient is likely to have a generalized increase in size. Weight gain after surgery should be avoided.More Detail Please Visit Our WebSite :- www.cosmeticssurgerycentre.com

How Much Fat Can Be Removed Through Liposuction?

Dr. Harikiran Chekuri
Often we face problem with unwanted fat accumulation in some specific areas of our body that are hard to get rid of. Stubborn solid fats in and around our waists, stomach, hips, love handles are often resistant to exercises. Controlled diet and hours of rigorous workouts only add up to our frustration. Liposuction can be answer to all these stubborn body fats.Thinking of liposuction, we are may feel a little bit skeptical. We know that it is an invasive procedure that comes with some amount of discomfort. But is the discomfort really worth taking? How much fat can we get rid off through this procedure? Questions like these will certainly bother us. This article is a small initiative that can clear your doubts and mold your expectations related to liposuction and fat loss.The amount of fat loss through liposuction depends on various factors like the area of the body from where the fat is to be removed, the health, age, body structure and expectation of the patient etc. However, from the medical perspective and as per the widely accepted standards, not more than 6000 ml which is nearly 12lb of fat/fluid can be extracted in a single session. It must be noted that 12lb of fat removed from the body does not mean that the patient will lose 12lb in a single session. 12lb of fat, blood and body fluid will be extracted from the body.What if more fat is removed is a single session? Removing more than 6000 ml of fat at a single session may lead to serious life-threatening consequences. Though there have been significant improvement in the techniques of liposuction in the last decade; still removing more fat at a single go will cast adverse effect on the health of the patient. ‘Over-sucked’ patients may have ugly lumps or hollow dimples on the ‘sucked’ area. Patients who undergo extraction of fat beyond the recommended standard in a single session may experience infections, reactions related to the use of anaesthesia, formation of blood clots and seromas (small pockets formed due to the accumulation of blood and fluid), dehydration-induced shock and so on.Can liposuction help to achieve an hour glass figure?Liposuction can definitely do a lot in sculpting a perfect figure. Extracting excess fat from the love handles, tummy and waist may lead to a perfect figure. However, this entirely depends upon the body structure of the patient and the amount of removable fat in the body. Some people who have a wider waist structure may not benefit much from liposuction. Liposuction works on extracting fat from under the skin but cannot rectify the bone structure. The doctor is the best person to answer all queries related to liposuction and having a perfect figure. A thorough examination needs to be conducted before opting for liposuction. Consult a liposuction expert to know about the chances of getting into a perfect figure.To know more about liposuction, visit : http://www.redefineu.in/

Choice Between Surgical and Medical Abortion

Dr. Niraj Mahajan, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
There are two methods by which abortion can be doneMedical Abortion -non-surgical abortion in which medicines are used to induce abortionSurgical Abortion - Use of trans-cervical procedures for terminating pregnancy, including vacuum aspiration, and dilatation and evacuation (D&E).Surgical or Medical Abortion for Unwanted PregnancyIf pregnancy is <= 7 weeks; medical Method with Mifepristone with misoprostol is favorable as success rate is as high as 97%.If pregnancy is between 7-12 weeks; surgical abortion is the only option.If pregnancy is beyond 12 weeks – 20 weeks, then woman needs to be hopsitalized and will be given either Mifepristone followed by Misoprostol tablet or only misoprostol tablets and woman will then abort like a miscarriage in the Hospital. If any products are remaining then it will be evacuated surgically.Surgical abortion is preferred if patient desires concurrent tubal ligation or IUCD (CuT) insertion.If a woman fulfills the criteria for selecting either method i.e. Before 7 weeks), final choice to be given to the woman.Summary of Choice between Surgical or Medical abortion in India<= 7 weeks – Medical method or Surgical method7-12 weeks – Surgical abortion 12 – 20 weeks – Medicines with or without surgical procedure in Hospital.Advantages of Medical AbortionAvoids surgery. Controlled by the woman and may take place at home. No need for admission to the Hospital. Usually well tolerated by women if properly counselled and motivated. No need to take leave from work, as bleeding can be manged with menstrual pads even while in office or at work.Disadvantages of Medical abortionTakes time (hours to days) to complete abortion, and the timing may not be predictable. Women experience bleeding and cramping, and potentially some other side-effects (nausea, vomiting, fever, and shivering). May require more clinic visits than surgical abortion.Advantages of Surgical AbortionQuick procedure. Complete abortion easily verified by evaluation of aspirated products of conception. Takes place in a Hospital so Sterilization or placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be performed at the same time as the procedure. It can be performed under local anaesthesia if woman is properly motivated and counselled.Disadvantages of Surgical abortionRequires instrumentation of the uterus. Small risk of uterine or cervical injury. Timing of abortion controlled by the Doctor and Hospital. Anaesthesia needs to be administered. Most doctors perform this procedure under short general anaesthesia. Woman needs to be in the Hospital for at least 6 hours. Effect of sedation will be there through out the day.

