Articles on bladder stone

Prevention Of Kidney Stones

Dr. Rajeev Bashetty, Urologist
Kidney stones are known to the mankind since antiquity. Lot of innovations have been done in treating the kidney stones, but there is a very little knowledge regarding the stone formation and how it can be prevented. Daily water intake is one of the important factors in the prevention of kidney stones. Diet is another factor that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation. Others include environment, body weight and heredity.The dietary advice will be based on the type of kidney stones, which will be recommended by the Urologist. These recommendations mentioned below are general and for the most commonest kidney stone formers.FluidsWater is  inexpensive & easily available. The amount of water a person needs to drink depends on the weather and the person’s activity level. People who have had a kidney stone should drink enough water and other fluids to produce at least 2 litres of urine a day. This can be achieved by drinking about 3-4 litres of water every day. The amount should be consumed on periodic basis about a glass or two every hour. People who work in hot weather need more fluid to replenish fluid they lose through sweat. Drinking enough water helps to keep urine diluted and flushes away materials that might form stones and is the most important thing a person can do to prevent kidney stones. Soft water intake is recommended. Hard water should be boiled and cooled before consumption. Citrus drinks like lemon and orange juice protect against stone formation because they contain citrate, which inhibits stone formation.Fluid like grapefruit juice, colas, beer, wine, coffee, tea should be avoided in excess as they contain substances, which helps in the stone formation. DietThere is a misconception that eating Palak and Tomatoes should be avoided to prevent stone formation. Yes, this is true provided a person consumes them daily in large quantities. Eating palak once in a while or adding tomatoes to the daily food preparation doesn’t really harm or increases the risk of stone formation. Another misconception is to avoid drinking milk as it contains calcium. In fact milk will help in reducing the stone formation. Calcium in the stomach binds to oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood, and then to the Urinary Tract, where it can form stones. People who are taking supplementary calcium to maintain the bone density should take the calcium tablets along with the food.Sodium, often from salt, causes the kidneys to excrete more calcium into the urine. High concentrations of calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones. Reducing sodium intake is preferred to reducing calcium intake.The consumption of Meat, fish and egg should be reduced as they contain purines, which break down into uric acid in the urine resulting in uric acid stones.Eating excessive chocolates and nuts like cashew should be avoided as they contain oxalate.Once a person forms a stone, his chances of forming another stone is very high. If the above recommendations are followed, there will be definite reduction in the recurrence. Most of the small stones pass spontaneously, but the larger stone may require treatment. If the stones are not treated at right time, they can cause irreversible damage to the kidney.

Diet for Painful Bladder Syndrome

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS) is a chronic health condition that causes pain and pressure in the bladder and pelvic area. It can cause an urgent need to urinate, a frequent need to urinate, or both. Although PBS cannot be cured, it can be treated. Researchers have found there are dietary changes you can make to help manage and avoid flare-ups. Below are just a few examples of foods/beverages that are friendly for such patients and those that are not: FruitsFriendly - Bananas, melons, pears, apples   Avoid - Lemons, limes, oranges, strawberries, pineapple, kiwi fruitVegetablesFriendly - Cucumber, green beans, bell peppers, beans Avoid - Chili peppers, onions, tomato products, picklesMilk/Dairy Friendly - Cheeses, eggs, milk, sherbet / squash (no citrus or chocolate flavors)Avoid - Chocolate ice cream, processed cheeses, soya products, yogurt (lemon, lime, orange or chocolate)BeveragesFriendly - Water, pear juice, milk, tea (peppermint), vanilla milkshakeAvoid - Alcohol, chocolate milkshake, coffee, cranberry juice, soda, tea (regular, green, herbal, iced) tomato juice, sports drinksICN Food ListIf you need help selecting bladder-friendly foods, there's an app for that.  The ICN Food List, available for Android and iPhone, provides a reference guide you can use while shopping and eating out.  The app contains a database with foods divided into three categories: bladder-friendly foods, foods worth trying cautiously and foods to avoid.Happy eating, and have a healthy bladder!

