Articles on plastic surgery

Cosmetic and Plastic Surgeries

Dr. Parthasarathi Dutta Roy, Dermatologist
Being beautiful and charming is very important in every stage of today’s life. Most of people become upset for not receiving attractive physical structure, nose alignment, slim physic and many more. But medical science creates revolution for establishing two significant surgeries named cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery. These are very helpful for treating any kinds of physical disorders.Effectiveness of Cosmetic and Plastic SurgeryThrough cosmetic surgery anybody can change their facial or body structure which is not desired. Plus from ageing lines to wrinkles can be reduced through method of cosmetic surgery.Plastic Surgery is basically used for reconstructing the facial or body features. Any kinds of birth defects, injury imperfection and disease feature can beautifully be repaired by plastic surgery.Features of Cosmetic SurgeryTwo types of cosmetic surgery are categorized in medical science- addition and deletion. Through cosmetic surgery with collagen injection something can be added for giving proper shape and size of the body parts if one is not satisfied with their parts, size and shape of the body. Breast augmentation and lips plumping are the best examples. Alternatively excess mass on some parts looks ugly; the cosmetic surgery helps to delete the volume to give the perfect shape.Procedures of Plastic Surgery:Many procedures can be performed through plastic surgery. But here are some most popular procedures which is remarkable possible to treat are described below.Breast Augmentation: The women having small breast can get beautiful and attractive big breast through breast augmentation procedure of plastic surgery.Rhinoplasty: Defect of nose can be treated through rhinoplasty.Blepharoplasty: To give redesign and shape of the eye lids, blepharoplasty is just incomparable plastic surgery.Liposuction: Excess fat is cut down through this liposuction procedure for giving attractive body structure.

Liposuction: The Most Misunderstood Surgery in the World

Dr Deepali Agarwal
The procedure involves fat removal but is not an alternative to dieting and exercise. It is not a means of weight reduction but body contouring and sculpting. Although following a good healthy diet and a daily exercise is a better idea but localized fatty deposits such as on thighs, hips and abdomen etc may be inherited traits and may not be corrected by just a good lifestyle. In such cases liposuction rather we should say liposculpting is a good option.Some fast facts about the surgery are as follows:The length of the surgery varies from 30minutes to 5 hours depending on the extent of fat removal.It is done under local anesthesia, intravenous sedation, epidural block or general anesthesia.The length of the stay at the hospital is usually 1 day.Initially there is mild to moderate discomfort. You can go back to work after 10 days but sternous exercises should be avoided for atleast a month.Most of the swelling subsides within a week while mild residual swelling goes after 3 months.The scars are minute and inconspicuously placed.Complications are possible but unlikely if done by a well trained and experienced plastic surgeon.To conclude would like to emphasize on the point that the success of the procedure lies in the understanding of the patient that the procedure is not for weight reduction but spot reduction i.e. localized fatty deposits. It is the most frequently done aesthetic procedure in the USA and worldwide which seems to be a truly magical procedure than any other aesthetic procedure.

All You Need to Know About Liposuction!

