Articles on massage therapy

Foot Massage and Sleep!

Dr. Sita S Bhatt, Homeopath
Reflexology believes that the entire human body and its organs have representations on the soles of our feet! Regularly doing a nice foot massage relaxes, rejuvenates and recharges the body and the mind and helps in good health! A simple daily routine of do-it- yourself foot massage could help you to relax the body and get a really good nights sleep! First wash the feet after soaking them in Epsom salts (2tsp) or rock salt (4 tsp) and warm water in a tub for 10 minutes . See that you are in bed and all your chores done and it's the last thing before you sleep. Keep the lights dim and the surroundings peaceful for this one! No gadgets! Use a nice thick oil with some aroma essential oil ( I give lavender oil to help one relax ) Starting from the arch of the foot, using the thumb, rub the foot in circular motions. Do it from the arch and progress to the entire foot while slowly increasing the pressure. Do 15 repetitions on each sole. Wear a pair of cotton socks to keep the feet warm. A couple of minutes of this ensures that the night's sleep is deep and refreshing!Added benefits of regular and specific foot acupressure and reflexological massage: 1. Relieves aches and pains 2. Helps in digestion 3. Improves metabolism and stamina to exercise 4. Improves circulation 5. Helps in muscle stretches 6. Used in treatment of restless leg syndrome 7. Reduces lactic acid related muscle pain 8. In children, boosts growth and immunity !

Ayurvedic Leech Therapy

Dr. Phanindra V V, Ayurveda
Leeches are used in the medical practice since ancient times to treat many diseases. It is a method in which localized impure blood is let out to heal the tissue. Leech therapy is Para-surgical treatment modality according to Ayurveda. Due to its therapeutic effects, this is successful even today. The description of using leech for therapy can be found in Sushruta Samhita written by Acharya Sushruta. He has described the nature of leeches, their habitat, the method of application, diseases indicated like Visarpa (Herpes), Skin diseases etc., in detail. Though there are hundreds leech species, only 15 are used for therapy. In the medieval ages, this was very popular. According to Ayurveda, Leech only sucks impure blood. Leech is used to relieve venous congestion and to improve blood circulation.Indications: Skin diseases, Vascular Problems, Varicose Veins, Acne, Non-healing Ulcers, Diabetic wounds, Boils and abscess, Herpes, Thrombosis, Arthritis, Sciatica, Dermatitis, Psoriasis, Alopecia, etc..Steps for application of LeechSnehana and swedana to the patient.Leech activation.Patient’s skin is cleaned.The leeches are applied.Cover the leech with wet cotton.Remove the leech once it has finished sucking the blood.Remove the blood from leech by inducing vomiting to the leech and then put back in fresh water container.The area should be cleaned and bandaged.Mode of Action: Leech have many distinct enzymes in its saliva, through which they act. The enzymes enter the blood through the place the leech sucks the blood. The most important is the Hirudin, which acts as an anti-coagulant. This leech enzymes also has the ability to stay in the blood and do vasodilation and further facilitate the blood supply to the surrounding tissue and prevent necrosis and healing. Some anti allergic factors ensure reduction in the lesions.