Facts About Homoeopathy

Dr. C Sundara Alagappan, Homeopath
Homoeopathy is a medical science developed by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), a German physician. It is based on the principle that “like cures like”. In simple words, it means that any substance, which can produce symptoms in a healthy person, can cure similar symptoms in a person who is sick. This idea is referred to as the “Law of Similar”, and was understood by Aristotle and Hippocrates and mentioned in ancient Hindu manuscripts. It was Hahnemann, however, who turned it into a science of healing.Here are examples of this principle:An onion is a substance which makes your eyes water and your nose burn. If you are having an attack of hay fever with watering eyes and a burning nose, a homoeopathic remedy made from onion can relieve it.Poison ivy causes redness, intense itching, burning, blistering and sometimes stiff muscles. Homoeopathically it has been used for everything from herpes and burns to eczema and arthritis.When you are stung by a bee you feel a burning, stinging pain and the tissues surrounding the area swell up. Some relief is gained from applying cold to the area. If you had swollen tonsils with burning and stinging pain relieved by cold, a homoeopathic remedy prepared from the same source could cure.Currently there are three thousand substances used as homoeopathic remedies to treat everything from colds and cough to arthritis and cancer.A second principle of homoeopathy is that you should give the least amount of medicine necessary to evoke a healing response. This is called the “Minimum Dose”. We all know that normal medicines can cause side effects, leading to much suffering or even death. In an effort to prevent side effects, Hahnemann began successive dilution with agitation of his medicines, to find the point at which they would be therapeutic, but not toxic.Homoeopathy’s Track RecordYou may be wondering what kind of track record homoeopathy has for treating serious diseases. A look at the past will establish that homoeopathy has proven itself reliable and is often much more effective than conventional treatment.The worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918 killed 22 million people worldwide and 500,000 in the U.S. The death rate was 30% or higher for those treated conventionally, while homoeopaths cured an amazing 98% of their cases!During the Cholera and Typhus epidemics in Europe from the 1860’s to early 1900’s, people using homoeopathy had survival rates 50% or greater than those treated by conventional medicine.In an epidemic of Typhus in Leipzig (1813), Dr. Hahnemann treated 180 cases of Typhus, losing only two patients. Mortality rates for conventional treatment were over 30%.During the cholera epidemic of 1849 in Cincinnati, with survival rates between 40 -52%, those treated by homoeopathy had a 97% survival rate. These results were published in the local newspapers.PreventionHomoeopathy has also proven itself invaluable in preventing illness. In 1957 polio epidemic in Buenos Aires, the homoeopathic remedy Lathers was given to thousands of people. Not one case of polio was reported in these individuals.In 1974 epidemic of meningococcal meningitis in Brazil, 18,640 children were given a homoeopathic remedy for prevention. Only 4 cases of meningitis occurred in these children.In the smallpox epidemic of 1902 in Iowa, the