Dr. Aamod Rao
The benefits of removing excess fat can be enormous, literally and figuratively! Liposuction is among the cosmetic surgery procedures with the highest rate of patient satisfaction. Many patients experience an immediate improvement in their self-esteem and overall confidence.Liposuction may be performed alone or with plastic surgery procedures such as a face and neck lift, breast reduction or tummy tuck. The procedure was first performed in 1974 and there have been many advances in techniques over the enduing 38 years, making it one of the most predictable and popular body-contouring surgeries in the world. Who is a suitable candidate?The ideal liposuction candidate is at, or near their ideal weight, with good skin elasticity and is seeking reduction of diet- and exercise-resistant localised pockets of fat. Common sites include the upper arms, hips, outer thighs, abdomen, mid back, buttocks, knees, neck and chin. Some men have excess fatty tissue in and around the breast, or gynaecomastia, which can also be removed.Liposuction is not a way of losing weight. If you have excess loose skin, liposuction can actually make it worse. If this is the case, a surgical body lift procedure may be required instead. Your surgeon will advise the best options. It should also be noted that liposuction does not improve cellulite (the dimpled appearance of the skin of commonly seen on the buttocks and thighs) or stretch marks (caused by pregnancy or rapid weight gain). What does it involve?Liposuction surgically removes deposits of subcutaneous fat from specific areas of the body such as the thighs, hips, abdomen, buttocks, knees, upper arms, neck and chin. While the terms are often used interchangeably, liposculpture implies more subtle shaping and contouring. There are generally three ways to remove the fat: the traditional cannula method, the syringe technique and the energy-assisted method, which can further be broken into numerous sub-categories. The basic procedure involves the insertion of a small tube-like instrument, called a cannula, into the layer of subcutaneous fat via tiny incisions made by the surgeon. The cannula is connected to a clear plastic hose that leads to a suction source. The surgeon moves in a specific pattern through the fat layer to break up fat cells, which are then vacuumed or suctioned out.The overlying skin remains attached to the connective tissue and underlying muscles of the skin during the operation. A thin blanket of fat is left under the skin to help prevent rippling or bumpy skin occurring afterwards.There are two main layers of subcutaneous fat: superficial and deep. Liposuction is primarily focused on the deeper layer of fat, since suctioning is thought to be safer and easier there. Suctioning in the superficial layer allows the surgeon to achieve subtle benefits in the procedure but, because of its proximity to blood vessels and nerve endings, it can increase the risk of contour irregularities and injury to the skin. Some surgeons believe superficial liposuction enhances skin retraction. Although the cannula is designed to slide through fat tissue and cause minimum damage to blood vessels and nerves, some may be injured during the procedure. If only a small amount of fat and a limited number of body sites are involved, liposuction can be performed under local anaesthetic, usually in conjunction with intravenous sedation. If a large volume of fat is being removed, some patients prefer general anaesthetic. In addition to fat, body fluid is also removed during the procedure. Because of this, patients are given fluids intravenously during the operation.The aim of liposuction is to decrease the bulk of fat in a specific area, but not to remove all fat. Removing too much can cause loose skin and surface irregularities. Depending on the size and number of the areas being treated, as well as the technique employed by the surgeon, the procedure can last from around 1-5 hours.

Hair Restoration Surgery in Young Patients

Dr. Amrendra kumar, Dermatologist
Many patients come to look for hair transplantation at a very young age as early as 16 to 18 years; these people may have low self-esteem and also come in distress because of peer pressure most of these patients actually looking for rapid results, with unrealistic expectation managing this kind of situation often becomes challenging for the treating physician. Every case may be a different case so before embarking on the treatment it is important to look after all the factors and expectations. Some may need even consultation with psychiatrist.Expectations must be confronted with the reality and the treatment should be explained well before with realistic results emphasizing that there are no miracle or magical treatment available.Conservative treatments like medications, platelet rich plasma therapy or low level laser light therapy must be taken into consideration before embarking on hair transplantation in such patients. Most of these patients have very little temporal regression of thinning in the frontal area which can be managed with these treatments.Future hair loss is possible with younger patients. It should be explained that even after hair transplantation further hair loss may be possible and hair transplantation is not the end treatment or have quick results.As the number of hair restoration surgeons are increasing, there is an increase in competition between them naturally and many treating doctors take such case as a challenge which should be discouraged.Before hair transplantation we need to understand the cause of Hair loss - beside androgenetic alopecia, other factors that might contribute to hair loss like health conditions, diet and genetics.If it is caused by pattern hair loss, it is not possible to determine the pattern of hair loss at such a young age and future progression. Family history may play a crucial role as it might give the clue about future progression.Before surgery, Patients can try the oral drug Finasteride and /or topical minoxidil to slow hair loss. He can re-examine the patient at regular interval to see the progression or if the drugs have slowed further progression.If even after that the progression continues and a surgeon determines to go for the surgery he should go for the minimum grafts need for the correction and try to avoid transplantation in the vertex area. Risk of  future hair loss will always be factor so the best way is to  wait until the condition has progressed, at least enough for a physician to identify a surgical plan and till then, managing the case  with medications or other adjutant therapies is a good idea.

