Articles on dengue

Dengue: Facts And Prevention Measures

Jayakrishnan
With dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains.Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, peoothingUse mosquito repellents, especially during the monsoon seasonSince dengue is caused by a virus, it is the symptoms that are treated and the chronic phase of the illness with fever and myalgias lasts approximately one to two weeks.The symptoms:Severe joint and muscle painSwollen lymph nodesHeadacheFeverExhaustion - RashesThe risk of complications is in less than 1% of dengue cases The danger of dengue lies in dehydration, so it is vital to consume a lot of fluids and to only opt for a platelet transfusion if there is active bleeding or your platelet count is below 10,000.

Dengue Management and Prevention by Homeopathy

Dr. Abhay S Patil, Homeopath
Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rashthat is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome,According to statistical data there had been rise of 22 % cases of Dengue in Maharashtra in 2014 than 2013Prevention, Symptomatic  treatment after diagnosis, rest and lots of fluid can help to combat this diseaseThere are no approved vaccines for the dengue virus. Prevention thus depends on control of and protection from the bites of the mosquito that transmits it.The primary method of controlling A. aegypti is by eliminating its habitats. This is done by getting rid of open sources of water, or if this is not possible, by adding insecticides or biological control agents to these areas.Reducing open collections of water through environmental modification is the preferred method of control, given the concerns of negative health effects from insecticides and greater logistical difficulties with control agents.People can prevent mosquito bites by wearing clothing that fully covers the skin, using mosquito netting while resting,However, these methods appear not to be sufficiently effective, as the frequency of outbreaks appears to be increasing in some areas, probably due to urbanization increasing the habitat of A. aegypti. The range of the disease appears to be expanding possibly due to climate changeHome remedies1. Papaya for dengue:Juice made of papaya and its leaves is considered as one of the best home remedy. Papaya leaves are packed with enzymes that normalize platelet count, improve clotting factor, improves liver function thereby helping the person to recover.Have the juice with little water as it is bitter to taste2. Dragon fruit juice:This fruit once enjoyed as an expensive and exotic smoothic or juice is supposed to help for dengue fever.The vitamin c in this fruit aid in  improving immunity and prevent dengue hemorrhagic fever. It is good for bones, boost hemoglobin and has high antioxidant property3. High Protein Diet:To restore the vitamins,minerals,proteins and fats in body, high protein diet is required after  recovery. So eating fish, eggs,moong dal khichdi,buttermilk and vegetables soups will get patient to normal activities fastHomoeopathy can help you to get relief from the acute  symptoms and also prevent further  complications. Remedies indicatedEupatorium:Bone breaking pain with feverChill every 7-9am morning preceded by great thirstNausea, vomiting at close of chill.Periodical Headache and vomiting, chill 7-9 am, fever 3rd -4th day.Craving for cold drinks, acid drinks, ice creams.Moaning with all complaints.Aranea Diadema:Periodicity and suceptibility to Dampness with coldness present in every synptom.Throbbing pains in the long bones, feels cold to the very bones.Wakes up at night with hands twice their natural size.All complaints better by Smoking.Hammemilis:Haemorrhages Capillary which causes Undue weakness.Headache esp left temple feels as if bolt were pushed inside.Eyes feels sore, blood shot eyes, better by pressure on eyes.Hastens Absorption of haemorrhage inside the body.Forgetful , but egoistic remedy wants the respect to be shown.• Other remedies: gel, Rhus veneta, Secale cor, Podophyllum, Ipecac , Crotallus horridus are often used as per the symptoms

