Diet modification is needed to keep the sugar under control. For any type of diabetes, needs should be planned carefully. The time and quantity of food as prescribed in the diet sheet must be strictly adopted. The disorder can be prevented by simple formula in diet which is high protein and fibre with low simple carbohydrate and fat. High complex carbohydrate contains more fibre and less sugar hence it is recommended. The main concept of this diet is to prevent immediate symptoms of this disorder. 30 kcal of energy per kg of body weight is needed for thin and optimum body weight individual. 25 kcal is enough for obese diabetic person. About 175-250 gm of carbohydrate can be provided to a diabetic patient. This amount should be decreased in an obese and increased in a thin diabetic patient. Rice can be replaced with two chapatis. Avoid ragi porridge. Cereals are the main source of carbohydrate that provides 100 kcals per 30 gm. A diet with high protein is supplies essential amino acids that are needed for tissue repairs.
Protein does not raise the blood sugar during the absorption as it does not supply as many calories as fat. One gram of protein per kg of body weight is adequate and the amount of fat and carbohydrate should be proportionately reduced. One cup of moderately thick dhal provides 100 kcal of energy and 3-4 gm of protein. Moderate amount of fat is enough for diabetic patients. Excess of fat aggravates the diabetic symptoms and increase the risk of coronary heart diseases. So avoid ghee, butter, saturated oil, margarine, etc.
Dietary fibre (complex carbohydrate) is needed as anti-diabetic diet. It reduces post-postprandial glucose and serum lipids. It is rich in sprouted whole grain, wheat, green leafy vegetables,green vegetables and certain fruits. 100 gm of whole wheat has 9.5 gm of fibre. Vegetable salad, one cup twice a day is recommended. Green leafy vegetables should be included in daily lunch. Other vegetables should be spared as cup for lunch and dinner. Fruits are rich in carbohydrate and hence they are restricted in quantity to a patient suffering from diabetes. The patient whose sugar level is under control can take any one of the following fruits. One piece of watermelon, three pieces of half ripped guava, one piece of papaya (not fully ripped), ½ cup of pomegranate, etc. Diet rich in omega - 3 fatty acid decrease insulin resistance in people with diabetes. Fish is enough to boost omega-3 level in blood. Besides, flax seed, walnut, fenugreek leaves, broccoli, soya, Tofu (Soya Cheese), etc are also rich in it.
- Follow the diet schedule regularly and diet pattern strictly.·
- Avoid snacks in between the meal time.·
- Boiled and steamed dishes are advisable.
- One glass of buttermilk (200 ml) provides only 15-20 kcals of energy. So drinking butter milk plenty can satisfy the hungry feelings.
- Reduce the quantity rice and increase the amount of fibrous vegetables.
- Avoid sugar, cocoa, cream, aerated beverages, red meat, rooted vegetables,whole milk, and curd, fried foods, fast foods, and certain fruits like mango, banana, jackfruit, fully ripped guava, dates, pine apple, custard apple, etc.
- One handful of walnut thrice a week and small fishes for a week may provide essential omega-3 which may reduce high sugar level in the blood.
- Raw and cooked onion helps to reduce the sugar level in the blood.
- Through complex biochemical reaction Green tea helps to metabolize sugar, which is beneficial for both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
- 12 - 13 glasses of water per day is the best.
- Periodical check up of weight and blood sugar is essential.