Reduction is a procedure where the mal-aligned bone is set back into place. Reduction plays an important part in healing as well as reducing the chances of deformity. It also helps in avoiding painful movements and restoring range of motion of the affected part. Reduction is widely done in fractures and joint dislocations. These are the following types of reductions performed:
Closed reduction is a non-surgical procedure performed to put the bone into place. It can be performed under local or general anaesthesia. It is performed in cases where there is less dislocation.
In fractures, it is performed when there is no complication related to nerve or blood vessel injury or there are no small fractured fragments. It can be done by an orthopaedic doctor if there is less soft tissue injury.
In a joint dislocation, if there is no injury to capsule or other soft tissues, it is the first treatment of choice. It is commonly performed in shoulder, elbow or patellar dislocations.
Open reduction is a surgical procedure in which incision is made to expose the affected site and reduction is done. This type of reduction is usually followed by fixation.
In fractures, it is performed when a good reduction is not achieved by closed reduction. It is also performed in cases where there are multiple fractured fragments or more dislocated fragments and soft tissue injury is more. Reduced part may be required to be fixed with nails, screws, or plates to avoid re-dislocation of fragments.
In a joint dislocation, open reduction is performed when there is soft tissue injury associated with it such as ligament or joint capsule tear. Reduction along with affected tissue repair is performed. It is important to undergo physiotherapy after such cases to avoid re-dislocation, reduction in the range of motion and muscle atrophy.