Sex Therapy

Dr. Ramesh Maheshwari, Sexologist
Sex therapy is based on behavior therapy. It is a type of re-educative therapy. The fundamental of behavior therapy is that all the behaviors are learned, even the maladaptive behaviors. The behavior therapist helps the client to unlearn the unadaptive behavior and replaces it with newly learned adaptive behavior. The aims of behavior therapy are primarily educational and techniques facilitate improved self control.From amongst several techniques that are used in behavior therapy, ‘systematic desensitization technique’ is used in sex therapy. Prior to 1970, sexual dysfunctions were managed by psychiatrists. After  1970, the masters and Johnson model of sex therapy made it possible to treat sexual dysfunction by psychologists, social workers, nurses, counsellors, and medical doctors.Their approach included :Instead of treating the affected individual, the couple is treated. It is the relationship that is affected. This strategy provides an opportunity to gain  the co-operation and understanding of both the partners in overcoming the problem.Two therapist-a man and a woman work together as a team. This gives each partner a same sex therapist to whom he or she can relate more easily.Masters and Jonson recognized that it was important to identify organic conditions that might require medical or surgical treatment instead of sex therapy.They also found that explanining the anatomy and physiology of sexual response to the clients often had important therapeutic benefits.To individualize the therapy so as to meet the specific needs of each couple.The therapist must avoid imposing his own values on the client.The fear of performance and ‘spectatoring’ are often central to the cases of sexual dysfunction. The pressure of performance is removed initially by banning sexual contact. Couples are then helped to rediscover the sensual pleasures of touching and being touched without the goal of particular sexual response (Sensate Focus Exercise).Blaming each other for the sexual problem is discouraged.When a couple’s relationship improves outside the bedroom, it is apt to have positive results in the bedroom too.Basis : Sexual response is the function of Autonomic nervous system and is a physiological change when effective sexual stimuli are present , and a person is psychologically prepared to respond to them. All the sense organs are to be used to create a situation conducive to sexual response . (touch is most important).Systematic Desensitization : A mode of psychotherapy where all the anxiety provoking stimuli are arranged in an ascending level, and the client is exposed to, one by one, both the partners are to be involvedRelaxation: Deep breathing, deep muscle relaxation and plesant imagery are incorporated.Reassurance.Stages :Sensate focusWoman superior positionLateral positionMen superior positionFormat: No rigid format Variations in time, frequency and structure depending upon the dysfunction, the patient and the therapist.Results: Not as definite as in pharmacotherapy.As you shall sow and water, so you shall reap: A skilled and knowledgeable therapist is like a good seed. Client’s receptive mind is like fertile soil. Compliance and co-operation by wife is like watering by gardner. When all the three factors combine, the results are good. When sex therapy works, it does wonders and results are unparalleled for that particular couple.Contraindications:Severe DepressionActive psychopathologySubstance abuseIIInessHostility in couple-interaction

Anti Aging – Ayurvedic Concept

Dr. Rajesh A. Shrotriya, Ayurveda
Ayurveda is one of the most ancient medical traditions practiced in India. Atharvaveda, Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita are its main classics, giving detailed descriptions for management of aging and related conditions. The use of Ayurvedic herbs was not only directed towards developing an attractive external appearance, but towards achieving longevity with good health. The Sanskrit terms of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda are Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many of these practices strongly depend on the season (Rutus) as well as daily routine (Dinacharya) has an subtle importance of its own.Ayurveda considers Rasāyana as one of the foremost branches of Astānga Ayurveda. The word Rasāyana should not be mistaken as a therapy exclusively related to old age. It can be applied from pediatrics to geriatrics. Suśruta defies Rasāyana as a measure, which prolongs and provides positive health, improves mental faculties and provides resistance and immunity against diseases. Charaka states that the means of obtaining optimum nourishment to the Dhātus are called Rasāyanas. Hence Rasyanas are good to be adopted to stop as well as reverse the accelerating or triggering of an early onset of aging. Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used.According to Ayurveda Human body functions through various channel systems called “Srotas”, containing both microscopic and macroscopic structures such as the respiratory system, lymphatic/circulatory system, reproductive system and nervous systems, among others. These channels function as innumerable psycho-biological processes such as enzyme production, neuro-transmitter secretion, hormonal intelligence, respiratory capacity and digestive assimilation/elimination, immune power etc and responsible for wellness and beauty. These act rhythmically and in concert with one another to perform complex decision-making regarding the supply of nutrients, filtration of toxins, excretion of wastes and much more. If waste materials are insufficiently metabolized, toxins or incompletely processed foods and experiences can become deposited in weak areas of the body. If unaddressed, these can become a disease. Weak zones occur in the body due genetic factors or more commonly, lifestyle factors, such as unhealthy food choices, stress or environmental influences. These toxins or unprocessed metabolic deposits can cloud the normal psycho-biological cellular intelligence and loss body luster and beauty. Panchakarma therapy is both preventative for healthy people to maintain and improve excellent cellular function, and curative for those experiencing disease. The Ama (toxic materials inside our body) make a person ugly and diseased and Sodhana/panchakarma (Purification) is the best therapeutic intervention to eliminate body toxins. It is a highly complex and sophisticated science of purification of the body/mind.Water is a major component for keeping skin in good condition. Water originates in the deeper epidermal layers and moves upward to hydrate cells in the stratum corneum in the skin, eventually being lost to evaporation. Snehana and Swedana bring moisture to our skin. It gives our skin greater elasticity and rejuvenates skin tissues. As cells in our face make their way to the surface over their lifecycle, they die and become saturated with keratin, or skin debris. Keratin is important because it protects your skin from the elements but the shedding of that outer layer can unclog pores. Snehana and Swedan are believed to be inhibit trans-epidermal water loss, restoring the lipid barrier and restore the amino-lipid of the skin.According to Ayurveda, a number of factors determine skin health and youthfulness. These include:Proper moisture balance (Kapha in balance)Effective functioning of the metabolic mechanisms that coordinate all the various chemical and hormonal reactions of the skin (Pitta in balance)Efficient circulation of blood and nutrients to the different layers of the skin (Vata in balance)The health of the following three dhatus (types of body tissue) are especially reflected in the skin: nutritional fluid (Rasa), blood (Rakta) and muscle (Mamsa). Rasa supports all the body tissues, particularly keeping the skin healthy, Rakta, in association with liver function, helps detoxify the skin of toxins, while Mamsa provides firmness to the skin. An effective Ayurvedic anti-aging cosmeceutical should provide support to all these three areas.For vata skin to stay youthful, skin care products that can nourish and re-hydrate the skin should be used, otherwise it may be susceptible to wrinkles and premature aging. Warm oil self-massage and all natural moisturizers may help.For pitta skin, good sunscreens for protection from the sun, and good facial skin oils should be used daily. Tanning treatments and therapies that expose delicate sensitive skin for extended periods of time to steam/heat should be avoided.For kapha skin, a daily warm oil massage and cleansing of skin with gentle exfoliant should be performed.The aging process is a challenging human experience common to everyone, and the desire to look young prevails in the majority of us. The latest trends in beauty, health and wellness sectors are giving rise to new of possibilities by fusing anti-aging cosmeceuticals with traditional Indian medicine. Ayurveda offers vast amounts of information on principles of anti-aging activity, skin care and anti-aging herbs, helping in the exploration of possibilities of developing new anti-aging cosmeceuticals with natural ingredients for topical applications.