Understanding Kidney Stone Analysis

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
Did you recently get your kidney stone removed ?Kidney stones come in many different types and colors. How you treat them and stop new stones from forming depends on what type of stone you have.  Get the stone analysis done to know the type of stone you are having. And, then go back to your doctor to ask for more detailed advise to prevent the same.There are 4 main stone types, discussed below.Calcium stones (80 %)Most common type of kidney stones. They can be calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Calcium oxalate is by far the most common type of calcium stone Some people have too much calcium in their urine, raising their risk of calcium stones Even with normal amounts of calcium in the urine, calcium stones may form for other reasons Uric acid stones (5–10 %)Uric acid is a waste product that comes from chemical changes in the body.Uric acid crystals do not dissolve well in acidic urine and instead will form a uric acid stone. Having acidic urine may come fromObesityChronic diarrhoeaType 2 diabetesGoutA diet that is high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetablesStruvite/infection stones (10 %)Uncommon type of stones. Related to chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Some bacteria make the urine less acidic and more basic or alkaline Magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stones form in alkaline urine.These stones are often large, with branches, and they often grow very fast.People who get chronic UTIs, such as those with long-term tubes in their kidneys or bladders, or people with poor bladder emptying due to neurologic disorders are at the highest risk for developing these stones Cystine stones (<1 %)Cystine is an amino acid that is in certain foods; It is a building block of protein  Cystinuria (too much cystine in the urine) is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. It is when the kidneys do not reabsorb cystine from the urine When high amounts of cystine are in the urine, it causes stones to form Cystine stones often start to form in childhood Stone analysis is only one part of understanding why stones form. For a detailed advise for prevention the patient will also need to undergo urine and blood tests to help decide the need for any specific advise for the same.Ask your Urologist about it in in your next visit.

"Shy Bladder" - Are You Afraid of Public Toilets ?

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
Do you have a “shy bladder”?A lot of Indian men and women have "Shy Bladder," also known as paruresis, the fear of using restrooms when others are near.Men still relive themselves without much thought, but women still exercise a lot of restraint in doing that and at times end up harming themselves.When using a western toilet, women tend to just stay a bit above the seat, which we call hovering. If you do that, you should think twice. This manoeuvre put stress on your pelvic muscles and makes it harder to fully empty your bladder. It's better to use a tissue paper / newspapers over the seat when you have to use the bathroom.Remember to stand up before flushing the toilet. The mist from the flushing toilet can spray germs.When in a public bathroom, be sure to hang your purses and bags on the door hooks. This keeps them off the floors, which is usually the dirtiest spots in bathrooms.Always wash your hands with soap and hot water for at least 30 seconds. If nothing is available cleaning with an alcohol based hand sanitiser will help.Studies have shown paper towels are more hygienic than hand dryers.But the most important thing is that when you have to go, you must go!! There is no dirtier thing for the urine than your bladder...Retaining urine in bladder for unduly long periods leads to genesis of dysfunctional voiding and over active bladder in later ages.So beware, take caution, but empty your bladder when you have the urge!

