Articles on brain injury

This Is What Happens When Your Brain Is on Drugs

Ms. Rajeshwari Luther
It is a commonly known fact- supported by years of scientific research- that the use and abuse of any illicit drug or alcohol cause drastic deterioration in the way one thinks, feels, and behaves. Before we talk about this deterioration, let us look at the role our brain plays in our thinking, feeling, and behaving. Every thought, emotion, or action we experience involves our nervous system- our brain, spinal cord, and the nerves that extend throughout our body. The neurons are the millions of cells that are responsible for the functioning of our nervous system. They use positive and negative charges and chemicals (called neurotransmitters) to send messages to and from all the glands and organs to the brain, which in turn evokes responses. Dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) are the four main neurotransmitters involved in substance dependence. We all know that drugs and alcohol change our mood- they either make us feel extremely happy or depressingly sad or any other emotion that can be encompassed in the spectrum between these two. The question is how do they do it? The simple answer is that the change the actions of the neurotransmitters. Drugs and alcohol could either change the way neurotransmitters are produced, released or sent. OR they could imitate, block or enhance the effect of a neurotransmitter. The result is a change in one’s mood. Thus, thoughts like “I feel good” or “I feel bad” change into “I need a drink” or “I’ve got to have a hit.” An individual gets addicted to a mood-altering substance because it changes the way neurotransmitters work, which leads to intense feelings of pleasure. Scientists believe that people with low levels of dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, and GABA in the “pleasure center” (medial forebrain bundle) of the brain experience a lower level of pleasure. Hence, they seek drugs and alcohol- that work on neurotransmitters- to experience feelings of pleasure. Besides altering the way neurotransmitters work, repeated substance use can change the pathway of dopamine (the “feel good” chemical) through the “pleasure center” of the brain. In simpler terms, it could cause one to either like a drug because it makes them feel happy, want a drug to fulfil their craving, or to absolutely need a drug at a primal level. Once a need pathway is formed, the individual continues to use the substance, despite it not really making them happy or crave it. This makes them believe that they need the drug or alcohol to survive, taking all sense of control away from them. Thus, addicts usually talk about how once they start drinking or using, they cannot stop any more than they can stop breathing. In sum, addiction is not only a disorder or the brain, but also a disease of the body and a sickness of the soul.

Head Injuries: Causes and Treatments

Dr. Apoorva Kumar, Spine Surgeon
Head injuries are dangerous. They can lead to permanent disability, mental impairment, and even death. To most people, head injuries are considered an acceptable risk when engaging in sports and other types of recreational activities. But there are steps you can take to lower the risk and protect yourself and your children.What Are Head Injuries?Head injuries are injuries to the scalp, skull, or brain caused by trauma. Concussions are the most common type of sports-related brain injury with an estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions a year. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that happens when the brain is jarred or shaken hard enough to bounce against the skull. This can happen when two athletes collide or when someone falls and hits his or her head. It can also result from being hit in the head with a piece of sporting equipment. In a sport such as soccer, even "heading" the ball can cause a concussion. A concussion causes an alteration of a person's mental status and can disrupt the normal functioning of the brain. Multiple concussions can have a long-lasting, cumulative life-changing effect.You don't have to be hit in the head to experience a concussion. An impact elsewhere on the body can create enough force to jar the brain. You also won't necessarily lose consciousness with a concussion. Concussions range from mild to severe. The effects may be apparent immediately, or they may not show up until hours or even days later.Other types of TBIs are a contusion, which is a bruise on the brain that can cause swelling, and a hematoma, which is bleeding in the brain that collects and forms a clot. A skull fracture is another type of head injury that can affect the brain. Sometimes with a fracture, pieces of bone can cut into the brain and cause bleeding and other types of injury.In 2008, the following activities resulted in the highest number of head injuries for all ages:CyclingFootballBasketballBaseball and softball,Riding powered recreational vehicles such as dune buggies, go-carts, and mini bikesAccording to the Brain Injury Association of America, the five leading activities responsible for concussions in children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years of age are:CyclingFootballBasketballPlayground activitiesSoccerWhat Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Brain Injury?Signs of a TBI include:ConfusionDepressionDizziness or balance problemsDouble or fuzzy visionFeeling foggy or groggyFeeling sluggish or tiredHeadacheMemory lossNauseaSensitivity to light or noiseSleep disturbanceTrouble concentratingTrouble rememberingIndications that a head injury is more serious than a concussion and requires emergency treatment include:Changes in size of pupilsClear or bloody fluid draining from the nose, mouth, or earsConvulsionsDistorted facial featuresFacial bruisingFracture in the skull or faceImpaired hearing, smell, taste, or visionInability to move one or more limbsIrritabilityLightheadednessLoss of consciousnessLow breathing rateRestlessness, clumsiness, or lack of coordinationSevere headacheSlurred speech or blurred visionStiff neck or vomitingSudden worsening of symptoms after initial improvementSwelling at the site of the injuryPersistent vomitingOther important safety measures include:Wear light-reflecting clothes when riding a bike at night.Don't dive in water less than 12 feet deep or any body of water where you cannot see the bottom, murky water.Make sure that children's play areas and equipment are safe and in good repair.Don't let children play sports that are inappropriate for their age.Supervise and teach children how to properly use sports equipment.Don't wear clothing that interferes with vision.Follow all rules at water parks and swimming pools.Don't skateboard or cycle on uneven or unpaved surfaces.Don't play sports when you are tired or very ill.