Managing Neck and Back Pain Through Physiotherapy

Dr. Biju Nirmal Jacob, Physiotherapist
One of the commonest cause of people consulting a physician is neck or back pain. Many of them try to live with the pain until it stops them from working. The common cause of neck and back pain is poor posture, muscle imbalance, repeated tasks involving the area or localized degenerative changes in the vertebrae. This causes reduced range of motion of the part, reduced strength and increased pain. POOR POSTURE: Forward headed posture or exaggerated lumbar lordosis can cause increased pressure on the surrounding structures of the vertebra this ultimately lead to segmental instability of the spine. In order to keep the part intact the muscles and other structures will adjust themselves, this will happen in a course of time. Whenever the person uses the part for a prolonged period or activity his pain and other symptoms will increase. MUSCLE IMBALANCE : If you closely examine yourself your posture you may observe that your shoulders are round, your head is forward protruding, abdomen is week, if you stand with both the leg together and eyes closed you may feel like you are swinging and loosing the balance. These features are pointing towards your muscle weakness. Major muscle that may get weakened are neck flexor muscles, inter scapular muscles, abdomen and buttock muscles. Major muscles that may get tightened are neck extensors, chest muscles, lower back muscles and hip flexors. Proper training of these muscles will help in reduction of neck and back discomfort. PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT EVALUATION: A thorough evaluation of the patient is required before stating the physiotherapy treatment, which include a detailed history of the patient, explanations regarding the site of pain, onset, previous history, lifestyle of the patient, sleep, nature of pain, assessment of strength, range of motion, swelling, warmth, functional performances, clinical investigations like X-ray, MRI, Lab report to wipeout red flags. EXPLANATION TO THE PATIENT: Once the assessment is over the therapist will explain the treatment method to the patient, about the condition, the procedures, precautions, duration of session, total number of sessions etc. Once the patient is convinced the therapist will start the treatment after signing an informed consent. TREATMENT: After marking the location of pain initial the treatment is given to the soft tissues around that area using techniques like deep pressure soft tissue massage to reduce muscle tightness, trigger point release therapy followed by myofascial release. Once the pain is reduced we may follow muscle energy techniques to release muscle tightness and to take the muscle to a new length. Once the muscle pain is reduced we will mobilize the corresponding joints to correct the joint dysfuntions this will help in proper working of the joint in correct muscle length. We teach patients self stretching exercises and progressive strengthening exercises so that they can maintain the length and strength of the structures. We may tape the part using either dynamic stretch taping (kinesiology) or static non-stretch taping (zinc oxide), which will help in holding the structure in good length and position. We also use pain releasing modalities ultrasound therapy, interferential therapy, TENS & moist heat etc. to reduce the pain and increase the localized circulation. We also advise patients to do heat fermentation to reduce the tenderness. Once the pain and discomforts are reduced we put patients on further stretching and strength training program like self myofascial release techniques, stretch band and weight cuff exercises with increasing the resistance. Upon secondary evaluations we may also perform nerve mobilizations and other articular mobilizations to relieve other discomforts. We also start postural awareness training programs and core stabilization exercises to strengthen the weak muscles. Aerobic training programs like treadmill walking, static cycling, virtual reality based games are also included in the final stage to improve the overall fitness of the patients. This helps in prevention of recurrence of pain and other discomforts. We suggests our patients to visit us once a month for the next 3 months to make sure that they are following the exercises and also to modify the exercises if required. Thus a tailor-made treatment physiotherapy program will help in the management of neck & back pain than a conventional treatment methods. This includes a team work of many people including the patient itself. 