Gall Bladder Stone

Dr. Kumar Parth, Gastroenterologist
                                                                                                 Gall Bladder Stone Courtesy -Dr.Kumar Parth (MBBS; MNAMS; FMAS; FAIS; FACRSI (Colo-Rectal Surgery) DNB; FSGE (Surgical Gastroenterology)Consultant Surgical Gastroenterologist (Bangalore), drkparth9@gmail.com,WWW.DRPARTHGASTRO.COM  Definition :   Presence of stonesin the gallbladder is referred to as "cholelithiasis".                                         *Function of gallbladder is to concentrate the bile.Predisposing Factors :·      Genetics , Gender (more in women)·      Body weight (Obesity) , or rapid loss in weight , Fasting·      Decreased motility (movement) of the gallbladder·      Diet·      Drugs : Cholesterol / Lipid lowering drugs ,Estrogen·      Diseases : Diabetes, blood disorder (Hemolyticanemia etc.)Composition of Gall Bladder Stone:CholesterolStone : Found in western world, causesaccounted to diet rich in cholesterol.Pigmentedstone : generally found in diseasesrelated to blood disorderMixedstone : Contains Calcium, magnesium,sodium phosphate ( most common type found in Asian population (India).Symptoms :(70–85%)are asymptomatic or "Silent Gall Stone" Pain inright upper and central part of abdomen(may radiate to interscapular region)mostly after half an hour of food (seen more symptomatic after a fatty diet.)post mealfullness, belching, upper abdominal discomfort·      Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)·      Clay colored stools or dark urineImaging -Ultrasound Of abdomen and if required MRI(MRCP) abdomen.Infection of gall bladder {Empyema(pus)/ Mucocele of Gall bladder}Perforation of gall bladderStone slipped in Common Bile Ductresulting in obstruction in the passage of bile leading to JaundiceStone from gall bladder slippedto common bile duct and entering into pancreatic duct through common channel ofopening in Duodenum (small bowel) leading to Pancreatitis.Indication forSurgery : Symptomatic Gall stone with typical history of painas mentioned above and proven with Imaging (ultrasound) Asymptomatic or Silent gall stone (FoundIncidentally during Ultrasound abdomen) - "DOES NOT REQUIRE SURGERY".Asymptomatic orSilent gall stone requiring surgery in special circumstances are:Pregnant lady diagnosed with gall stone duringfirst trimester (incidental finding)Any blood disorder and patient is going for anyabdominal surgery for any reason.Diabetes mellitus - as chances of infection arehigh on by ground of diabetesgall bladder polyp (a soft tissue growth in lumenof gall bladder) size > 1 cm or single stone measuring > 3 cms , as riskof Gall Bladder cancer  increase by 10fold in these cases.Treatment : Surgery - Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (Key Hole Surgery) isGold standard worldwide.Safe surgery, there are no side effects of removingof gall bladder as one has to weigh the complication arising from a"symptomatic" gall stone disease.Can be done as a day care surgeryPost surgery patients are advised to refrain fromfatty meal for a week so as to acclimatize the body to a diluted bile. Normalactivity is allowed from day 1 of post surgery.                                  

Gall Bladder Stones --Homeopathic Approach

Dr. Suchindra Sachdeva, Homeopath
FACTSThere is no such thing as stone in the gall bladder. In fact, the bile normally produced in the liver is stored in the gall bladder; and due to changes in the physio-chemica lcomposition of bile, cholestrol etc is precipitated giving appearance of gallstones.Gall stones may be :· Solitary - size can be measured accurately.· Few (countable) - Number and size of stones is measurable.· Multiple - Number of stones may vary upto 200 or more, filling the gall bladder completely. Size of the stones is generally difficult to measure but the size of the few larger stones can be monitored.Gallstones can be seen initially by Ultrasonography and their size and number can be monitored by subsequent Ultrasonograms at regular intervals, while the homeopathic treatment is continued.Generally patients of gallstones can present as :Severe colicky pain in epigastric area and right-sided below chest pain, with nausea, vomiting.HOMEOPATHIC APPROACHAim of homeopathic treatment is :The general medical opinion about gallstones is that there is no treatment available, only surgery is the answer. And in the name of surgery, gallbladder is removed fully instead of gallstones. But even after surgery, at times the indigestion and acidity,phantom pains and discomfort continue to bother the patient as the basic physio-chemical change in the bile remains uncorrected.Fully cured cases of gallstones, in which stones have dissolved completely and partially improved cases in which gallstones have reduced in size on subsequent ultrasonograms,negate the general belief. Thus, gallstones can be cured with homeopathy, provided  treatment is continued and size of the stones is monitored by ultrasonography at regular intervals.

