Articles on cancer awareness

October Is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Every Lump Felt Is Not Cancer.

Dr. Neelam Nath Bhatia, General Physician
A nodule detected by self examination is cause of concern for the woman and she Must go to the doctor immediately. Remember a nodule need not be cancer,it can be collection of hardened fibers and nodule is called Fibroadenoma.It is treatable by a medical professional, a surgeon after ruling out cancer by doing few simple tests.It can last for years or be lifelong in women who are not aware about Cancer. It is common in women during reproductive years as reproductive hormones have a role in causing it.It is more common in women on pills or suffering from PCOD.On examination, it can be of as little as size of pea or larger. It moves like a mouse,feels like rubber, is well defined, is painless,rarely leads to Cancer but basic investigations are a Must.Fibroadenoma is very common Benign ( harmless) breast condition...simple fibroadenomas do Not increase the risk of developing breast cancer in future.How to Rule out Cancer?99% fibroadenomas are Not cancer but do get checked by doctor, so as to avoid being rare 1%.Self examination / check up in a preventive Cancer Camp has detected a lump .Doctor will suggest a Mammography test + Biopsy of the tissue.Mammography test carries a Radiation risk equivalent to taking about 10 plain X rays of chest, one after another. It is Not practical to monitor the tumor every year.This test besides being expensive has its own risks and limitations.Ultrasound test is a better choice and is equally Accurate & correct.If ultrasound test does reveal a tiny lump, easily moving, not attached to any tissue, go for removal of lump under local anesthesia as an OPD procedure.The lump can be sent for a biopsy test to clear away any doubts.Woman is told to come back in case she feels a lump at any other site in future Or routine ultrasounds of breast tissue can be carried out as an annual check up.There is No Need to Give Chemotherapy/ Radiotherapy.A course of Antibiotics is all she needs after this Minor 'Surgery' on breast.Why do fibers collect in breast causing Fibroadenomas or in fibers collect in and around muscles of Uterus causing Fibroids? Okay why do people get Cataracts?There are No Answers yet.

Cancer Can Happen to Anyone! Just Avoid These

Dr. Rajat Sachdeva, Dentist
Studies suggest that approximately 44% men and 39% women are susceptible to develop Cancer in their lifetime which is scary news! Now, studies have been conducted all over the world which provides some statistics which shows that there are some definitive conclusions which can be related to cause of cancer. There are number of risk which we will discuss to create awareness about the ‘Dreaded’ cancer to help people to get clear perspective about it.SmokingThe biggest factor in today’s time which is considered life threatening is Smoking! It is a risk factor for Lung cancer, Cancer of mouth, throat, tongue, palate etc. It has become a status symbol to smoke and considered being cool, many of which are passively exposed by their spouses and relatives which puts them at risk of danger too. Smoking should be banned at home and office etc places to avoid other people from the risk of developing heart conditions.Chewable tobacco The tobacco people chew and doesn’t causes smoke is very prevalent in Asian countries like India which is no good than smoking and causing precancerous lesions and conditions before converting into cancer. It is equally harmful as smoking. Avoid!AlcoholSpirits generally include Whisky and brandy. But the new studies show that drinking one or two of the spirits or beer can increase the risk of a woman to have breast cancer. Consider to avoid alcohol or if that’s not possible then or if you find that difficult, try and reduce the intake slowly and gradually.Oh! The sunThe actinic radiation in sunlight is considered to causes Keratotic lesions on the lips of farmers who generally work really long hours in the fields; but the melanin pigmentation on the lips protects the malignant conversion in most cases.Environment smogMany chemicals escape from industrial smokestacks and industries including suspected carcinogens. Benzene comes out in car exhaust. Factors those favors ozone buildup and lead to smog alerts may cause these chemicals to build up. In order to prevent yourself from pollution, avoid exercise near high traffic areas and on polluted days try to stay indoors mostly during smog alerts.Lifestyle disordersExercising daily for at least 30 minutes daily keeps weight in control, may reduce risk of several cancers, mostly colon and breast cancer and also helps in preventing heart disease, diabetes and bone loss.Choosing the wrong foodResearchers have found out high levels of the carcinogen agents in French fries and potato chips. Try to avoid charred meat, limit the consumption of red meat to reduce your risk of colon cancer. Cut down on the fatty fish like carp, catfish, bass, king mackerel etc. Always choose a well balanced diet rich in fiber like lentils and whole grains and low in fat along with fresh fruits and vegetables.