65 Interesting Facts About Human Brain!

Dr. Pranav Ghodgaonkar, Neurosurgeon
The human brain weighs on average three pounds or 1.5 kg.Dimensions of the human brain are mind scratching.Average brain width = 140 mm Average brain length = 167 mm Average brain height = 93 mmThe cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.Human skin weighs twice as much as the brain.The brain is made up of about 75% water.The human brain is composed of about 100 billion neurons plus a trillion glial cells.The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consist of at least 60% fat.Neurons develop at the rate of 250,000 neurons per minute during early pregnancy.Human brain has more brain cells as a newborn baby than it will ever have again. At birth, the brain has almost the same size as an adult brain.A newborn baby’s brain grows about three times its size in the first year.Studies say human brain keeps developing until your 40s. Humans continue to make new neurons throughout life in response to mental activity.It’s a myth; there is NO Left/ Right Brain Divide. They work together.Human brain uses 20% of the oxygen as well as 20 % of total body blood Volume.One becomes unconscious when brain loses blood for 8 to 10 seconds.Lack of oxygen in the brain for 5 to 10 minutes results in permanent brain damage. Male brains on average have a total volume that is between 8 % and13% larger than that of females.It’s a myth that humans only use 10% of the brain, we use all of our brains.There are no pain receptors in the brain, so the brain can feel no pain.A baby's brain can use up to 50% of the total glucose supply.At rest, brain uses one-fifth of a calorie per minute.There are virtually no differences in brain anatomy between people with autism and those without.Human Brain has about 70,000 thoughts a day.Half of human brains can be removed by surgery with no apparent effect on personality or memory. Human brains are 10% smaller than they were 20,000 years ago.Information can be processed as slowly as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec (about 268 miles/hr).While awake, the brain generates between 10 and 23 watts of power–or enough energy to power a light bulb. Excessive stress has shown to "alter brain cells, brain structure, and brain function."Scientists have discovered that men and women’s brains react differently to pain, which explains why they may perceive or discuss pain differently.Every time one recalls a memory or have a new thought, one is creating a new connection in your brain.While one sleep at night, it's the best time for the brain to consolidate all memories from the day.Lack of sleep may actually hurt the ability to create new memories.Studies show that brain waves are more active while dreaming than when one is awake.Human brain generates nearly 25 watts of power while you're awake,which is enough to light up a light bulb.There’s a virus that attacks human DNA making people less intelligent, impairing brain activity, learning & memory.Humans have taste receptors in the stomach, intestines, pancreas,lungs , anus, testicles and the brain.The smell of chocolate increases theta brain waves, which triggers relaxation.Juggling has shown to change the brain in as little as seven days. The study indicates that learning new things helps the brain to change very quickly.Alcohol doesn't make forget anything. It only takes 6 minutes for brain cells to react to alcohol. When one get blackout drunk, the brain temporarily loses the ability to create memories.It is thought that Long Term mobile phone use significantly increases the risk of brain tumors however it has not been proved in any scientific study.According to scientists the brain treats rejection like physical pain.Laughing at a joke is no simple task as it requires activity in five different areas of the brain.When one learn something new, the structure of brain changes.In 2015, the 4th most powerful supercomputer in the world took 40 minutes to simulate just one second of human brain activity.Research on naps, meditation & nature walks reveals that mental breaks increase productivity, replenish attention, solidify memories & encourage creativity.Humans have as many brain cells in their stomachs as cats have in their brains.A study Found brain age decreases by 0.95 years for each year of education, and by 0.58 years for every daily flight of stairs climbed.The human brain has enough memory to hold three million hours of television.Humans spend 13% of their lives not focusing on anything in particular.Music lessons have shown to considerably boost brain organization and ability in both children and adults.Those who are left-handed or ambidextrous have a corpus callosum (the part of the brain that bridges the two halves) that is about 11%larger than those who are right-handed.Albert Einstein’s brain was similar in size to other humans except in the region that is responsible for math and spatial perception. In that region, his brain was 35% wider than average.While an elephant’s brain is physically larger than a human brain, the human brain is 2% of total body weight (compared to 0.15% of an elephant's brain) meaning humans have the largest brain to  body size.Reading aloud and talking often to a young child promotes brain development.The capacity for such emotions as joy, happiness, fear, and shyness are already developed at birth. The specific type of nurturing a child receives shapes how these emotions are developed.The first sense to develop while in utero (in the womb) is the sense of touch. The lips and cheeks can experience touch at about 8 weeks and  the rest of the body, at around 12 weeks.Children who learn two languages before the age of five alters the brain structure and adults have a much denser gray matter.Studies have shown that child abuse can inhibit the development of the brain and can permanently affect brain development.The brain has a processing capacity of 0.1 quadrillion instructions per second. The fastest supercomputer in the world, called Road runner is capable of handling 1.026 quadrillion calculations per second.Alcohol interferes with brain processes by weakening connections between neurons.Every time you have a new thought, or recall a memory, a new brain connection is made between two or more brain cells.A living brain is so soft you could cut it with a table knife.The left side of your brain (left hemisphere) controls the right side of your body; and, the right side of your brain (right hemisphere)controls the left side of your body.Differences in brain weight and size do not equal differences in mental ability.