Bladder Cancer - Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis

Dr. Anish Kumar Gupta, Andrologist
Risk FactorsLike most cancers, we do not know all the causes of bladder cancer, but there are certain factors which increase the chances of getting bladder cancer.Cigarette, “bidi”and tobacco chewing increases your risk of bladder cancer. In fact, more than half of all bladder cancer cases in India are caused by nicotine. Bladder Cancer develops in smokers 2 to 3 times more than in non-smokers.Long-term exposure to chemicals used to make plastics, paints, textiles, leather and rubber may also cause bladder cancer. Chemicals may cause about 23 out of every 100 bladder cancer cases.Symptoms of Bladder CancerBlood in the urine This is the most Common symptom of bladder cancer, and is generally painless. Not all Blood in urine means bladder cancer. Other commoner reasons are, urinary tract infection or kidney stones. Microscopic amounts of blood might even be normal in some people.Frequent Urination and Pain on Urination (dysuria)Frequent or painful urination is less common. If you have these symptoms, and do not have a urinary tract infection, you should talk to your Urologist to find out if bladder cancer is the cause.DiagnosisThe management of Bladder Tumor falls under the domain of Urology.There is no single test to check for bladder cancer. If you have symptoms of bladder cancer, your doctor may perform 1 or more of the following - History, Examination:This forms the primary part of any consultation with a physician.Urinalysis:  For this test you will have to give a urine sample. You may also be asked to perform urine cytology. Imaging Tests:The urologist may request an Ultrasound scan. A more detailed examination is normally done with a CT Urogram (CT scan focused on the urinary tract). Cystoscopy: For the examination of the inside of the bladder and also to take a biopsy if so required. In most cases you might be asked to take anaesthesia.If tumors are present, the doctor notes their appearance, number, location and size.If initial examination is done under local anesthesia or for only diagnostic purposes, you may be offered a formal Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT). TURBT is done under regional / general anaesthesia and requires hospital stay.Treatment procedures will be covered in subsequent posts.Stop Nicotine Usage, to Prevent Bladder Cancer

Renal Stone

Dr. Amar Deep, Homeopath
People can help prevent kidney stones by making changes in fluid intake and, depending on the type of kidney stone, changes in consumption of sodium, animal protein, calcium, and oxalate.Drinking enough fluids each day is the best way to help prevent most types of kidney stones. Health care providers recommend that a person drink 2 to 3 liters of fluid a day. People with cystine stones may need to drink even more. Though water is best, other fluids may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks.Recommendations based on the specific type of kidney stone include the following:Calcium Oxalate Stonesreducing sodiumreducing animal protein, such as meat, eggs, and fishgetting enough calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with foodavoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and wheat branCalcium Phosphate Stonesreducing sodiumreducing animal proteingetting enough calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with foodUric Acid Stoneslimiting animal proteinTreatments:1. Apple cider vinegar helps dissolve kidney stones. It also has an alkalinizing effect on blood and urine.a. Mix two tablespoons of organic apple cider vinegar and one teaspoon of honey in one cup of warm water.b. Drink this a few times a day.2. PomegranateBoth the seeds and juice of pomegranates have astringent properties that can help in the treatment of kidney stones.Try to eat one whole pomegranate or drink one glass of freshly squeezed pomegranate juice daily. You can mix pomegranate in a fruit salad also.Another option is to grind one tablespoon of pomegranate seeds into a fine paste. Eat this paste along with a cup of horse gram soup once daily. This remedy will help dissolve the stones. You can find horse gram in Indian markets.Homeopathic medicines for renal stone:Acid Benz, Apis mel,Belladonna,Berberis vulgaris,Canthris,Sangunaria,Nitric acid,Mag phos, Medorrhinum,Nux vom are some of the Homeopathic medicines used in such condition.Some people have the tendency to reform the renal stone even after laproscopy surgery and hence they should take Homeopathic medicines to prevent as well as cure the renal stone.However you need a proper guidance for the same and follow the Doctor's advise given time to time.In case of energency even you could have to be admitted in Hospital.Do not ignore this simple yet complicated disease if you know you are having it.Also that you do not go by the products available in market for renal stone.All the best.