How Cancer Scare Can Change Your Life

Dr. Sandeep Nayak, Surgical Oncologist
Coping with cancerReceiving a diagnosis of cancer is probably one of the worst things happening to anybody. But, it need not be that scary. You are not alone. When you are diagnosed with cancer you are facing a total new and unknown world. Whether this is your first time with cancer, or you’re experiencing a recurrence, it’s most important to remember that you are not alone. There are many like you who are going through this treatment and successfully so. Take Emotional HelpEveryone deals with a cancer diagnosis differently. You could approach the others suffering from cancer to understand what they go through and prepare yourself for the future steps. It is better to approach a group than an individual as they provide you a broader perspective. There are many help groups that are actively involved in such activities and help new patients to cope with their disease.  You will be vulnerable at this time and it is important to avoid, as far as possible to make any key decisions about your treatment, while you are in the state of shock. Most people report that they could not retain or remember what the doctor told them.Treatment of Cancer.Many don’t know that cancer can be treated and in many cases it can be cured. Your doctor would advise you a combination of surgery, chemotherapy (injections) and radiotherapy. Sometimes other forms of treatment are advised. It is important that you go through all the subjected treatment without skipping any. It may take a few months to complete all of it. Hope for Cure.While cancer may be one of the biggest challenges you will ever face, there are reasons to be hopeful. Treatments for cancer has become more sophisticated and health professionals continue to deepen the understanding of cancer.Cure is possible for many cancers today. And beside medical treatments you have many other resources to draw on as well for your healing, e.g. complimentary medicine, integrative medicine, alternative therapies, yoga. Your Cancer Mentor, friends, family, your spiritual community or and other follow patients and survivors also there for you, to support you throughout your healing journey.

Grave Misconceptions About Prostate Cancer

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
Prostate Cancer remains one of the least talked about cancers in general public at-least in India. Hence there remains a great deal of confusion surrounding this disease.Ask any group of men about prostate cancer – some might have few notions of their own unsubstantiated by medical information, other might change the topic and a couple may have few jokes ready too.Most men who have ever heard about a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) will say so, that the PSA is the benchmark for Cancer Prostate diagnosis for them and their physicians1. Prostate cancer is an old man’s disease.WRONG!The more likely you are to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (65% of cases are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older)35% men are diagnosed at an early ageAge Wise incidence:   < 40 Years:  1 in 10,000 men      40 – 50 Years: 1 in 40 to 60 men.      60 – 69 Years: 1 in 15 men.There are many risk factors to consider - Your race, family history, physical health  and lifestyle—even geographic location.2. If you don’t have any symptoms, you don’t have prostate cancer.WRONG!Prostate cancer is one of the most asymptomatic cancers in oncology, meaning not all men experience symptoms.Many times symptoms can be mistaken or attributed to something else.Signs of prostate cancer are often first detected by a doctor during a routine check-up. Common symptoms include a need to urinate frequently, difficulty starting or stopping urination, weak or interrupted flow of urination, painful or burning urination, difficulty having an erection, painful ejaculation, blood in the urine or semen, or frequent pain and stiffness in the lower back, hips or upper thighs. If you experience any of these symptoms, be sure to tell your doctor.3. Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer I don’t need to worry about.The answer to this one is sometimes, yes. Sometimes, no. Aggressiveness can be commented upon ONLY AFTER BIOPSY keeping in mind patient’s age and health status. Patients need to understand the complexity of this disease and make treatment decisions that are right for them in consultation with a trusted Urologist.4. Prostate cancer doesn’t run in my family, so the odds aren’t great that I will get it? WRONG!While a family history of prostate cancer doubles a man’s odds of being diagnosed to 1 in 3. This compares to 1 in 8 women who will be diagnosed with breast cancer.Family history and genetics do, however, play a role in a man’s chances for developing prostate cancer. A man whose father or bother had prostate cancer is twice as likely to develop the disease. The risk is further increased if the cancer was diagnosed in a family member at a younger age (less than 55 years old), or if it affected three or more family members.5. The PSA test is cancer test.WRONG!The PSA tests measures levels of prostate-specific antigen in the prostate, not cancer. PSA is produced by the prostate in response to a number of problems that could be present in the prostate including an inflammation or infection (prostatitis), enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia) or, possibly, cancer. Think of it as a first alert smoke alarm, instead of a fire alarm.  The PSA test may be the first step in the diagnostic process for cancer.  It has made detection of cancer in its early stages, when it is best treated, possible. Experts believe the PSA test saves the life of approximately 1 in 39 men who are tested. The flip side is also the fear of over detection of cancer, which may not affect the patient in his lifetime. This is supported by various Cancer Watchdog Organizations world over.This article is the first of a two part series. Watch out this space for more debunked myths such as-6. A High PSA level means that you have prostate cancer and a Low PSA means you do not have prostate cancer.7. Treatment for prostate cancer always causes impotence or incontinence.8. Sexual activity increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.9. You can pass your cancer to others.10. TURP / Endoscopic Procedure is Adequate treatment for Cancer Prostate 

