What is a stroke?

Stroke is called “Brain Attack”. It happens  when a part of the brain dies because of  either clotting or rupture of blood vessels. Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world.

Strokes can happen when:

  1. An artery is blocked due to blood clotting where a part of brain goes without blood for few minutes. 
  2. An artery ruptures and starts bleeding into the brain

How do strokes affect people?

The effects of a stroke depend on

  • Which part and how much of the brain is affected
  • How quickly the stroke is treated

How to recognise Strokes- 

There is an easy way to remember the features of a stroke. Just think of the word "FAST"

  • Face –Uneven or droop on one side?
  • Arm –  Weakness or numbness in one or both arms? Fall of one arm when holding both arms out?
  • Speech –Trouble speaking? Does his or her speech sound strange?
  • Time – If you notice any of these stroke signs, call for an ambulance 108. You need to act FAST. The sooner treatment begins, the better the chances of recovery.

How are strokes treated?

The right treatment depends on what kind of stroke you are having. You need to get to the hospital very quickly to figure this out.

Damage of brain tissues is irreversible if you delay treatment.

  1. If you reach the hospital within 4.5 hours, then treatment ( IV actylase) can be given to prevent further brain damage which  reopens the   clogged arteries.
  2. Get medicines that prevent new blood clots. These medicines also help prevent future strokes.

People whose strokes are caused by bleeding can:

  • Have treatments that reduce the damage caused by bleeding in or around the brain
  • Stop taking medicines that increase bleeding, or take a lower dose
  • Sometimes  surgery is helpful but the decision should be taken by Neurologist.

 Can strokes be prevented? 

Many strokes can be prevented, though not all. You can greatly lower your chance of having a stroke by:

  • Taking your medicines exactly as directed. Medicines that are especially important in preventing strokes include:
    - Blood pressure medicines to keep blood pressure normal (<140/90mmHg)
    - Medicines called statins, which lower cholesterol
    - Medicines to prevent blood clots, such aspirin or clopidogrel (blood thinners)
  • Keep your blood sugar as close to normal as possible (if you have diabetes) Fasting : 100-120mmhg, PPBS 140-180mmHg.
  • Making lifestyle changes:
    - Stop smoking, if you smoke
    - Get regular exercise (if your doctor says it's safe) for at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week
    - Lose weight, if you are overweight
    - Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in meats, sweets, and refined grains (such as white bread or white rice)
    - Eat less salt (sodium)
    - Avoid Alcohol, If u drink

Another way to prevent strokes is to have surgery to reopen clogged arteries in the neck. This surgery is appropriate for only a small group of people.

What is a "TIA"? 

A TIA is like a stroke, but it does not damage the brain. TIAs happen when an artery in the brain gets clogged or closes off and then reopens on its own. This can happen if a blood clot forms and then moves away or dissolves. TIA stands for "transient ischemic attack."

Some people improves symptoms on the way to the hospital. But the patient to be thoroughly investigated.

Even though TIAs do not cause lasting symptoms, they are serious. If you have a TIA, you are at high risk of having a stroke. It's important that you see a doctor and take steps to prevent that from happening. Do not ignore the symptoms of a stroke even if they go away!