Sports Injuries In Young Athletes - An Overview

Dr. Senthilvelan.R, Orthopedist
The prevalence of injuries in young athletes is on the rise as more and more young children take upon more intense sports training. There are multi factorial reasons which contribute to overuse injuries in young athletes. Targeted interventions are necessary in prevention of these injuries.Children have numerous benefits when they stay active and physically fit by participating in sports, however there is concern regarding safety of intense sports participation of young athletes. Almost 1/3rd to 50 percent of injuries in this age group is as a result of overuse.Chronic overuse injuries are generally defined as injuries that occur because of increased levels of physiological stress without sufficient recovery time. A number of prevention strategies are available to prevent which target the athlete's neuro-muscular control mechanisms to reduce the likelihood of injury.Numbers of extrinsic risk factors are often implicated in over use injuries. These can occur in a number of scenarios. In the first scenario the athlete may attempt to rapidly increase training load after period of inactivity and this could result in stress fractures. In this situation the body does not have enough time to adapt to higher level of stress and is not adequately prepared to dissipate repetitive forces.A second scenario is when an athlete attempts to participate at a level that exceeds individual’s skill level. There could be potential mismatch between skill and fitness level to that of imposed physical demand and can potentially lead to injury.Coaches or PT masters at school should understand the physical fitness levels of children at school and design training in a  way to provide appropriate progression of training.Ways to prevent Overuse injuries:1. A young athlete needs to be assessed in regards to readiness of running and his/hers relative risk of running related injury. Determining the fitness level before running, length of running and prior running injuries and previous sports needs to be documented.2. Modifying training volumes for athletes who have recently undergone growth spurts are recommended to reduce stress on growing bones.3. Provision of individualized training programs taking into account their fitness level, and injuries._______________________________________________________________________________________