How Is National Breast Cancer Month Making a Difference?

Ms. Samara Mahindra, Dietitian/Nutritionist
National Breast cancer awareness month is celebrated to increase the awareness of the disease and to raise funds for research, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and cure. It makes people more determined to fight cancer and becomes a platform for sharing experiences by finding a community of like-minded people.Health experts have found an increase in breast cancer among younger women. It can be frightening, shocking and a painful experience for most and taking the right precautions are mandatory.It’s time to be on your toes for a mammogram!Following precautionary measures i.e, taking a self breast examination every month and undergoing a mammogram post the age of fifty is essential. Doing this will most probably detect the presence of cancer in early stages and therefore survival rates can increase tremendously.Dismal state of breast cancer screenings in IndiaA WHO Study claims that most women around the world suffer from breast cancer predominantly and majority of such cases in developing countries, get detected in advanced stages.India has a long way in terms of spreading awareness. Even though most of the state government medical colleges are offering free breast cancer screening in urban and rural areas, the number of women showing up at hospitals for these tests are very low. Reasons for a low response is lack of awareness about health and cancer along with the discretion or shyness associated with sexuality.On the other hand…It’s a proud fact that the Indian government has come up with a cancer prevention programme, making screening of oral, cervix and breast cancer for male and female above the age of 30 mandatory.Social organisations like non-governmental organisations, self-help groups and other organisations working at the ground level are trying to focus their efforts to bring success to such campaigns.Sharing your storyThere are breast cancer survivors who are now stepping out and sharing their experiences with the rest of the world. They are encouraging other women to step out and take the right measures in protecting themselves and providing hope to those who have already been through the illness. Such as CARER Program Breast Cancer survivor Shobha Moorjani says,“I can say with absolute confidence that right after my chemotherapy, with the CARER Program I bounced back and fought cancer so bravely that it didn’t affect me that I ever had that disease. I have cleared my first test completely.”Listen to the heart-warming story of Shobha Moorjani at Here.Spread the knowledgeSo if you are going through breast cancer or are a survivor or know someone who has then it’s your month people, spread the knowledge. Here are some ways…Host a cancer survivor partySpeak to your community, school or even your family and friends about screeningRun a marathonAnd for women who are already doing this Thumbs up!