This Monsoon, Let's Fight Dengue

Dr. Puneet Gupta, Pulmonologist
Rain has come and its time to relax after hot climate. Rain brings joy to everyone but it also brings some troubles in the form of dengue, malaria, chickungunya, viral respiratory illness, diarrhoea etc.Today, we will talk about dengue, how to prevent, identify it and the various treatment options available. With multiple cities including Delhi recording a high number of dengue related cases, it is important that you know about the disease and how to prevent it.Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of an Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus. Mosquito can bite any time in day but it is more in early morning hourr & in evening.Symptoms of Dengue FeverSymptoms, which usually begin four to six days after infection and last for up to 10 days, may includeSudden, high feverSevere headachesPain behind the eyesSevere Bone, joint and muscle painFatigueNauseaVomitingBreathlessnessSkin rash, which appears two to five days after the onset of feverMild bleeding (such a nose bleed, bleeding gums, or easy bruising)Sometimes, symptoms are mild and can be mistaken for those of the flu or another viral infection. However, serious problems can develop. These include dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by high fever, damage to lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms may progress to massive bleeding, shock, and death. This is called dengue shock syndrome (DSS)People with weakened immune systems as well as those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever.Diagnosing dengue infectionDoctors can diagnose dengue infection with a blood test to check for the virus or antibodies to it.Treatment for dengue feverThere is no specific medicine to treat dengue infection. If you think you may have dengue fever, you should use only Paracetamol for Fever. Avoid medicines with aspirin, Ibuprofen, Nemuslide, pain killers, etc. (NSAIDS), which could worsen bleeding. You should also rest, drink plenty of fluids, and see your doctor. If you start to feel worse after 24 hours or if fever goes up, you should get to a hospital immediately to be checked for complications.Preventing dengue feverThere is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever yet in market. The best way to prevent the disease is to prevent bites by infected mosquitoes.To protect yourself:Stay away from heavily populated residential areas, if possible.Use mosquito repellents, mosquito repellents cream, while going out and even indoors.When outdoors, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks.Use mosquito nets.If you have symptoms of dengue, speak to your doctor.Avoid collection of water in places where mosquitoes can breed. These include old tires, cans, or flower pots that collect rain. Regularly change the water in cooler, outdoor bird baths and pets' water dishes.If someone in your home gets dengue fever, be especially vigilant about efforts to protect yourself and other family members from mosquitoes. Mosquitoes that bite the infected family member could spread the infection to others in your home.Stay Alert... Stay Healthy...

