Articles on sexuality and society

Values of Healthy Sexuality

Dr. Ramesh Maheshwari, Sexologist
VALUES  IN SEXUALITYAbstract: Adolescence is an age group which undergoes a lot of changes mentally, emotionally, and physically. Here comes an important aspect of their lives - sexuality. This article is to acquaint young adults and parents with values of sexuality.Sexuality is a natural & healthy part of living.All persons are sexual.Sexuality includes physical, ethical, spiritual, psychological, and emotional dimensions.Every person has dignity and self worth.Young people should view themselves as unique and worthwhile individuals within the context of their cultural heritage.Individuals express their sexuality in varied ways.Parents should be the primary educators of their children.In pluralistic society people should respect and accept the diversity of values and beliefs about sexuality that exist in the community.Sexual relationships should never be coercive or exploitative.All children should be loved and cared for.All sexual decisions have effects and consequences.All persons have right and obligation to make responsible sexual choices.Individuals,families and the society benefit when children are able to discuss sexuality with their parents and/or other trusted adults.Young people develop their values about sexuality as part of becoming adults.Young people explore their sexuality as a natural process of achieving sexual maturity.Premature involvement in sexual behaviours poses risks.Abstaining from sexual intercourse is the most effective method of preventing pregnancy and STD/HIV.Young people who are involved in sexual relationship need access to information about health care services.

How to Begin Your Sex Life?

Dr. Ashwini Billampelly, Sexologist
How to begin your sex life is the question which looms largely on the minds of some people who have opted for virginity until  late age of 25 or more!Here are some tips for those who are looking forward to begin with the most important relationship of their lives: 1: Prepare yourself - GET READY mentally and physically. Make sure you are healthy and normally developed. Make sure all your organ systems are working fine. Do the investigations if necessary. Take time to learn about your own body and your that of your partner. Share your ideas about hygiene and mend your ways if your partner so desires. Get well acquainted. 2: Develop a good mental rapport with your partner. Whether an arranged or a love marriage; good communication, sharing your sexual fantasies, body image, expectations in life, health issues is a must. Many people think putting out their best foot is essential to impress a would-be partner. But in time you will realise HONESTY is the most attractive quality in a spouse.3: Do not commit to a relationship until you are absolutely sure of what you want. If you are anxious about your sexuality, do not rush in anything.4: Do not carry baggage of  any feelings of guilt attached to your sexual being, appearance or financial burdens if any. Interpersonal comfort  and openness is very essential in a couple’s life. 5: Find what you like the most about each other and appreciate your partner frequently. You can begin with the “likes” and then point to minor “dislikes” in that order! That minimizes the impact and hurt caused by criticism. Criticism is a part of good communication, but should not be used to put the other person down. Both partners should be mature enough to take it lightly. 6: Be Well -Informed: - Relaying on porn videos or discussing with  friends or trying to use commercial sex to learn about how to perform sex has its own disadvantages. You may land up with infections or worse,  or myths and irrational fears.  Seek premarital counselling session from an expert sexologist.  Wish you happy life!

Safe Sex Education - the Only Way Forward!