5 Priceless Benefits of Salt Therapy for All Your Respiratory Troubles!

Mrs. Anju Chandna, Yoga and Naturopathy
Salt therapy is fast catching everyone’s attention. A therapy that was born within the confines of natural salt caves in the Eastern European countries like Poland and Romania around 150 years ago is now on its way to become one of the most revolutionary treatments of all time for all respiratory allergies like Asthma, Bronchitis,Sinusitis, Allergic cough, Dry cough, COPD and many others. A lot can be attributed to the fact that the treatment is natural.So let me give you a 5 point count as to what makes this therapy different from the conventional methods of treatment that we’ve known all these years. Salt therapy is a 100% natural treatment. The main ingredient that does all the trick is salt. The salt room has around 3-4 tons of salt on the walls, the ceiling, the floor and the aerosol that you inhale while sitting inside this artificial salt cave is also pharma-grade salt. Old age wisdom says that consuming too much salt is not good for our body but what needs to be understood is that this salt does not enter your digestive tract. So any side effect could arise of consuming salt directly is absent here. This salt aerosol enters only the respiratory tract through the nasal passage and goes directly into your lungs. It cleanses the mucous along its way and reaches the smallest bronchioles of the lungs. All naturally with no medicines.Salt therapy is absolutely safe for infants, the elderly and pregnant women. Since there is no medicine involved in the treatment, everyone from a 6 month old baby to an 80 year old adult can take the therapy without bothering about any negative fallout. Even pregnant women who are otherwise not advised medication can take this therapy and get relief from any allergy arising during their pregnancy. Salt therapy has no side effects. There is nothing entering your digestive tract that can possibly cause any side effect. Salt enters the lungs, reacts with the mucous present there and comes out of the body along with that mucous.  Presence of tons of salt in the salt room makes the environment absolutely clean and no allergens can find their way into it. People with respiratory disorders need such a clean atmosphere so that a one hour salt room session helps to cleanse their system and not irritate it. That is the reason why people with very chronic allergic cough can also endure the salt spray and benefit from it.Salt therapy offers long term relief. The basic function of salt therapy is to cleanse your lungs. So once your treatment is complete and your lungs get cleansed, the chances that they will remain that way are very high. But here we cannot ignore the fact that we are living in one of the most polluted regions of the world and you are constant being exposed to allergens. One might need maintenance sessions once every 3 months to keep your lungs clean and healthy.  Salt therapy de-stresses and calms the mind. Salt is inherently negatively ionized. Nature has made it this way.Negative ions are considered to be ‘cleansers of the air’ and salt has the property of negative ionization. Negative ionization of the air relieves stress, so spending an hour inside the salt room not just cleanses your lungs but also relieves your mind of stress. De-stressing the mind is considered to be an important step towards treating any kind of respiratory problem.So what are you waiting for? Come to the salt room and soak in the benefits of this miracle mineral!