This Is How We Can Deal With the Physical Changes Cancer Has on Our Bodies

Ms. Samara Mahindra, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Most cancer treatments, specifically radiation, surgery or chemotherapy has major physiological side effects on the body, some of which are fatigue, vomiting, infections and fluctuations in weight. Along with this, it can bring about skin discolourations, hair loss, brittle and discoloured nails, taste changes and many more. Such changes are highly distressing side effects of treatment but can be dealt with in the right manner.Here is how, but before that…What does chemotherapy do?Chemotherapy drugs make your skin dry or cause rashes, while nails become brittle, discoloured and cracked. The major effect is loss of hair. In some traditions and cultures, it’s compulsory that the women have long hair and hence losing it might affect one’s cultural identity, however there is no reason to be embarrassed or let the physical attributes of treatment take a bigger toll on your emotional well-being than needed.What can you do?Use a hypothermia cap (also called as cold cap or cooling cap) during or after treatment which is a therapeutic device used to cool the human scalp. Worn tight on the head, hypothermia caps are made of a synthetic fabric such as neoprene, silicone or polyurethane and filled with a coolant agent such as ice or gel which is frozen to a very cold temperature (-25 to -30 degree Celsius).Hypothermia caps may be useful to prevent hair loss during some kinds of chemotherapy infusions, specifically when taxanes or anthracylines are used. It should not be used when cancer is present in the skin of the scalp or in people with lymphoma or leukemia.You can also wear wigs, hats and turbans which can be very fashionable and affordable. Go to a wig specialist before you begin chemotherapy, so that he/she can suggest a wig for you after your treatment that looks just like your natural hair.CARER program has taken all of this into account and has introduced a grooming section, where our hairstylist and makeup specialist Sabrina Suhail teaches you how to draw eyebrows and tie a trendy turban by yourself.To know more, please visit our website-  CARER Program.What does radiotherapy do?Everyone who undergoes radiotherapy is at risk of skin damage during or after treatment. Radiotherapy is nothing but high energy radiation that shrinks tumours and kills cancer cells by burning them and hence the skin around the area is also affected. The skin is irritated with moderate to severe burning and while the skin eventually heals in most cases, it will not remain as elastic as before. This usually occurs around 10 to 14 days after starting treatment, but can happen later in treatment or after it has been completed.What can you do?After your treatment, it’s necessary that you take care of your skin. You’ll be given specific skincare instructions by the therapeutic radiographers in your hospital.They advise you to do the following:Wash the treated area gently with warm water using a mild and gentle soap. Pat the skin dry with a soft towel.Use a non-perfumed deodorant.Use a water based moisturiser to keep the skin soft.If you want to use anything else on the skin in the affected area, discuss this with your therapeutic radiographer first.Avoid exposing the treated area to extremes of temperature such as hot water bottles, heat pads, saunas or ice packs during treatment.CARER program has provided you with a short and easy to do make-up tutorial by specialist Sabrina Suhail to teach you how to deal with skin discolourations.Its normal to be affected by the physical changes that treatment brings about, but remember such changes are not permanent. There are many options available out there to deal with this effectively and because your emotional well-being is key to your recovery, we made sure we dedicated an entire segment to grooming on the CARER Program. Furthermore the necessary step that can be taken is to consult a hair and skin specialist, talk to therapeutic radiographers or consult a dermatologist. We would be glad if you can also get back to us incase you need to further assistance.“Personality is what makes somebody beautiful” Francois Nars.(How to deal with the physical changes one goes through with surgery and what can be done, will be addressed in detail in our next blog post, so keep an eye out!) 

8 Ways to Prevent Breast Cancer

Dr. Devendra Singh, Homeopath
1. Keep Weight in CheckIt’s easy to tune out because it gets said so often, but maintaining a healthy weight is an important goal for everyone. Being overweight can increase the risk of many different cancers, including breast cancer, especially after menopause.2. Be Physically ActiveExercise is as close to a silver bullet for good health as there is, and women who are physically active for at least 30 minutes a day have a lower risk of breast cancer. Regular exercise is also one of the best ways to help keep weight in check.3. Eat Your Fruits & Vegetables – and Avoid Too Much AlcoholA healthy diet can help lower the risk of breast cancer.  Try to eat a lot of fruits and vegetables and keep alcohol at moderate levels or lower (a drink a day or under).  While moderate drinking can be good for the heart in older adults, even low levels of intake can increase the risk of breast cancer.  If you don’t drink, don’t feel you need to start. If you drink moderately, there’s likely no reason to stop. But, if you drink more, you should cut down or quit.4. Don’t SmokeSmokers and non-smokers alike know how unhealthy smoking is.  On top of lowering quality of life and increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and at least 15 cancers – including breast cancer – it also causes smelly breath, bad teeth, and wrinkles. Now that’s motivation to stay smoke-free or work to get smoke-free.5. Breastfeed, If PossibleBreastfeeding for a total of one year or more (combined for all children) lowers the risk of breast cancer. It also has great health benefits for the child.6. Avoid Birth Control Pills, Particularly After Age 35 or If You SmokeBirth control pills have both risks and benefits. The younger a woman is, the lower the risks are. While women are taking birth control pills, they have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. This risk goes away quickly, though, after stopping the pill. The risk of stroke and heart attack is also increased while on the pill – particularly if a woman smokes. However, long-term use can also have important benefits, like lowering the risk of ovarian cancer, colon cancer, and uterine cancer – not to mention unwanted pregnancy – so there’s also a lot in its favor. If you’re very concerned about breast cancer, avoiding birth control pills is one option to lower risk.7. Avoid Post-Menopausal HormonesPost-menopausal hormones shouldn’t be taken long term to prevent chronic diseases, like osteoporosis and heart disease. Studies show they have a mixed effect on health, increasing the risk of some diseases and lowering the risk of others, and both estrogen-only hormones and estrogen-plus-progestin hormones increase the risk of breast cancer. If women do take post-menopausal hormones, it should be for the shortest time possible. The best person to talk to about the risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormones is your doctor.8. Tamoxifen and Raloxifene for Women at High RiskAlthough not commonly thought of as a “healthy behavior,” taking the prescription drugs tamoxifen and raloxifene can significantly lower the risk of breast cancer in a woman at high risk of the disease.Approved by the FDA for breast cancer prevention, these powerful drugs can have side effects, so they aren’t right for everyone. If you think you’re at high risk, talk to your doctor to see if tamoxifen or raloxifene may be right for you.