Breast Reduction Surgery

Dr. Kapil Agarwal, Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon
Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is for a woman experiencing health problems and/or extreme self-consciousness associated with very large, heavy breasts. The main complains are backache, neck pain and skin rashes or itching along with difficulty in carrying large breasts. The goal is to give the woman a more attractive contour with smaller, better-shaped breasts in proportion with the rest of her body. She will then benefit from freedom of health problems associated with large breasts and an improved self-image.Medical problems associated with very large breasts include-back and neck pain caused by the excessive weight, skin irritation, skeletal deformities and breathing problems. Bra straps may leave shoulder indentations. Large, heavy breasts also contribute to poor posture, and can interfere with normal daily activities such as exercise. Excessive breast size may also lead to a decreased sense of attractiveness and self-confidence.THE PROCEDUREBreast reduction is done under general anesthesia on an outpatient basis or in the hospital. The surgery removes fat, glandular tissue, and skin from the breasts, making them smaller, lighter, and firmer. It can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple.Incisions are made around the pigmented nipple-areolar complex and extend vertically below the nipple and in the fold under the breast. The nipple-areolar complex is moved upward to the desired location. The incisions are covered with a light dressing.Afterward, the breasts are placed in a surgical bra that will hold them symmetrically during initial healing. Initial discomfort subsides daily and can be controlled with oral medications. Scars will fade in 6-18 months. Surgery will likely reduce, but not eliminate the ability to breast-feed.RECOVERY: WHAT TO EXPECTWhen performed by a qualified plastic surgeon, breast reduction is a safe procedure. Nevertheless, as with any surgery, there is always a possibility of complications, including bleeding, infection, or reaction to the anesthesia. Some patients develop small sores around their nipples after surgery; these can be treated with antibiotic creams. You can reduce your risks by closely following your physician’s advice both before and after surgery.Much of the swelling and bruising disappears in the first few weeks following the surgery. Breasts may appear slightly mismatched, or have unevenly positioned nipples. Their new shape will be apparent within 6 months to a year, and will depend on hormonal fluctuations, weight changes and pregnancy.Although your surgeon will make your scars as inconspicuous as possible, some permanent scarring is inevitable. Smokers are more likely to experience poor healing and wider scars. The scars will be red and lumpy in the months following the surgery, but the redness will fade and in time the scars will be less obvious.ABILITY TO BREASTFEEDBecause the surgery removes many of the milk ducts leading to the nipples, breast-feeding may no longer be an option.Some patients may experience a permanent loss of feeling in their nipples or breasts. Rarely, the nipple and areola may lose their blood supply and the tissue will die. (The nipple and areola can usually be rebuilt, however, using skin grafts from elsewhere on the body.)THE END RESULTBreast reduction produces the most dramatic results of all plastic surgeries. It ends the physical discomfort or large breasts and makes your body appear more evenly proportioned, and clothes fit better. Your new image will take some getting used to, as much as you desired the change. Give yourself—and your family and friends—time to adjust to the new you and, like most women, you will enjoy the

Everything You Need to Know About Nose Reshaping (Rhinoplasty)