Dengue

Dr. Ajay Verma, Homeopath
What is dengueDengue fever also known as break bone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.Dengue viruses are arboviruses. There are four strains of the virus, which are called serotypes, and these are referred to as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4.Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly A. aegypti. Other Aedes species that transmit the disease include A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis and A. scutellaris. These mosquitoes typically bite during the day, particularly in the early morning and in the evening.Dengue carrierAedes mosquitoes are the carrier of Dengue viruses. These mosquitoes can be easily distinguished as it is larger in size and have black and white stripes on its body, so it is sometimes called tiger mosquitoes. They usually bite during the day time. They breed in artificial accumulation of fresh water, such as broken bottles and tins, flower pots, coconut shell, tree holes and so on.Signs & symptomsDengue fever is the most common of all arthropod born diseases. Dengue viruses are capable of infecting humans, and causing disease. The infection may be:Asymptomatic orSymptomatic, which may lead to :Classical dengue feverDengue hemorrhagic fever with shock orDengue hemorrhagic fever without shockDengue fever or classical dengue feverIt is also known as “Breakbone” fever or acute viral infection. The symptoms of classical dengue fever are as follows:The onset is sudden with chills and high fever raised from 102 to 105 degree and continued about 3-5 days, intense headache (retro orbital), severe muscle and backbone pain, vomiting, tastelessness, weakness, dry tongue, constipation, reddish eye, and edema on face. The fever lasts for 5-7 days after which the recovery is usually complete. The chance of fatality is very low.Dengue hemorrhagic feverIt is the severe form of dengue fever caused by infection of double dengue virus. The first infection sensitizes the patient and the second appears to produce immunological catastrophe. The clinical manifestations are:Fever is of acute onset, continues and lasting for 2-7 days.Liver enlargement and tenderness. Pain feels at pressure on liver.Nausea, vomiting and abdomen pain.Severe pain on whole body especially in backbone and joints.Hemorrhage.Bleeding under skinBleeding from noseGum bleedingBlood in vomitingBlood in stoolDengue shock syndrome (DSS)In DSS symptoms of classical dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and shock manifested by rapid and weak pulse with narrowing of the pulse pressure or hypotension, with the presence of cold, clammy skin and restlessness are present.Laboratory testsSeveral laboratory tests are helpful in diagnosing dengue infection, but only a few identify the virus itself.Although many infections cause an increase in the white cell blood count, people with dengue fever commonly have a low level of circulating white blood cells.The clot forming elements in the blood, the platelets, are also characteristically low.The percentage of the blood comprised of red cells, the hematocrit, is increased due to fluid leakage into the body tissues. Blood sodium levels are often lower than normal, and liver enzyme levels may be increased due to inflammation.The most commonly performed test to confirm a diagnosis of dengue fever looks for antibodies against the dengue virus in the patient's blood. Although this test can positively identify a dengue infection, antibodies take at least five days to appear in the blood.How to manage dengue feverTake large amounts of fluids (water, soup, milk, juice) along with the normal diet.The patient should take complete rest.Immediately consult a doctor in the following conditions :bleeding from the nose or gums;frequent vomiting;vomiting with blood;black stools;sleepiness;constant crying;abdominal pain;excessive thirst (dry mouth);pale, cold or clammy skin;difficulty in breathing.Homeopathic treatment & preventionHomeopathic system of medicine can treat and prevent dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) by immuno modulation of the patients without any side effects and adverse effects.Homeopathy has been used successfully in the other countries apart from India in the past. The selection of drugs in these cases depends upon the individual response to infection and virulence of the virus. The symptomatology of the patients those who are having dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic are studied to decide about the curative and preventive medicines for any patient as well as epidemic as a whole.There are about 12 homeopathic medicines. These drugs have been successfully used by various doctors across the globe for its treatment and management.In 1996 during the epidemic in Delhi Eupatorium perfoliatum was found most effective.The present epidemic is of two types. One is simple dengue fever (DF) having no mortality, self limiting course and the patient usually recovers within five to seven days. Homeopathic medicines are prescribed only under the supervision of qualified homeopathic doctors.The second type is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which is a severe type of infection and can be fatal. It usually develops in patients those who are already sensitized with dengue virus. The high grade fever is usually associated with severe nausea vomiting, abdominal pain and bleeding from nose, gums, blood in vomiting and stools.This type of dengue fever (DHF) can be treated with homeopathy along with the intensive general management of the patient in form of monitoring of their leucocytes and platelet counts. Remedies can be safely used in every patient along with the general treatment being given by the allopathic doctors.After studying some of the dengue hemorrhagic patients it appears that homeopathic medicines having hemorrhagic diathesis are most indicated in the present epidemic.Homeopathic treatment is quite effective not only for dengue fever but also for all other types of fevers like malaria. If the disease has already advanced and hemorrhagic state has set in, there are many homeopathic drugs to stop the hemorrhage, which must be chosen according to symptoms of the individual. Using the same medicine in every case may not be a wise option and might result in failure of the treatment.There are other home remedies to lower the fever but going by the advice of the doctor should be preferred rather than going for self treatment.Dengue is a condition of emergency, where the blood counts fall drastically if not treated effectively and immediately.Prevention with homeopathySimple dengue fever (DF): The trends of current symptomatology of the epidemic reveals that some homeopathic remedies can be taken twice daily for three days and subsequently at least two doses a week at the interval of three - four days till the epidemic persist for the prevention of dengue fever.Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF): Homeopathic remedies having hemorrhagic diathesis can be given twice a day for three days and two doses a week in all the patients those who have already suffered with the dengue fever and are prone for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Some remedies can also be used alternately to prevent both the types of dengue fever in so far not infected individuals.Why consider homeopathic treatment?It is a natural way of treating any disease without side effects.It is based on nature’s law that is like cures like.It is a holistic science that is it treats patient as a whole and not particular organ of the body.It acts not only on physical level but also on mental level of the individual.Benefits of taking homeopathic medicinesMedicines have no side effects if given according to the symptoms of the patient.Remedies have no interaction with allopathic medicines so can be taken along with allopathic treatment.It has a limited role in emergency, but can be of great benefit post emergency.Treatment can be used as post emergency treatment, where the blood counts have been stabilized. Medicines are very effective in restoring the vitality of a person after such attacks.Medicines can also be used with conventional therapies, to improve stamina, reduce fever, and improve appetite.Remedies are safe and can be given to any age group and even to the pregnant women without any side effects; but it is always better if these are used in consultation with the qualified doctor.How homeopathy helps?There are remedies which are prescribed for various types of fever that is intermittent, remittent or continuous. Remedies are very effective in decreasing the intensity of fever.Medicines are helpful in reducing the bodyaches, muscleache, headache and backache.Remedies are helpful in treating vomiting, constipation and tastelessness.Treatment helps to improve retro orbital pain.It helps to prevent hemorrhage from various orifices.Medicines treat the post viral weakness effectively.Treatment helps in quick recovery of disease.