During Monsoon, Ayurveda Can Cure Your Stomach Upset

Dr. Satish Sawale, Ayurveda
Indigestion is very common in cloudy and humid climate of monsoon often give rise to issues likeHeartburn, Bloating, Diarrhea, Constipation and gas. If the issue not attended on time, it can lead to even torturing issues like GERD or gastroesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome. Ayurveda shares a concept known as Ama, which can be termed Non-toxic metabolites and toxins created by faulty metabolism / indigestion. There are many ways to treat to indigestion in an ayurvedic way. Let us look at some tips for the same: Langhanam, swedanam, Hot water and  use of Dried Ginger i.e. Sunthi, cumin seeds, Ajwayan carom seeds some salts and  salty pickles is so common in Indian culture and being used since ancient times i.e. tradition.Aloe vera: An ounce of aloe vera a day will keep indigestion away. Break off, a leaf and scoop some gel into a smoothie for smooth digestion.Turmeric: Haldi or Turmeric helps in reducing bloating and is one of the most commonly used spices found in ayurveda. This spice is a staple in indian cooking as well, where pretty much all dishes are seasoned with cooked turmeric.Maintaining Biological clock and Traditional Healer fasting : For better digestion, one must take meals at the same time everyday. Also, do not sit down for the next meal before the previous meal has been digested properly, its seen over eating causes much more issues after certain age say 40+ so once in a week light food or skipping food or usually on full moon or on No moon there is fast that adds value.Choosing healthy food: one must avoid unhealthy food that are excessively fried, fatty, sweet or cold so as to aid the digestive fires in doing their job effectively.Triphala with Saindhav(Rock salt): This combination of three fruits (Avala,Behada and Hirada)with saidhav ensures that your digestive system remains in good working condition during monsoonWater: one must have clean filtered potable adequate of water a day(Excess water must be avoided), in order to flush the toxins out, keeping in mind Monsoon causes much more water born diseases so use of Crystal Allum, Nivali/ Nirmali/clearing nut Beej(seeds) to clean and to deodorize Ayurveda offers Mustha/chandan/ushir/Taruni/Jai/jui/chanpak and Bakul flowers.Rest and bed Room: sleep (1 of major pillar of health and fitness tripod like Diet and Celibacy) is a major factor that cures stress and creates a balance of sorts in one's routine, thus aiding proper digestion. Room must be clean as excess  humidity can cause Allergic skin and Respiratory issues in Kids and elderly population so fumigate space with sunthi / Gugulu / Tulasi / Jatamasi / Haldi / Ajawayan / peels of Garlis or Dehumidifier can be used.Exercise: Those who eager to stabilise at Health and Fitness and yeah Finances too must engage in  some form of movement and exercise (Actively) is imperative to keep the digestive system in prime working condition. Walk and yoga, especially are ideal to boost one's digestive health.Meditation: This is one of the best ways to give digestion a positive push with a good dose of mindfulness and awareness for better balance in the body.Massage: a good oil massage on a regular basis keeps the blood flow in order and ensures that all the organs function well.In ayurveda, the point is to heal and prevent, which is why the methods tend to get to the root of the problem.Basti Therapy and Rasayan Therapy: For details communicate with  Ayurveda college Hospital Or your Ayurveda dr in your city