Knee Sports Injuries

Dr. Rajat Jangir, Orthopedist
Problems in the knee are extremely common. These injuries range from sprains and anterior knee pain, to meniscus and ligament tears, to arthritis. With the current increase in activity that we are seeing in today’s population, knee injuries will only become more common. Fortunately, as knee injuries become more common our understanding of these injuries and ability to treat them successfully continues to improve. From improved understanding of how musculoskeletal dynamics affect knee injury, risk, and prevention; to using the latest minimally invasive techniques to treat surgical knee problems; our knowledge and techniques for treatment of the knee continues to evolve and improve.ACL InjuriesThe anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. Ligaments are strong, dense structures made of connective tissues that help stabilize a joint. In this case, the ACL connects the femur to the tibia and helps provide stability to the knee and minimize stress across the knee joint. Twisting or pivoting movements can often cause the ACL to strain or tear.ACL tears occur in athletes participating in cutting and pivoting sports such as basketball, football, soccer, and skiing. At the time of an ACL injury the athlete typically feels a “pop” or a tearing sensation. This is followed by swelling within the first six hours of the injury. The most common injury associated with ACL tears is a meniscus tear.It is well recognized that ACL injuries are much more common in females. There are multiple reasons for this including bone anatomy, hormonal differences, muscular balance, and the way they perform certain sports. Of these factors, the ones we can potentially change are muscular balance and the way sporting moves are completed. Females tend to cut and jump with their knees only slightly bent, which can predispose them to ACL injury. The hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio is also different from males. Studies have shown that strengthening exercises and plyometric programs aimed at changing these factors can prevent ACL injuries.ACL strains can sometimes be treated with physical therapy and muscle strengthening. However, most complete tears require surgery in active patients. Modern ACL surgery involves completely removing the torn ligament and reconstructing the torn ACL. The most common grafts used to reconstruct a torn ACL are the patella tendon, hamstring tendons, or cadaver tissue (allograft). Each graft offers specific advantages and disadvantages, so it is important to understand the differences.Meniscus InjuriesThe meniscus is a pad of specialized cartilage that is located between the femur and tibia bones in the knee joint. There are two menisci in the knee – one on the inside of the knee (medial meniscus) and one on the outside of the knee (lateral meniscus). The meniscus has several functions including: acting as a shock absorber or cushion, distributing load across the knee, decreasing friction, and adding to stability of the knee.Meniscus tears typically occur as a result of twisting injuries to the knee. They can be caused by traumatic injury, often seen in athletes, or they can be degenerative in nature, tearing from minor trauma as the meniscus becomes more brittle with age. The symptoms of a meniscus tear include pain, swelling, locking, and inability to completely straighten the knee joint. An MRI is frequently obtained to diagnose a meniscus tear.Treatment of meniscal tears depends on several factors including the type of tear, the location of the tear, and the activity level of the patient. Some patients can be treated nonoperatively. If surgery is necessary, minimally invasive arthroscopic techniques are used to either trim out the torn portion of the meniscus (partial meniscectomy) or to repair the meniscus.The PCL InjuriesThe posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. The PCL, along with the ACL, is located in the center of knee. Its primary function is to prevent posterior translation of the tibia on the femur. The PCL also plays a role in the side-to-side stability of the knee.The PCL is injured less commonly than the ACL. The most common mechanism of injury involves a blow to the front of the tibia (shin bone) when the knee is bent. PCL tears can occur as isolated injuries or can be associated with other knee injuries.The symptoms of a PCL injury are usually less dramatic than those of an ACL tear. Swelling is often only mild. The pain from a PCL injury is usually resolved within 2-4 weeks. However, a sense of instability may persist, especially when changing directions.Treatment for isolated PCL injuries initially focuses on