A Few Points About Breast Cancer

Dr. Yogesh Kumar, Ayurveda
Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. There are numerous types of breast cancer, but cancer that begins in the milk ducts (ductal carcinoma) is the most common type.After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women.Public support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased and the number of deaths has been declining, thanks to a number of factors such as earlier detection, new treatments and a better understanding of the disease.It's not clear what causes breast cancer. Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin growing abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do. The accumulating cells form a tumor that may spread (metastasize) through your breast, to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body.Breast cancer most often begins with cells in the milk-producing ducts. Doctors call this type of breast cancer invasive ductal carcinoma. Breast cancer may also begin in the milk glands known as lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma) within the breast.Researchers have identified things that can increase your risk of breast cancer. But it's not clear why some people who have no risk factors develop cancer, yet other people with risk factors never do. It's likely that breast cancer is caused by a complex interaction of your genetic makeup and your environment.Inherited breast cancer Doctors estimate that only 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed through generations of a family. A number of inherited defective genes that can increase the likelihood of breast cancer have been identified. The most common are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), both of which increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer.If you have a strong family history of breast cancer or other cancers, blood tests may help identify defective BRCA or other genes that are being passed through your family. Consider asking your doctor for a referral to a genetic counselor, who can review your family health history. A genetic counselor can also discuss the benefits, risks and limitations of genetic testing with you. It's important to remember that the genetic tests help to identify a high-risk individual or family, but they don't definitively predict who will or will not get breast cancer.Risk factorsA risk factor is anything that makes it more likely you'll get a particular disease. But having one or even several risk factors doesn't necessarily mean you'll develop cancer — many women who develop breast cancer have no known risk factors other than simply being women.Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:Being female. Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.Increasing age. Your risk of breast cancer increases as you age. Women older than 55 have a greater risk than do younger women.A personal history of breast cancer. If you've had breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast.A family history of breast cancer. If you have a mother, sister or daughter with breast cancer, you have a greater chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.Inherited genes that increase cancer risk. Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most common gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don't make cancer inevitable.Radiation exposure. If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, you're more likely to develop breast cancer later in life.Obesity. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of breast cancer because fat tissue produces estrogen that may help fuel certain cancers.Beginning your period at a younger age. Beginning your period before age 12 increases your risk of breast cancer.Beginning menopause at an older age. If you began menopause after age 55, you're more likely to develop breast cancer.Having your first child at an older age. Women who give birth to their first child after age 35 may have an increased risk of breast cancer.Postmenopausal hormone therapy. Women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer.Drinking alcohol. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. Experts recommend no more than one alcoholic beverage a day for women.Other risk factors that have been suggested, but don't play any role in the development of breast cancer include tightfitting bras, antiperspirants, breast implants and shift work.Chemotherapy Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. If your cancer has a high chance of returning or spreading to another part of your body, your doctor may recommend chemotherapy to decrease the chance that the cancer will recur. This is known as adjuvant systemic chemotherapy.Chemotherapy is sometimes given before surgery in women with larger breast tumors. Doctors call this neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The goal is to shrink a tumor to a size that makes it easier to remove with surgery. This may also increase the chance of a cure. Research is ongoing into neoadjuvant chemotherapy to determine who may benefit from this treatment.Chemotherapy is also used in women whose cancer has already spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy may be recommended to try to control the cancer and decrease any symptoms the cancer is causing.Chemotherapy side effects depend on the drugs you receive. Common side effects include hair loss, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and a small increased risk of developing infection.Hormone therapy Hormone therapy — perhaps more properly termed hormone-blocking therapy — is often used to treat breast cancers that are sensitive to hormones. Doctors sometimes refer to these cancers as estrogen receptor positive (ER positive) and progesterone receptor positive (PR positive) cancers.Hormone therapy can be used after surgery or other treatments to decrease the chance of your cancer returning. If the cancer has already spread, hormone therapy may shrink and control it.