Dr. Amar Deep, Homeopath
Planned Parenthood believes that parents and guardians should be the primary sex educators of their children. As with other complex issues, many parents may need support, resources, and expertise from schools and other organizations. It is important that young people receive age-appropriate sexual health information and develop practical skills for keeping healthy. Educators can help families by providing culturally meaningful learning opportunities in safe and non-judgmental environments so that young people can learn about sexuality in a healthy and positive context.Sometimes, people mistakenly believe that “sex ed” refers only to sexual behavior (e.g., sexual intercourse) and not the full array of topics that comprise sexuality. These include information and concerns about abstinence, body image, contraception, gender, human growth and development, human reproduction, pregnancy, relationships, safer sex (prevention of sexually transmitted infections), sexual attitudes and values, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexual behavior, sexual health, sexual orientation, and sexual pleasure. Comprehensive sex education covers the wide array of topics that affect sexuality and sexual health. It is grounded in evidence-based, peer-reviewed science. Its goal is to promote health and well-being in a way that is developmentally appropriate. It includes information and communication skills building as well as values exploration. Sexuality is an integral part of each person’s identity. Learning about our sexuality and achieving sexual health and well-being are lifelong processes that begin at birth and continue throughout our lives. Although parents and guardians are the primary sex educators of their children, children also receive messages about sexuality from many other sources. Some of them may have more negative than positive impact. Schools and other community-based organizations can be important partners with parents to provide young people accurate and developmentally appropriate sex education.The goals of comprehensive sex education are to help young people gain a positive view of sexuality and to provide them with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills so that they can make healthy decisions about their sex lives now and in the future. Medically accurate sex education is an investment in our children’s future — their well-being. Our “return on investment” could be a generation of young people who have heard more helpful messages about sexuality than the provocative media images and/or silences they currently witness. It could be a generation of women and men comfortable in their own skin; able to make well-informed, responsible decisions; form healthy relationships; and take care of their bodies.It can be normal to feel overwhelmed by the task of developing and implementing comprehensive sex education in your school or program. Some educators find it helpful to talk with other professionals — mentors and/or supervisors — who have already implemented comprehensive sex education. It is important to get support from your school or organization. While this may feel like a huge undertaking, break it down into discrete steps such as:Assessing the needsResearching solutionsGarnering supportDeveloping a planDeveloping or selecting a curriculumCreating lesson plansGathering resourcesHaving fun!It may help to keep in mind that you may be the only adult who will ever talk to a young person about sexuality in an honest, accurate, and nonjudgmental way. Your good intentions, your positive, healthy attitude, your nonjudgmental tone, and the information you offer may be more than appreciated — it may save a young person’s life. Armed with knowledge about comprehensive sex education, you now need to jump in!  Talk with a mentor or colleague, browse your local library, or surf online to become acquainted with the breadth and scope of resources available. Contact Planned Parenthood educators near you to talk with and learn more about this important topic. Many Planned Parenthood affiliates provide consultation and training to assist with implementing sexuality education programs.