Dr. Kapil Agarwal, Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon
As the nose has the highest aesthetic value in the making of a good face, nose reshaping (rhinoplasty) is the most sought after aesthetic procedure by common man. Rhinoplasty consists of two words, RHINO meaning NOSE and PLASTY meaning SHAPING. This procedure was 1st performed by Sushruta (Father of Indian Plastic Surgery)in 800 B.C. Rhinoplasty enhances facial harmony and the proportions of nose. It can also correct impaired breathing caused by structural defects in the nose. Rhinoplasty surgery employs reduction, augmentation or refinement of the patient's nose to give a balanced and proportioned nose. Reduction rhinoplasty commonly involves the removal of a nasal hump along with re-breaking the nose to reduce the width. The tip of the nose may be asymmetrical, depressed or the nose itself may need building up. Augmentation which can be achieved using tissue moved from another part of the patient's body such as skin or cartilage from the ear or rib. Alternatively synthetic material can be used (gortex, silastic) but there is a greater risk of rejection or infection.When It Is Done?Rhinoplasty is most often performed for cosmetic reasons. A nose that is too large, crooked, misshapen, malformed at birth, or deformed by an injury or cancer surgery can be given a more pleasing appearance. If breathing is impaired due to the form of the nose or to an injury, it can often be improved with rhinoplasty. The majority of individuals who undergo nose reshaping surgery are dissatisfied with the appearance of their noses and wish to improve the proportions of their facial features. A smaller percentage of rhinoplasty candidates are patients who deal with discomfort or breathing difficulties due to structural abnormalities or previous nose injuries. The optimal candidates for rhinoplasty are in good general health, understand the risks associated with surgery, and have realistic expectations regarding the surgery results.Indications of RhinoplastyRhinoplasties are done for different reasons- Conginental defects like secondary cleft lip nose deformityTraumatic disruption of normal structure of nose so that the nose is asymmetrical.Purely cosmetic reasons like hump correction, length correction, or for decrease in height of nose etc.Correction of structural as well as functional deformity (deviated nasal septum with crooked or off-center dorsum , or damaged valves)Nasal tip ; drooping, rotating, boxy, bulbous or bifid.Excessively flared or pinched nostrilsHow It Is Done?Nose surgery is done by two methodsOpen ClosedAdvantage of open rhinoplasty is good visibility of all the defects but at the same time it is more difficult and requires training and expertise.Closed rhinoplasty is comparatively easier but field of vision is restricted and so all the deformities cannot be corrected by this. It has got limitation of vision as well as surgical outcome.Primary Rhinoplasty:Surgery for reshaping of nose in a patient who has never undergone nasal surgery. It can be either a cosmetic procedure performed to improve the appearance of the nose, a medically necessary procedure to improve nasal breathing, or a combination of both.Secondary Rhinoplasty: Corrective reshaping of a nose which was operated earlier by a different surgeon. It requires exceptional analytical and surgical skill. Only surgeons with extensive training and significant rhinoplasty experience can restore breathing function and improve less-than-desirable results from previous nose surgery. Revision Rhinoplasty: Further changes/augmentation or reduction by same surgeon in a previously operated nose.Who Can Opt For Rhinoplasty?(Rhinoplasty candidates)Any adult (>18 years of age) with perceived aesthetic issues or birth defect can opt for it. As the nasal cartilage is growing till the age of 18 years it is advisable to delay any corrective surgery of nose till this time. In extreme cases where there is severe breathing difficulty it can be performed at 16 years of age. Regardless of the reason for surgery, we recommend that girls wait until age 14 or 15, and that boys wait a few additional years to undergo rhinoplasty. By this time, the nose should have finished growing.The best way for a patient to determine his or her candidacy for rhinoplasty is to schedule a consultation with a qualified rhinoplastic surgeon.Pre-op Preparation / Pre RequisitesFirst and foremost thing is detailed consultation to know about patient's desires and expectations to evaluate the patient's nose and to discuss the procedure, down time and expected/unexpected complications with the patient. Proper evaluation by an anaesthetist as it is done under general anaesthesia is a must. Depending on the patient's age and medical history, blood investigations, chest X-Ray is ordered and if the anaesthetist finds the patient fit for anaesthesia, operation is scheduled.In preparing for rhinoplasty surgery few instructions are must Stop smoking and avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs, and herbal supplements atleast a week prior to date of surgery as they can increase bleeding.About The SurgeryThere is nothing like one nose fits all. So depending upon the evaluation and discussion with patient open/closed approach is chosen. If augmentation is to be done then the patient is given the option of conchal /septal /costal cartilage graft or implant. Different combinations of procedures like augmentation with ala correction and tip plasty or septal correction or only lengthening is done. Pre-op and post-op photographs are taken to compare and to audit the results.Rhinoplasty recoveryPost procedure nasal pack is kept for 48 hours and nasal splint is placed for 2 weeks to support and protect the new structures during initial healing. Patient is called for suture removal and if required plaster change on 7th post-op day. Cold exposure /swimming /strenuous exercise /face wash during this period is strictly not allowed for the patient. Once the wounds have healed, regular cleaning of nose is advised and patient can resume his normal activities. While initial swelling subsides within a few weeks, it may take up to a year new nasal contour to fully refine. During this time one may notice gradual changes in the appearance of the nose as it refines to a more permanent outcome. Swelling may come and go and worsen in the morning during the first year following your rhinoplasty surgery. Few don't's for patients are-No blowing and nose picking for 4 weeks. At the time of sneezing mouth should be kept open to avoid stress on inflamed nasal mucosa which may bleed.Patient should not use specs (eye glasses)for 4-6 weeks.Donor site recoveryDue to donor site (chest) pain/discomfort patient needs atleast 48 hours of hospital stay and regular chest physiotherapy and breathing exercise. It also takes a bit longer to perform this type of rhinoplasty procedure, and the nose will usually be more swollen after surgery. Complications/Side effectsThough this surgery can be done as day care surgery, but it needs a good hospital with OT staff and anaesthesia facilities. This surgery shouldn't be tried in places with inadequate facilities as complications do occur and may require multi-specialty care. Swelling and bruising on the nose, cheeks and eyelids are normal side effects. They usually resolve within 2 to 3 weeks after the procedure. Bleeding, asymmetry, possible recurrence of deformity and difficulty in breathing are few usual complications. A touch up procedure may require refining the results. If all pre-op, operative and post-op precautions are taken, complications are negligible.ResultsResults are permanent, but aging may affect. Nasal anatomy and proportions are quite varied and final look of any rhinoplasty operation is the result of the patient's anatomy, as well as of the surgeon's skill. A cosmetic change in the shape of the nose changes a person's appearance as well as improves the self esteem. Surgical goal is to avoid the "operated look" and produce a nose that looks natural, functions properly, and in balance and harmony with other facial features.www.Clinicrhinoplasty.Comwww.Kapilsmakeover.Com

