Male infertility has many causes from hormonal imbalances to physical problems, to psychological and/or behavioural problems. Moreover, fertility reflects a man’s “overall” health. Men who live a healthy lifestyle are more likely to produce healthy sperm. The following list highlights some lifestyle choices that negatively impact male fertility, it is not all-inclusive: 

  • Smoking significantly decreases both sperm count and sperm cell motility. 
  • Prolonged use of marijuana and other recreational drugs. 
  • Chronic alcohol abuse. 
  • Anabolic steroid use causes testicular shrinkage and infertility.
  • Overly intense exercise produces high levels of adrenal steroid hormones which cause a testosterone deficiency resulting in infertility. 
  • Inadequate vitamin C and Zinc in the diet. 
  • Tight underwear increases scrotal temperature which results in decreased sperm production. 
  • Exposure to environmental hazards and toxins such as pesticides, lead, paint, radiation, radioactive substances, mercury, benzene, boron, and heavy metals.
  • Malnutrition and anaemia. 
  • Excessive stress 

Modifying these behaviours can improve a man’s fertility and should be considered when a couple is trying to achieve pregnancy.