Dengue, Chickungunya and Homeopathy.

Dr. Manu Gupta, Homeopath
DENGUE, CHICKUNGUNYA AND HOMEOPATHY.Dengue fever and chickungunya is a virus-caused disease that is spread by the bite of mosquitoes (Aedes-aegypti). This is also known as Break bone fever. the severity of symptoms like bodyaches, joints pain are more in chickenguinya .WHO currently estimates there may be 50–100 million dengue and chickungunya infections worldwide every year. Symptoms: Dengue and chickungunya are not transmitted directly from person-to-person. Its symptoms range from mild fever to fatigue, headache, joint and muscle aches, nausea or vomiting, swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases hemorrhage dengue fever which is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding and breathing difficulty; can be fetal due to blood loss.Treatment: There is no specific treatment available in Orthodox medicine for such conditions. You will need Intravenous fluids and electrolytes if there are signs of dehydration. In case of dengue hemorrhagic fever a transfusion of fresh blood or platelets can be helpful.Prevention: Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Traveling during periods of minimal mosquito activity can also be helpful.Homeopathic management: Homeopathy has been used successfully in the others countries such as India to tackle this epidemic. The selection of homoeopathic remedies depends upon the individual response to infection. In repertory there are about 25 homoeopathic remedies are mention for the treatment of dengue and chickungunya fever. Above all of them Eupatorium perfoliatum and Echinacea angustifolia were found most effective remedies for dengue fever and it has been widely used in 1996 during epidemic of dengue in Delhi.Prevention and Treatment with HomeopathyNormal Dengue and chickungunya Fever: Eupatorium perf 200 or 1M can be taken once daily for three days and subsequently at least two doses a week at the interval of three to four day till the epidemic persist for the prevention of dengue fever. Furthermore Arsenic alb + Bryonia + Echinacea angustifolia + Ledum pal + Rhus tox in 30 potency should be taken once in a day for at least 2 weeks.In case of high Fever: Take Aconite 1M and Eupatorium 1M alternatively, after every 30 minutes immediately on start fever. Just take 3 doses of each remedy. If the symptoms persist then contact your homeopath or your physician. Above mention formula can also be use in case of normal dengue fever with more frequent intervals.Dengue haemorrhagic fever: Ipecac + Eupatorium + Crotalis-hor + Hamamelis + Dengue fever 30 can be given five times a day and two doses a week in all the patients those who have already suffered with the dengue fever and are prone for dengue hemorrhagic fever.There are very good preventive medicines also available which are helpful in immunity booster and help to prevent such complications. you can contact your Homeopathy physician regarding that also.

Dengue - Myths v/s Facts

Dr. Vivek Goswami, Pediatrician
Dengue Myths vs. FactsMyth: We are facing a dengue epidemicFact: Delhi is at present going through a dengue outbreak, and it is not yet an epidemicMyth: All dengue cases are the same and must be dealt with in the same mannerFact: Dengue can be classified as dengue fever and severe dengue. A person is said to be suffering from severe dengue when there is capillary leakage. Patients who have dengue fever do not have capillary leakage. Type 2 and type 4 dengue are more likely to cause capillary leakage.Myth: Everyone suffering from dengue must be hospitalizedFact: Dengue fever can be managed on an outpatient basis and patients who do not have severe abdominal pain or tenderness, persistent vomiting, abnormal mental status or extreme weakness, do not need hospitalization. Only patients suffering from severe dengue need hospitalization basis the discretion of their consulting doctor. One must always remember that 70% of the dengue fever cases can be cured just through the proper administration of oral fluids. Patients must be given 100-150 ml of safe water every hour, and it must be ensured that they must pass urine every 4-6 hours.Myth: Dengue can never re-occur if you have had it once in the pastFact: There are four types of dengue infections, which exist in our country.While dengue from the strain cannot re-occur, that from a different strain can. A second occurrence dengue (secondary) is more serious than first infection (primary). In the primary infection, IgM or NS1 will be positive and in secondary infection IgG will also be positive.Myth: This is the worst outbreak of dengue that Delhi has ever witnessedFact: The present outbreak of dengue in the Capital is that of Dengue 4. The reason for a large number of cases is that Dengue 4 has spread in the capital for the first time. The outbreak of Dengue 2 in 2013 was more dangerous than the present Dengue 4 outbreak.Myth: Platelet transfusion is the primary treatment option for people suffering from dengue feverFact: Platelet transfusion is only needed in cases where the patient's counts are less than 10,000, and there is active bleeding. Unnecessary platelet transfusion can cause more harm than good. The best treatment for dengue is to administer large amounts of oral fluids to patients. For patients who are unable to take oral fluids, intravenous administration may be necessary.Myth: Machine platelet count is accurateFact: Machine platelet count reading may be less than the actual platelet count, and a difference of about 30,000 can occurMyth: Testing platelet levels alone accounts for complete and effective management of dengueFact: A complete blood count (especially hematocrit) is needed to monitor prognosis and increased capillary permeability, which is the starting point of all complications. Falling platelet counts with rising hematocrit levels are most important