Jaw Surgeries for a Proportional Face

Dr. N Srinivas, Dentist
It may take more than a new smile to help you look your very best.Having a great smile is undoubtedly an asset, regardless of other aspects of your appearance. However, your smile is only one part of the whole composition of your face. Once you have improved your smile, you may be inspired to make a few other changes to look your very best, and it may be necessary to look beyond your dentist to help.If you are unhappy with your facial profile,the condition of your skin, or specific facial features such as your lips, nose or chin. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon reveals how repositioning the jaws can improve not only your bite but also your entire facial appearance, especially in profile.What is orthognathic surgery?Orthognathic surgery involves dividing and repositioning the jawbones to bring them into better alignment. It is typically used to correct bite problems that cannot be fixed by orthodontics alone.Often bone or soft tissues may be removed or augmented to further enhance facial esthetics. Orthognathic surgery can bring about significant changes in your appearance.Is orthognathic surgery right for me?Orthognathic surgery is typically performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon and can achieve dramatic improvement in facial esthetics. Orthognathic surgery may be the best option if you:1. Have jaw problems that can be treated only by surgery.2. Can pay for the procedure, as its a bit expensive.3. Feel strongly that your condition is inhibiting your success and happiness.4. Are willing to experience some discomfort and inconvenience.5. Understand and accept all associated risks.Communication is critical to success!1.It's important that you tell your doctor exactly what you want to correct.He or she may zero in on a particular problem,and you need to be sure that problem is also your primary concern.2. Your surgeon will design a highly specialized treatment plan for you based on information gathered by obtaining casts of your teeth, photographs,video images,and special x-rays.3. It's highly important that you know what results to expect from treatment.Some surgeons will use digital imaging to give you a good idea of what you'll look like after surgery;others may show you tracings of your new profile based on your x-rays.4.It's also essential that you understand each step of the surgical procedure that you're to undergo.The main risks and possible outcomes should be explained thoroughly, and it's then up to decide which procedures you wish to have performed.What can orthognatic surgery do?Problems that can be addressed using orthognathic surgery include. Recessive or protruding lower jaw and/or chin.. Chin that is too short,too long,or otherwise unattractive.. Open bite(teeth do not meet). Lower and/or upper jaw positioned to one side or a narrow arch. Discrepancies in upper and lower facial height (gummy smile or lack of enough tooth or gums showing)What does an oral and maxillofacial surgeon do?Oral and maxillofacial surgeons do more than just tooth extractions and jaw surgeries.If  you're interested in cosmetic procedures to enhance the appearance of your face and neck,talk to your surgeon about including them your overall treatment plan.