homoeopathic remedy Variolinum was given preventively to 2,806 patients of 15 doctors. The protection rate was 97%.Homoeopathy TodayThe World Health Organization estimates that homoeopathy is used by 500 million people worldwide, making it the second most widely used medicine in the world.In England, France, Germany and the Netherlands, homoeopathy is included in the National Health Service.In France, 18,000 physicians prescribe homoeopathic remedies. There are seven medical schools offering post grad degrees in homoeopathy and all 23,000 pharmacies carry homoeopathic remedies.In England, 42% of British physicians refer patients to homoeopaths. The Royal family has used used homoeopathy for three generations. There are currently five homoeopathic hospitals, and the oldest, the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital, has been there for 100 years.India has over 70,000 board certified homoeopathic physicians, hundreds of homoeopathic hospitals and clinics and many homoeopathic medical schools.In Germany, 20% of Physicians prescribe homoeopathic remedies.In the Netherlands, 45% of physicians consider homoeopathy effective.Homoeopathy is also practiced in Vienna, Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Pakistan, Greece, and Belgium.Well known people who have used homoeopathyThe Royal family since 1830’s. Queen Elizabeth is patron of the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Mahatma Gandhi, Wm.James, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Daniel Webster, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Samuel F. Morse, John D.Rockefeller.Gandhi: “Homoeopathy..Cures a larger percentage of cases than any other method …and is beyond all doubt safer, more economical and the most complete medical scienceHow Homoeopathy worksHippocrates 'The Father of Medicine' of Ancient Greece said there were two Laws of Healing: The Law of Opposites and the Law of Similars. Homoeopathy treats the patient with medicines using the Law of Similars, orthodox medicine uses the Law of Opposites, e.g. antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics.Homoeopathic theories are based on fixed principles of the Laws of Nature which do not change -- unlike medical theories which are constantly changing!Homoeopathy is an evidence-based, empirical medicine. Homoeopathy is both an art and a science. The Homoeopathic proving of medicines are a more scientific method of testing than the orthodox model. Homoeopathic medicine awakens and stimulates the body's own curative powers. The potentized remedy acts as a catalyst to set healing into motion.Homoeopathic medicines work by communicating a current/pattern/frequency of energy via the whole human body to jump start the body's own inherent healing mechanisms. Homoeopathy assists the body to heal itself, to overcome an illness which brings the patient to a higher level of health. Orthodox medicine suppresses the illness, bringing the patient to a lower level of health. The Homoeopathic practitioner endeavors to search for and treat the cause of the disease in order to heal the effect. Outcomes of Homoeopathic treatment are measured by the long term curative effects of prescribing and complete eradication of the disease state.The Homoeopathic practitioner treats the whole person, believing all symptoms are interrelated and seeks to select a medicine which most closely covers them all.

