There are several diseases with fatal consequences. Mutrashmari (Renal Calculi/Stone) is one of them. This is a chronic disorder with acute and severe pain and if it is not managed by proper treatment, patient may face fatal consequences. However, it is manageable with proper treatment. Mutrashmari is included in ashtaumahagada due to its fatal nature. 

According to Ashtang Hardaya, tarun mootrashmari (primary urolithiasis without any systemic disease or any complication) must be treated with medical treatment but, for pravruddhamootrashmari (chronic with complications), the surgical management is preferred. Description of mootrashmari is found in almost all samhitas of Ayurveda as well as in vedas, either as a type of mootrakruchhra (as per charak samhita) or as a separate disease (as per Sushruta samhita).

According to madhava nidana, all the doshas are involved in the disease but based on predominance, the types of mutrashmari are described. It is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract, exceeded only by UTI and BPH. 

Formation of stone in urinary tract i.e., kidney, bladder and ureter is referred to as ‘urolithiasis’. When urine becomes supersaturated with insoluble materials due to increased excretion and/or because of extreme water conservation, crystals form and may grow and aggregate to form calculi. Gujarat is covered in stone belt areas for the calcium stones. 

In Gujarat, particularly in Saurashtra region, the incidence of disease urinary stone is very high due to high mineral content of water and hot climate. About 30% patients of urinary disorders are found suffering from urolithiasis.

One-half of Kidney Stones are formed from calcium oxalate, then calcium phosphate account for 15–25%, while 10–15% is mixed (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate). The others are struvite (magnesium ammonium, phosphate) 15–30%, cysteine 6–10%, and uric acid 2–10 %12.

Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stone/ Renal Stone: 

  • Throbbing & pulsatile pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Severe radiating pain that radiates to the lower  abdomen and groin
  • Painful urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting

Causes of Renal Stone:

The main cause of kidney stones is a lack of water in the body. Stones formation occurs in individuals who drink less than the recommended eight to ten glasses of water a day.        

When there is lack of water to dilute the uric acid, a component of urine becomes more acidic. Increased acidic environment in urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones.  

Ayurvedic Treatment of Renal Stone/Calculi:

Small Renal Stones can be treated easily. Such stones might even pass through the ureter to the bladder on its own, with time. But large Renal Stones are too large to pass on their own and can be very painful and can cause extensive damage to Kidneys and other organs. 

Proper & careful treatment is required in such condition, using a combination of powerful herbal remedies.

Diet (Pathya-Apathya) for Renal Stone:

  • Better to avoid consumption of too much salt. 
  • Drink more water to avoid dehydration.
  • Include fibrous fruits and vegetables in the diet. 
  • Avoid some foods like sugar, processed foods, sugary drinks, sodas, alcohol, black tea and chocolate. 
  • Reduce use of meats, eggs and poultry in diet, which are likely to increase the amount of acid in urine. 
  • Include whole wheat bread, vegetable proteins, pulses and sprouted grains in diet, these are a good alternative source of  proteins, nutrients and fibres that reduce the risk of kidney stone  formation.