What is orthognathic surgery?

Dr. N Srinivas, Dentist
Having a great smile is undoubtedly an asset, regardless of other aspects of your appearance. However,your smile is only one part of the whole composition of your face. Once you have improved your smile,you may be inspired to make a few other changes to look your very best,and it may be necessary to look beyond your dentist for help.If you are unhappy with your facial profile, the condition of your skin,or specific facial features such as your lips, nose or chin, surgeon reveals how repositioning the jaws can improve not only your bite but also your entire facial appearance, especially in profile.What is orthognathic surgery?Orthognathic surgery involves dividing and repositioning the jaw bones to bring them into better alignment. It is typically used to correct bite problems that cannot be fixed by orthodontics alone. Often bone or soft tissue may be removed or augmented to further enhance facial esthetics. Orthognathic surgery can bring about significant changes in your appearance,particularly as you are seen in profile.What can orthognathic surgery do?Problems that can be addressed include:Recessive or protruding lower jaw and or china chin that is too short, too long, or otherwise unattractiveOpen bite (teeth do not meet)Lower or upper jaw positioned to one side or a narrow archDiscrepancies in upper and lower facial height Communication is critical to success!It's important that you tell your doctor exactly what you want to correct. The doctor may zero in on a particular problem and you need to be sure that problem is also your primary concern.The surgeon will design a treatment plan based on information gathered by obtaining casts of your teeth, photographs, video images, and special x rays.It's highly important to know what results to expect from treatment, either by digital imaging or tracings of your new profile based on x-ray.It's essential to understand each step of surgical procedure that you undergo.

Plastic - Is It Good or Bad for Human Health?