Prostate Cancer - Risk Factors, Signs And Treatment

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
What is Prostate Cancer?Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. What Is the Prostate?The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen. As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it is not the same as prostate cancer. Men may also have other prostate changes that are not cancer.What Are the Risk Factors?Research has found risk factors that increase your chances of getting prostate cancer. These risk factors include:Age: The older a man is, the greater his risk for getting prostate cancer.Family history: Certain genes (the functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring) that you inherited from your parents may affect your prostate cancer risk. Currently, no single gene is sure to raise or lower your risk of getting prostate cancer. However, a man with a father, brother, or son who has had prostate cancer is two to three times more likely to develop the disease himself.Race: Prostate cancer is more common in some racial and ethnic groups than in others, but medical experts do not know why. Researchers are trying to determine the causes of prostate cancer and whether it can be prevented. They do not yet agree on the factors that can influence a man’s risk of developing the disease, either positively or negatively.Some drugs lower the risk of getting prostate cancer, but whether they can help lower the risk of dying from prostate cancer is still unclear. Regular use of multivitamins has not been proven to increase or decrease the risk of early or localized prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor about multivitamin use.What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.Some symptoms of prostate cancer are:Difficulty starting urination.Weak or interrupted flow of urine.Frequent urination, especially at night.Difficulty emptying the bladder completely.Pain or burning during urination. Blood in the urine or semen.Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away.Painful ejaculation. If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.Should I get screened for Cancer Prostate ?Informed Decision Making - Most urologists support informed decision making. Informed decision making occurs when a man:Understands the nature and risk of prostate cancer.Understands the risks of, benefits of, and alternatives to screening.Participates in the decision to be screened or not at a level he desires.Makes a decision consistent with his preferences and values. We need better ways to screen for and treat prostate cancer. Until we make these discoveries, and even when we do, men and their families will turn to trusted health care professionals to help them make informed decisions.How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?If your prostate specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal exam (DRE) is abnormal, doctors may do more tests to find or diagnose prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound: A probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum, and high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. This test may be used during a biopsy.Biopsy: A small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.Gleason score: This score is determined when the biopsy is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2–10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.Staging If prostate cancer is diagnosed, other tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body. This process is called staging. Whether the cancer is only in the prostate, or has spread outside the prostate, determines your stage of prostate cancer. The stage of prostate cancer tells doctors what kind of treatment you need.How Is Prostate Cancer Treated?Different types of treatment are available for prostate cancer. You and your doctor will decide which treatment is right for you. Some common treatments are:Active surveillance. Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by performing prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) tests regularly, and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms.Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy—External radiation therapy. A machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells or Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy). Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells. Brachytherapy is not available in IndiaHormone therapy. Blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow.Other therapies used in the treatment of prostate cancer that are still under investigation includeCryotherapy. Placing a special probe inside or near the prostate cancer to freeze and kill the cancer cells. Not available in India.Chemotherapy. Using special drugs to shrink or kill the cancer. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given through your veins, or, sometimes, both.Biological therapy. Works with your body's immune system to help it fight cancer or to control side effects from other cancer treatments. Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.High-intensity focused ultrasound. This therapy directs high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) at the cancer to kill cancer cells.Many kinds of complementary and alternative medicine have not been tested scientifically and may not be safe. Talk to your doctor before you start any kind of complementary or alternative medicine.Which Treatment Is Right For Me?Choosing the treatment that is right for you may be hard. Talk to your cancer doctor about the treatment options available for your type and stage of cancer. Your doctor can explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and their side effects.Sometimes people get an opinion from more than one cancer doctor. This is called a “second opinion.” Getting a second opinion may help you choose the treatment that is right for you.