rehabilitation and strengthening after the pain and swelling subside. Partial tears of the PCL do not usually require surgical treatment; even isolated complete tears of the PCL do not always need surgical treatment.If symptoms of instability persist after rehabilitation, surgical reconstruction of the PCL is recommended. Modern PCL surgery involves completely removing the torn ligament and reconstructing the torn PCL using a minimally invasive arthroscopic technique. The new PCL is made using a tendon graft, obtained from either the patient or cadaver (allograft). Furthermore, PCL reconstruction surgery is typically performed as an outpatient procedure.Cartilage InjuriesCartilage is a type of specialized connective tissue. There are three main types of cartilage: hyaline (articular) cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. Hyaline (articular) cartilage provides a smooth, white, glistening layer covering the femur, tibia, and undersurface of the patella. The main functions of the hyaline cartilage is to provide shock-absorbing properties and allow for a frictionless smooth surface. Articular cartilage lacks blood supply and therefore has a limited capacity for healing. It can be injured by trauma or repetitive injury.Cartilage injuries may cause pain, swelling, and/or locking if the fragment has separated into the joint. The surgical treatment options for cartilage damage are: debridement (cleanup), microfracture, cartilage (osteochondral) transplant, allograft, and chondrocyte transplantation. These cartilage restoration procedures can be done using minimally invasive arthroscopic techniques.MicrofractureThe microfracture technique is used for full thickness cartilage defects with exposed bone. Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to regenerate itself due to its lack of blood supply. Therefore, the microfracture technique was designed to stimulate a biologic repair for this type of cartilage. A minimally invasive arthroscopic technique is used to place microfracture holes into the exposed bone, which allows the release of blood and bone marrow contents into the cartilage defect. This activates a healing response and stimulates the production of the fibrocartilage layer, which forms over the exposed bone. This technique is very effective for cartilage restoration.Transplant (OATS)Osteochondral (cartilage) transplantation (OATS) procedures are designed for full thickness chondral defects. Small chondral defects are treated by removing an osteochondral cylinder (plug) from a specific area within the knee joint that does not require cartilage to function properly. This osteochondral cylinder (plug) is then transplanted to the affected area in order to repair the chondral defect.Large chondral defects can be treated using an allograft (cadaver) osteochondral graft. The typical patient considered for this procedure is a young, active individual with a traumatic isolated chondral injury. The advantage of this procedure is that it allows placement of hyaline (articular) cartilage into the chondral defect. This technique is performed through a minimally invasive arthroscopic procedure, or through an open technique depending on the size and location of the lesion.AllograftSome cartilage lesions are too large for microfracture or autograft OATS to work successfully. Thus, an allograft OATS surgery may be required in some of these cases. In this surgery a cylindrical area of bone is removed where the cartilage lesion is located. A similar sized bone plug with overlying articular cartilage is then removed from a matched cadaver. This cylindrical area of bone is then placed in the defected area in order to repair the cartilage lesion.Chondrocyte TransplantationChondrocyte transplantation is used for relatively large cartilage defects in the knee, where the underlying bone is normal. This procedure is usually done in one of two ways. Cartilage cells can be harvested from the patient, sent to a lab, grown, and then later implanted into the patient via a second surgery. The other option is to use fetal chondrocyte cells, which requires only one surgery. In either case the lesion is cleaned of any residual cartilage. A tissue patch is then sewn into the lesion and cartilage cells are injected into the area. These cells then grow into hyaline (articular) cartilage.SummaryMicrosoft PowerPoint - IOC Diploma presentation [Compatibility Mode]Knee injury extremely commonHistory will direct the examination and helpwith diagnosisPhysical examination directed to the history– Keep in mind the rules of thumbTreat based on the injury and also the patientMost knee injuries can be treated withoutsurgery– Need to rehabilitate the athlete