Ms. Silky Mahajan, Dietitian/Nutritionist
As you are reading this article, you may find several plastic items within your reach, your computer or phone, a pen, maybe an old food container in your kitchen. Today, plastic is everywhere in our lives. It has become an icon of convenience culture.IS IT REALLY SAFE? Before we take a call whether plastic we are using is safe or not, it is important to understand different type of plastics. Society of plastic industry has grouped plastics into 7 different categories & separate code called “SPI” is given to each plastic, which is marked in triangle symbol at the bottom of each plastic bottle.SPI Code #1:Plastic marked with an SPI code of 1 is made with polyethylene terephthalate, which is also known as PETE or PET. PETE-based containers sometimes absorb odours and flavors from foods and drinks that are stored inside of them. Items made from this plastic are commonly recycled.Common Use:Beverage bottles, medicine jars, peanut butter jars, combs, beanbags, and rope.Recycled PETE is used to make tote bags, carpet, fiber fill material in winter clothing, and more.Impression: Okay to use. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones.__________________________________________________________________________________________ SPI Code #2:The SPI code of 2 identifies plastic made with high-density polyethylene, or HDPE. HDPE products are very safe and are not known to leach any chemicals into foods or drinks. (However, due to the risk of contamination from previously held substances, please note: it is NEVER safe to reuse an HDPE bottle as a food or drink container if it didn’t originally contain food or drink!) HDPE products are commonly recycled.Common Use:Items made from this plastic include containers for milk, motor oil, shampoos and conditioners, soap bottles, detergents, and bleaches. Many personalized toys are made from this plastic as well.Recycled HDPE is used to make plastic crates, plastic lumber, fencing, and more.Impression: Good to use. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones.__________________________________________________________________________________________SPI Code #3:Plastic labeled with an SPI code of 3 is made with polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. PVC is not often recycled and can be harmful if ingested.Common Use:PVC is used for all kinds of pipes and tiles, but it's most commonly found in plumbing pipes. This kind of plastic should not come in contact with food items.Recycled PVC is used to make flooring, mobile home skirting, and other industrial-grade items.Impression: Avoid using it as it contains plasticisers such as DEHA or phthalates that can leach into food.__________________________________________________________________________________________SPI Code #4:Plastic marked with an SPI code of 4 is made with low-density polyethylene, or LDPE. LDPE is not commonly recycled, but it is recyclable in certain areas. It tends to be both durable and flexible. It also is not known to release harmful chemicals into objects in contact with it, making it a safe choice for food storage.Common Use:Plastic cling wrap, sandwich bags, squeezable bottles, and plastic grocery bags all are made from LDPE.Recycled LDPE is used to make garbage cans, lumber, furniture, and many other products seen in and around the house.Impression: OK to use. Not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones, but not as widely recycled as #1 or #2.__________________________________________________________________________________________SPI Code #5:Consumers will find the SPI code of 5 on plastic items made with polypropylene, or PP. PP can be recycled but is not accepted for recycling as commonly as PETE or HDPE. This type of plastic is strong and can usually withstand higher temperatures.Common Use:Among many other products, it is used to make plastic diapers, Tupperware, margarine containers, yogurt boxes, syrup bottles, prescription bottles, and some stadium cups. Plastic bottle caps often are made from PP as well.Recycled PP is used to make ice scrapers, rakes, battery cables, and similar items that need to be durable.Impression: Ok to use. Hazardous during production, but not known to leach any chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer or disrupting hormones. Not as widely recycled as #1 and #2.__________________________________________________________________________________________SPI Code #6:Plastic marked with an SPI code of 6 is made with polystyrene, also known as PS and most commonly known as Styrofoam. PS can be recycled, but not efficiently; recycling it takes a lot of energy, which means that few places accept it.Common Use:Disposable coffee cups, plastic food boxes, plastic cutlery, packing foam, and packing peanuts are made from PS.Recycled PS is used to make many different kinds of products, including insulation, license plate frames, and rulers.Impression: Avoid using it as researchers have investigated possible health risks from traces of styrene monomer. This risk seems to be low.__________________________________________________________________________________________SPI Code #7:The SPI code of 7 is used to designate miscellaneous types of plastic that are not defined by the other six codes. Bisphenol A (BPA), Polycarbonate and polylactide are included in this category. These types of plastics are difficult to recycle.Common Use:Polycarbonate, or PC, is used in baby bottles, large water bottles (multiple-gallon capacity), compact discs, and medical storage containers.Recycled plastics in this category are used to make plastic lumber, among other products.Impression: Totally avoid using it as it Polycarbonate can release BPA into food, especially when bottles are washed for reuse. Can leach into food as product ages.__________________________________________________________________________________________Final Conclusion:AVOID RECYCLING SYMBOLS 3, 6, AND 7. WHILE NUMBER 1 IS CONSIDERED SAFE, IT IS ALSO BEST TO AVOID THIS PLASTIC. LOOK FOR SYMBOLS 2, 4, AND 5, AS THESE PLASTICS ARE CONSIDERED TO BE SAFEST.Click here to read interesting FAQs which we *should* be aware while using plastics.

Facts About Liposuction

Dr. Al Farabi Jaafar, Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon
Liposuction or Lipoplasty is one of the most common plastic cosmetic surgery procedures worldwide. But did you know that there are different types in terms of the devices and process being used?1. Classic Tumescent Liposuction - involves only the use of specially prepared cocktail of "tumescent fluid" (saline, local anesthetic, blood vessel constricting agent) that is used to infiltrate the targeted fat (to loosen and anesthesize) then later on suctioned using blunt liposuction cannulas.2. Power-Assisted Liposuction or PAL (Tickle Lipo, Micro-Aire) - uses the same "tumescent fluid" as a pre-suctioning preparation followed by the use of specially designed vibrating cannulas which breaks the fats while being suctioned. This machine allows more removal of fats with less bleeding and bruising.3. Ultrasonic-Assisted Liposuction or UAL (Vaser) - involves 3 steps:a. Tumescent fluid infiltrationb. Insertion through a small incision of a special thin stick-like probe connected to an ultrasonic machine. This process transmits the ultrasonic energy to the tip of the probe and to the fat resulting to its dissolution (melting).c. Liposuction proper of the dissolved (melted) fats using common cannulas.4. Laser-Assisted Liposuction (Smart Lipo) - this requires the same steps with UAL except for the second step where a thin laser fiber is inserted to the fat being targeted to initially deliver the burst of light energy to liquefy fats. The next steps are the same.Prices of liposuction will vary depending on the special device you choose and the number of areas you want to be treated.