Joint Pain - All You Need to Know

Dr. Manaan Gandhi, Ayurveda
 The most comprehensive post on understanding and healing joint pain according to ayurveda by Dr. Manaan Gandhi.When movement is restricted, pain has increased, effectiveness and concentration on work and family suffers. You feel restricted and limited and opportunities go to waste because of this ever increasing problem. Treating such joint pain is very easy to do with ayurveda. The key is to understand which type of ayurvedic category that particular joint pain fits in. This categorization is the most crucial part of understanding and treating any joint pain and if this fails, then everything else will also fail. There are three major categories of joint pain according to ayurveda. The first of which is called "aamvata." In this category, the patient suffers from "shifting joint pain" or the pain which migrates from joint to joint. Sometimes it is the elbow, sometimes it is the knee, sometimes the shoulder. This condition will also show swelling and stiffness of the joints and relief on exercise or movement and massages. Oil application on the other hand will increase the pain and worsen the situation. The tongue of such a patient will be coated and even after scraping the tongue, the coating will persist. The pain and stiffness will reduce as the day goes on but be unbearably high in the morning hours. This sort of migrating pain has to be dealt with differently than the other types. The diet for such a pain has to be light and easily digestable. It should comprise of moong, rice, digestive soups, boiled vegetables. The person must avoid all dairy products, non veg food, bread, biscuits and other bakery products, raw foods like salads, sour, spicy or fermented food, fried food and must exercise daily either brisk walking for 2 to 3 kilometers or by practising yoga postures.The second type of joint pain is known as "vata-rakta" wherein the pain and swelling starts from a small joint like the interphalangeal joint in the hand or the toes, slowly all the joints in the body get involved. There may be an increase in the serum creatinine levels of the patients that suffer from this condition. There is a dushti of rakta here along with vata dosha and therefore skin problems and nervous problems are sometimes associated with this disease. The patient does not have a white coating on the tongue but feels as if air is moving when the joint is pressed. Anything hot and spicy becomes unbearable to the patient and he feels as if the pain is pricking and spasmatic. Also I have seen patients burp when any of these affected joints are pressed. This condition requires the patient to take diet that is easily digestable but not very hot in potency. Blood letting (Raktamokshan) is a process in ayurveda wherein the dushit or vitiated blood is sucked out of the body and is increasingly effective in this disease. The person should not eat anything dry, should avoid things like bhel, popcorn, khakra, khari biscuits etc, not have anything heavy to digest like wheat or wheat products including bread, biscuits, etc. The person should use a lot of cow's ghee and cow's milk and should compulsarily avoid cold food and drinks.The third type of joint pain is one of the most common types known as "Sandhigata Vata." The person suffering from this type will have swelling and pain in the joint. This pain may be a dull pain throughout the day or a sharp spasmatic pain. It is said in the ayurvedic scriptures that the swelling feels as if it is filled with air(vayu). This pain generally starts in one of the major joints like knee, sholder, lumbar, cervical, elbow or ankle joints. It then spreads to all joints eventually. The X-ray will show osteophytes and osteoarthritic or osteoporotic changes. This type of joint pain is divided into 2 categories:Upasthambhit sandhigatavata- In this type of sandhigatavata, the patient has a coating on the tongue, stiffness in the morning, relief on massage, relief on exercise and pain decreases as the day moves on. For this type of pain, the patient should take light diet like mentioned in "aamvata," also the patient should add dry ginger powder (sooth) to the normal drinking water in the ratio of 2 tbsp per litre. Exercise daily is a must for help in relieving pain. Avoid sleeping during day time and stay as active as possible. For such a patient, staying active and exercising despite the pain will give tremendous relief eventually. Nirupasthambit sandhigatavata- In this type of sandhigatavata, the patient has no coating on the tongue, no stiffness in the morning, pain increases on massage, there is more pain on exercising and the pain increases as the day moves on. For this type of pain, the patient should take more kadva or bitter food. Milk and milk products are extremely helpful with the exception of dahi. Smoking and drinking is extremely harmful to such a person, and cow's ghee is extremely beneficial to the same. Rest and day sleeping is beneficial to such a person. Ayurvedic medication is a must to improve the condition as it does not improve significantly on its own but is very easily cured compared to the other types of joint pain by ayurveda.There are other diseases and reasons of joint pain which may be mentioned or explained here, but according to my experience most joint pains can be classified in the above.Dr. Manaan Gandhi+91-9664024377

Occupational Therapy a Solution for Osteoarthritis

Dr. Chaitanya Ulhas Mantri, Occupational Therapist
First, let us understand what is Osteoarthritis ...    OA is a degenerative disease of joints that affects all of the weight-bearing components of the joint:Articular CartilageMenisciBoneAbout OSTEOARTHRITIS [OA]:Most common joint disease Most common form of arthritis Most OA patients > age 45  Women> menMost often appears at the ends of the fingers, thumbs, neck, lower back, knees, and hips.Joints affected by Osteoarthritis[OA]OA-RiskFactors:Age:Strongest risk factorOA can start in young adulthood but risk increases with ageGender:Affects more in women than menMore common in men before age 45, women after age 45OA of the hand particularly common in womenJoint injury/Overuse from physical labor or sports:Trauma to any joint increases risk of OA Ligament or meniscus tearsRepeated movements in certain jobs increase risk Obesity:Joint overload is among strongest risks for knee OAObesity a risk to Knee OAOA–Symptoms:Gradual onset PainStiffnessSwelling or tenderness in one or more joints Crunching feeling or sound of bone rubbing on bone (called crepitus) when the joint is usedRadiographic Diagnosis:Asymmetrical joint space narrowing from loss of articular cartilageHow to Manage OA ???Goals in Managing OA :Decreasing painIncrease range of motionIncrease Muscle strengthOccupational therapy for Osteoarthritis: It would involvePain management through use of Physical Agent Modalities, Exercises to improve and maintain Range of Motion of the jointExercises to Strengthen Muscles of the jointUse of Energy Conservative and Work Simplification Techniques to help in doing the activity with easeUse of Joint Protection Technique while using the jointErgonomic Modification in Work & Home environment