6 Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries

Mr. Kaleem Mohammed, Physiotherapist
Most of us like to play some or the other sports. As long as we are injury free, it is always great fun, but sometimes sports injuries may take place, which can be a bummer!Sports injuries are commonly classified into trauma/acute injuries and overuse/stress injuries. The difference between the two is simple. Trauma injuries are due to a sudden twist or pull, or any other impact. Stress or overuse injuries occur when a part of our body is over-exercised without enough rest in between.Many lists describe the most common sports injuries in men. These lists have minor disagreements, but in general, they agree that the most frequent sports injuries are sprains (tearing of ligaments) and strains (over-stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons). Bruises or contusions are also a common result of trauma, but bruises rarely cause serious complications.Most common sports injuries include:BruisesKnee joint injuries: Pain, swelling, and stiffness ligaments or tendons injuriesAnkle sprain: Sprain, strains, fractures.Cuts and abrasionsDehydration: Excessive fluid loss causes heat exhaustion and heat stroke.Groin pull/strain: Symptoms include pain and swelling.Hamstring strain: Symptoms are a pain, swelling and bruising.Stress fractures: The impact of repeated jumps or running on hard surfaces can stress and break bones.Playing sports is much fun. Getting hurt is not.Follow these 6 steps to prevent injuries so you can stay in the game:1. Warm UpIt is not a good concept to just bolt on to the field and start playing. You should not even start stretching until you are a little warmed up. So take a light jog to get loosened up and ready to play. Increasing the heart rate and circulation; this loosens the joints and increases blood circulation to the muscles. Full-Body Stretch helps muscles to prepare them for physical activity and prevents injuries.2. Wear Protective GearProtective gears are anything you wear that helps keep you from injuries. The gear you use depends on the type of sports.The helmet is a most frequently used protective shield. It keeps you safe from head injuries when you are playing football, cricket, ice hockey, or baseball. Make sure you are wearing the right and comfortable helmet for your sport. Other sports require eye protection, mouth guards, pads, wrist, elbow, and knee guards, and a protective cup (for boys only). Moreover, don't forget your feet. Shin-guards are a must have gear for preventing trauma induced fractures in sports such as soccer and hockey.3. Proper healthy nutritionHealthy nutrition can enhance sporting performance because protein rich diet should provide enough protein to promote muscle mass growth and injury repair. Water is an excellent choice of fluid for athletes to help performance and prevent dehydration. Foods rich in unrefined carbohydrates, like whole grain bread and cereals, should form the basis of the diet.4. Early intervention and restMost of the sports injuries such as painful pulled muscle or sprains and strains are treated immediately with R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) protocol.Many sports physical therapists and athletes remember this short-form to help with sports injuries.Rest (minimizes motion and pressure over of the injured joint)Icing (apply an ice pack) to reduce pain and swelling and decrease blood flow to injured areaCompression (light pressure wrap to stop bleeding and swelling)Elevation (to drain the fluids from injured area to prevent swelling)5. Slow-fast-slow RhythmDuring physical activities, adding interval (slow-fast-slow) training into your exercise routine helps to improve your heart’s ability to beat at a high rate for prolonged periods. That is a real plus for your aerobic fitness. Moreover, oxygen is circulated in your body at a slower rate, so it increases your ability for a longer stay during workouts. The simple rule is that always warm up before any sports or exercise, and always cool down at the end by gently stretching your muscles and breathing out slowly.Further, when starting any weight bearing exercise after a while, always take precaution that you do not start off with a heavyweight, but a much lighter one that you can easily exercise with. Don’t worry if anyone is looking!If you manage to follow these simple five rules, you can easily avoid most types of sports injuries and continue to enjoy the sports you like.6. Do not over-stretch yourselfIt is critical to take part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits. When you begin a new sport, begin steadily and slowly to avoid muscle pull. If you have not undertaken a strenuous exercise for some time, it is especially crucial to building up your endurance and strength gradually to avoid injury. It is essential when taking part in physical activities, to listen to your body and know your physical limits.