How to Prevent Dengue in Your Child?

Dr. Chetan Shende, Pediatrician
How To Prevent Dengue in your loved ones?Dengue can be prevented. Act fast! Act Now! Follow simple preventive things given below & Fight with Dengue.Monsoon has set in and it is the time again to fight against the most rapidly spreading and deadly viral fever, Dengue. Though there is no specific treatment for dengue, there are active preventive measures which effectively helps to protect ourselves, our family and community. Eliminating the breeding places of mosquitoes and personal protection measures forms the mainstay for Dengue Prevention. Here are a few measures:Personal protectionProtective Clothing – Wear full sleeved shirts and long trousers so that your full body is covered and there is no exposed part for the mosquitoes to feast uponUse mosquito repellents – When you are outdoors or cannot wear protective clothing, then never forget to apply mosquito repellent creamsChoose right repellent – Right repellent, rides away mosquitoes. Choose repellents that contain DEET, PICARDIN OR OIL OF EUCALYPTUSProper Housing – Screen doors and windows with insecticide treated mesh with mesh hole area less than 0.04 inch. Air conditioning also helps to avoid mosquito bitesMosquito bed nets – Sleeping under mosquito bed nets acts as an added preventive measure.Control mosquito breeding:5 STEP MOSQUITO OUT:Change water in vases and bowls on alternate daysRemove water from flower pot plates on alternate daysTurn over all water storage containersCover water storage containersSpray insecticides around your house weeklyUse of Guppy fish in water storage areas, feeds on mosquito larva and helps in controlling the growth of mosquitoesMeasures are few but it offers good protection from Dengue. Prevention is better than cure, implement the measures and bid farewell to Dengue.“ Fight the bite to protect your life ”