All You Need to Know About Liposuction!

Dr. Aamod Rao
The benefits of removing excess fat can be enormous, literally and figuratively! Liposuction is among the cosmetic surgery procedures with the highest rate of patient satisfaction. Many patients experience an immediate improvement in their self-esteem and overall confidence.Liposuction may be performed alone or with plastic surgery procedures such as a face and neck lift, breast reduction or tummy tuck. The procedure was first performed in 1974 and there have been many advances in techniques over the enduing 38 years, making it one of the most predictable and popular body-contouring surgeries in the world. Who is a suitable candidate?The ideal liposuction candidate is at, or near their ideal weight, with good skin elasticity and is seeking reduction of diet- and exercise-resistant localised pockets of fat. Common sites include the upper arms, hips, outer thighs, abdomen, mid back, buttocks, knees, neck and chin. Some men have excess fatty tissue in and around the breast, or gynaecomastia, which can also be removed.Liposuction is not a way of losing weight. If you have excess loose skin, liposuction can actually make it worse. If this is the case, a surgical body lift procedure may be required instead. Your surgeon will advise the best options. It should also be noted that liposuction does not improve cellulite (the dimpled appearance of the skin of commonly seen on the buttocks and thighs) or stretch marks (caused by pregnancy or rapid weight gain). What does it involve?Liposuction surgically removes deposits of subcutaneous fat from specific areas of the body such as the thighs, hips, abdomen, buttocks, knees, upper arms, neck and chin. While the terms are often used interchangeably, liposculpture implies more subtle shaping and contouring. There are generally three ways to remove the fat: the traditional cannula method, the syringe technique and the energy-assisted method, which can further be broken into numerous sub-categories. The basic procedure involves the insertion of a small tube-like instrument, called a cannula, into the layer of subcutaneous fat via tiny incisions made by the surgeon. The cannula is connected to a clear plastic hose that leads to a suction source. The surgeon moves in a specific pattern through the fat layer to break up fat cells, which are then vacuumed or suctioned out.The overlying skin remains attached to the connective tissue and underlying muscles of the skin during the operation. A thin blanket of fat is left under the skin to help prevent rippling or bumpy skin occurring afterwards.There are two main layers of subcutaneous fat: superficial and deep. Liposuction is primarily focused on the deeper layer of fat, since suctioning is thought to be safer and easier there. Suctioning in the superficial layer allows the surgeon to achieve subtle benefits in the procedure but, because of its proximity to blood vessels and nerve endings, it can increase the risk of contour irregularities and injury to the skin. Some surgeons believe superficial liposuction enhances skin retraction. Although the cannula is designed to slide through fat tissue and cause minimum damage to blood vessels and nerves, some may be injured during the procedure. If only a small amount of fat and a limited number of body sites are involved, liposuction can be performed under local anaesthetic, usually in conjunction with intravenous sedation. If a large volume of fat is being removed, some patients prefer general anaesthetic. In addition to fat, body fluid is also removed during the procedure. Because of this, patients are given fluids intravenously during the operation.The aim of liposuction is to decrease the bulk of fat in a specific area, but not to remove all fat. Removing too much can cause loose skin and surface irregularities. Depending on the size and number of the areas being treated, as well as the technique employed by the surgeon, the procedure can last from around 1-5 hours.

How to Diagnose Heart Attack ?

Dr. Nishith Chandra, Cardiologist
Heart Attack is  caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. SymptomsThe tell tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:- chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region- pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm- nausea and vomiting - profuse sweating - difficulty breathing - dizzy or fuzzy feeling - tired, extreme fatigue- anxious, apprehensive feeling However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.DiagnosisOnce you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis. In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following two tests will be performed.1. Electrocardiogram (ecg): a 12-lead ecg will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity, which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.2. Blood tests: presence of certain enzymes in the blood, ck-mb and troponin are indicative of a heart attack. A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.ManagementOnce diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 1. Dissolve the clot - using blood thinners like aspirin & clopidogrel 2. Nitroglycerin - to dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles3. Anticoagulant therapy - blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.4. Drug therapy - blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors are also used5. Use of statins - statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required. Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.

Liposuction: The Most Misunderstood Surgery in the World

Dr Deepali Agarwal
The procedure involves fat removal but is not an alternative to dieting and exercise. It is not a means of weight reduction but body contouring and sculpting. Although following a good healthy diet and a daily exercise is a better idea but localized fatty deposits such as on thighs, hips and abdomen etc may be inherited traits and may not be corrected by just a good lifestyle. In such cases liposuction rather we should say liposculpting is a good option.Some fast facts about the surgery are as follows:The length of the surgery varies from 30minutes to 5 hours depending on the extent of fat removal.It is done under local anesthesia, intravenous sedation, epidural block or general anesthesia.The length of the stay at the hospital is usually 1 day.Initially there is mild to moderate discomfort. You can go back to work after 10 days but sternous exercises should be avoided for atleast a month.Most of the swelling subsides within a week while mild residual swelling goes after 3 months.The scars are minute and inconspicuously placed.Complications are possible but unlikely if done by a well trained and experienced plastic surgeon.To conclude would like to emphasize on the point that the success of the procedure lies in the understanding of the patient that the procedure is not for weight reduction but spot reduction i.e. localized fatty deposits. It is the most frequently done aesthetic procedure in the USA and worldwide which seems to be a truly magical procedure than any other aesthetic procedure.