Injury Prevention and Safety in Children

Dr. Rahul Varma, Pediatrician
Injury Prevention in ChildrenEvery day around 1000 children die worldwide. Most of these deaths can be prevented by taking simple injury prevention measures. Huge number of children becomes seriously injured for life. In developing countries like ours where we lose so many children to infectious diseases; it adds to the mortality burden of country. More than 90% of these injuries are unintentional.Common Causes:RTA ( road traffic accidents), fall from height, burns, poisoning, drowning are the main causes of death in children due to injuries.Road traffic accidents (RTA)It is the leading cause worldwide. various methods which can help in preventing these deaths are Proper use of seat belts and child restrainer devices , wearing helmets, driving and walking in designated lanes, driving within speed limits and to avoid drunken driving.Fall:Fall from beds are very common and most baby survive with only bruises and scratches. But still more than 100 children die daily due to fall from height. Many of these deaths can be avoided by using well fitted window panels, child proofing doors and windows and play areas.Burn:Burn injuries from hot water or flames are commonly seen in young children. Preventive measures which can help are smoke alarms, temperature regulators, using fire crackers under supervision of adults.Poisoning:Another common cause of death in young children is poisoning. Daily numerous calls are received by poison cell. Accidental poisoning can be prevented by child proofing cabinets, keeping toilet cleaner out of reach of children, keeping kerosene oil safely and all the medicines away from children.DrowningDrowning is another cause of death in coastal areas. But many small children can drown head down in buckets or bathtub.So to prevent these deaths, we need to store water only in closed container and keep tub empty.PovertyChildren living in poor economical conditions are more likely to be living in unsafe environment. They might be living close to road with high traffic, poor and unstable construction, illegal electricity connection etc.PreventionChild deaths have decreased significantly over last decade (in western countries) due to following measures:Enforcing laws for child safety like having child proof cabinet for storage of medicines and floor cleaners etc.Structural modification in public places like proper railing for child safety in stairs, well fitted windows, fencing around pools, life guards etc.Public awareness campaignsBetter emergency careProper storage of flammable objectsParental guidanceBetter disaster managementIn India major issue is with enforcing laws rather than making them. Authorities should be more vigilant and we should also know our social responsibility.Right to safetyAll children have the right to a safe environment and deserve protection from injury. With proper awareness, environmental modifications and good emergency care, it can be achieved.

14 Tips for Avoiding Overuse Strain Injuries

Dr. Vishwas Virmani, Physiotherapist
Here are 14 tips for avoiding overuse strain injuries.Up to 50% of industrial injuries are thought to be attributed to cumulative trauma or overuse injury. These can range from troublesome annoyances, to severe debilitation. For office, building and site managers, there are a number of steps you can take to minimise repetitive strain injury within your workforce.1. Identify and correct postural problems The aim is to eliminate fixed positions which impose static loads on the muscles of the back, neck, shoulders and arms. Poor or improperly-adjusted equipment, furniture or layout is often to blame.2. Identify and eliminate forceful movements The worst are those which involve fingers, hands and wrists, especially with bending or twisting. Check tools, knobs, processes, postures. Do things fit? Is maintenance happening?3. Identify and break up periods of repetitive work The aim is physical variety; use rest pauses and alternated tasks. Consult staff before introducing job rotation.4. Ensure that any tell-tale early-warning signs are noticed and acted upon Supervisors and staff alike will require (a) Training Induction trainingProduction of training videosStrain prevention: training seminars5. Educate supervisors in the recognition and correction of faulty workplace set-out and procedures They should then be accountable for managing this.6. Train staff to recognise and adjust their own workstations properly The benefits of “ergonomic” furniture may otherwise be lost. Be sure to include thorough instruction for all new staff.7. Identify and control work peaks These can be daily, weekly or even annually; individual work loads need monitoring.8. Know which staff are most vulnerable to overuse strain New staff (how thorough is your induction?); those returning from leave; jerky or tense workers; staff using hands and fingers a lot.9. Identify and control sources of individual pressures These may be related to work output requirements, to ‘pacing’ by workmates, to supervisors’ attitudes – or even personal problems. Financial need may push vulnerable staff into harmful overtime. Bonus systems are bad.10. Educate managers, engineers and designers in preventive measures Once they know about ergonomics, they should be able to apply it quickly.11. Carefully-selected tasks matched to individual needs (eg., as specified by a treating doctor) are essential. Close supervision is necessary.13. Keep close to people who are off work sick Letting people know you care about their welfare and recovery will help them a great deal. Weekly phone contact at least; have people come in to collect their pay, and keep them close to their workgroup.14. Keep close to treating doctors Let them know you’re keen to help. Ask them to give specific advice to assist even a partial return-to-work. Invite them to visit you.