Dengue and Chikungunya-Homoeopathy Is the Only Treatment

Dr. Shalini, Homeopath
Chikungunya virus is closely related to O’nyong’nyong virus. O’nyong’nyong virus caused a major epidemic of arthritis and rash involving at least 2 million people in Eastern and Central Africa in 1960s. After its mysterious emergence the virus virtually disappeared leaving only occasional evidence of its presence in Kenya.The chikungunya virus is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person infected with the chikungunya virus. Monkeys, and possibly other wild animals, may also serve as reservoirs of the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other humans when they bite.Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito), a household container breeder and aggressive daytime bitter which is attracted to humans, is the primary vector of chikungunya virus to humans. Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) may also play a role in human transmission is Asia, and various forest-dwelling mosquito species in Africa have been found to be infected with the virus.Aedes breeds in artificial accumulations of water. It needs only 2ml of water for breeding. It lays eggs singly. They do not fly over long distance, usually less than 100 metres. Eggs can resist desiccation for upto 1year. The eggs will hatch when flooded by deoxygenated water.Aedes can spread the infection to next generation.Aedes is the first proved vector of a virus disease- Yellow fever. Human blood is preferred over other animals with ankles as a favourite bite area.SymptomsAfter an incubation period of 3-12 days there is a sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including a severe headache, chills, fever (>40°C, 104°F), joint pain, backache, nausea, vomiting, petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunks. Migratory polyarthritis mainly affects the small joints of the hands, wrists, ankles and feet with lesser involvement of the larger joints. Joints of the extremities in particular become swollen and painful to the touch. Haemorrhage is rare. There can also be headache, conjunctival infection and slight photophobia.Redness of eyes may be the first symptom. There may be difficulty in looking upwardsIn the present epidemic in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, high fever and crippling joint pain is the prevalent complaint. Fever typically lasts for two days and abruptly comes down. The disease has a biphasic course also. Following 1-6 days of fever, the temperature returns to normal for 1-3 days and then there is a second period of fever for a few days. In the second phase of illness 80 % of people develop maculopapular rash on the trunk and extensor surfaces of the limbs. After 6 to 10 days patients recover completely. However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days. Rarely arthralgia and morning stiffness may persist for months.However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days.Dermatological manifestations observed in a recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever are as follows:Maculopapular rash like ulcers over scrotum, crural areas and axilla.Nasal blotchy erythemaFreckle-like pigmentation over centro-facial areaFlagellate pigmentation on face and extremitiesLichenoid eruption and hyperpigmentation in photodistributed areasMultiple aphthous ulcersLympoedemaMultiple ecchymotic spots (Children)Vesiculobullous lesions (infants)Subungual haemorrhage.InvestigationsA few patients develop Leucopenia.Elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferace (AST) and C-reactive proteinMildly decreased platelet counts.Diagnosis1.Isolation of the virus from blood. It is possible in the first 4-5 days of illness.  Sudden severe headache, chills, fever, joint and muscle pain are the commonest symptoms. The diagnostic tests include detection of antigens or antibodies in the blood, using ELISA (or EIA – enzyme immunoassay) or molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibodies detected by serological assays like ELISA require an IgM capture assay to distinguish it from dengue feverDifferential Diagnosis1. Dengue FeverOf all the arthropod- borne viral diseases, Dengue fever is the most common. This infection may be asymptomatic or may lead to1. Classical Dengue Fever2 .Dengue Haemorrhagic fever without shock3. Dengue Haemorrhagic fever with shockThe main vector is Aedes aegypti mosquito. The illness is characterised by a incubation period of 3 to 10 days. The onset is sudden with chills and high fever, intense headache, muscle and joint pains which prevent all movement. Within 24 hrs retro-orbital pain and photophobia develops. Other symptoms include extreme weakness, anorexia, constipation, colicky pain and abdominal tenderness. Fever is typically but not inevitably followed by a remission of a few hrs to2 days. The rash may be diffuse flushing, mottling, or fleeting pin point eruptions on face, neck and chest during the first half of the febrile period and a conspicuous rash that may be maculopapular or scarlatiform on 3rd or 4th day. Fever lasts for about 5 days.Dengue haemorrhagic fever is confined exclusively to children less than 15 yrs of age. There may be plasma leakage and abnormal haemostasis, as manifested by a rising haematocrit value and moderate to marked thrombocytopenia.The fever may rise again producing a saddle-back fever curve. There may be generalised lymphadenopathy.In dengue shock syndrome shock is present along with all the above criteria.Homoeopathic ProphylaxisAs per the guidelines laid down by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in the Organon a Genus epidemics has to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best prophylactic remedy.Many homeopaths consider Eupatorium perfoliatum as a preventive medicine for Chikungunya. The most commonly suggested potency as prophylaxis is 200C of Eupatorium perfoliatum. As per the reports the homoeopathic remedies useful for propylaxis are – Eupatorium Perfoliatum, Gelsemium, Rhustox, Bryonia Alba, Ars alb ,Aconite and Polyporus.Treatment Chikungunya fever is usually self-limiting and will resolve with time. Symptomatic treatment is recommended after excluding other more dangerous diseases. There is no vaccine currently available for Chikungunya. Supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms.Homoeopathic TreatmentAphorism 100-102 is dealing with the treatment of epidemic diseases. According to Dr.Hahnemann, a carefully observing physician can arrive so nearly at knowledge of the true state of the epidemic from the examination of even the first and second patients and can even find a suitable homoeopathic remedy for it. Dr. Hahnemann recommends investigating each epidemic disease as a new and unknown case and selecting medicine according to its symptom similarity.Homoeopathy has a very good scope in the treatment of chikungunya. Initially indicated acute remedies may give relief which may be followed by constitutional remedy in order to get rid of post fever arthralgia