Gender Scripts, Media, and Sexuality

Rajat Kaur Thukral
There are many gender specific role assumptions for men and women in every culture. For example, men are supposed to be strong and unemotional and women should be nurturing. According to the cognitive-social learning theory, individuals learn gender specific script early on in life from one’s own environment. Individuals tend to model other people in their lives or by watching television or reading magazines. The theory can be applied to sexual attitudes and behaviours as well. Learning gender specific sexual attitudes and behaviors from others has its advantages and disadvantages. One is likely to feel more accepted by the peer group which helps in building one’s self-esteem. But there are various negative consequences, such as, double standards for men and women, impact on women, and society does not appreciate expression of non-traditional forms of sexuality of LGBTQ population.In this day and age, there is a widespread impact of internet and other media channels on sexuality of the viewers. With the advancement of technology there has been bombardment of sexually explicit images and messages on internet, social media, newspapers, music videos, movies, television programs, and advertisements. There is a general trend of portraying women as sexy and attractive.  Women’s body has been objectified to attract men. According to recent survey, 80% of the pictures on the internet are of naked women. Men mostly appear to be dominant and leading whereas females were depicted as passive objects of desire. Music videos and movies capture the young audiences effectively and they are being targeted with these sexualized images which have long lasting impact on their developing identities and sexuality. The impact of sexually explicit content in mass media is pervasive and uncontrolled as they tend to get subliminally registered in the subconscious mind without one’s awareness.  Overall, there are differences between the sexual fantasy, sexual arousal, and expression of sexuality between men and women. These differences are based on various biological, psychological, social, cultural, and developmental factors. These differences are exacerbated and reinforced by the mass media that has long lasting impact on psyche of the audiences. People form sexual beliefs and attitudes subconsciously and unquestionably. This can positively or negatively impact their sexual expectations from oneself or from their partners. These implicit attitudes can have strong impact on relationship satisfaction between couples. When each individual in a relationship becomes aware of one’s beliefs related to sexuality, only then one will be able to become more comfortable with one’s own sexuality and truly respect their partner’s choices.There are certain myths in each society about gender specific roles and sexuality. Here are some stereotypes that are commonly observed in our culture and the possible effects of adhering to such gender scripts.Women do not engage in pre-marital sex.  In India, there is a huge power differential between the sexes and high restrictive standards for women’s sexuality.  Indian culture restricts women to experience sex before marriage.  Women who adhere to such gender specific sexual norm are more likely to perceive sex for reproductive function and not as a source for pleasure. They may run the risk of not having much awareness about their own sexuality which can have consequences for their later marital satisfaction. Women who do not adhere to such gender norms may feel more ashamed or guilty for engaging in premarital sex. Also, they may also feel that there are double standards in the society about sexuality for men and women and may feel the need to rebel against those standards and use sex as a medium for empowerment and liberation.Men are dominant and women are submissive in sex.  Men and women who adhere to these gender scripts are more likely to engage in heterosexual relationships with power imbalance.  Such couples are also more likely to prefer having sex in missionary pose.  Men and women who do not adhere to such gender script are more likely to experiment with their sexuality.  They may engage in trying different sexual positions, different partners, and use more sexual tools to enhance their experience.  Men who do not like to be in dominant role may be judgmentally perceived as more feminine and women who like being in dominant role may be perceived as more masculine.  This may impact their sexual preferences and sexual satisfaction.Men are sexually overactive and women are undersexed.  This is the most common assumption about gender specific sexuality.  It is portrayed in media and internet all around the world. Men who tend to adhere to this assumption are more likely to have multiple relationships and may have difficulties in committing to monogamous relationships. Men who may not adhere to that assumption are more likely to run the risk of being perceived as sexually impotent by their partners. Also, women who may like to have sex frequently may be perceived as more sexually promiscuous. Women may have a hard time asking one’s own partner to have sex. In couples, where both man and woman adhere to such gender specific stereotypes, are not likely to achieve satisfactory sexual intimacy as the woman in the relationship may not feel the need for sex due to repression. Also, the woman in such relationship is more likely to accept the extramarital affairs of her partner.  Hence, it is important to note that these gender scripts can have long-lasting impact on an individual’s sexual life. The cognitive-social theory contends that gender-specific norms are reinforced or internalized at a very young age. Boys and girls get rewarded or punished based on their selection of gender specific behaviors and attitudes. Boys are taught to engage in competitive sports or other physical activities early on, whereas girls are taught to focus on emotions and care-taking of others. Girls learn to be submissive at an early age and are also prohibited to have sex before marriage. So, the girls are more likely to fantasize more emotionally about sex and have more submissive themes in their fantasy. One way of transcending these rigid gender specific role attitudes and behaviors is to integrate both feminine and masculine aspects in each individual. Androgyny is the term that is used to describe an individual with masculine and feminine characteristics. Androgynous individuals who tend to integrate both masculine and feminine aspects of behavior are free to choose attitudes and behaviors that are not predetermined by the larger socio-cultural gender scripts. They are more likely to be comfortable with their own sexuality and can be respectful of other people’s choices. There is an emotional and a physical aspect to sexual intimacy. Androgynous individuals are comfortable in balancing both as they do not inhibit one aspect of oneself and allow full expression of their individuality and sexuality.ReferenceCrooks, R. & Baur, K. (2011). Our Sexuality (11th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.

Teen Talk: Do ‘The Talk’ Without Being Embarrassed

Dr. Rahul Varma, Pediatrician
In this age of the Internet and information at our fingertips, most parents find it easy to shrug off or completely avoid responsibility of talking about physical intimacy (read: sex) with their children, thinking that the teenager probably knows more about it than they do.This train of thought is completely incorrect. It is your responsibility as a parent to talk to your kid and make them understand that any visually graphic content that they may or may not be exposed to is not the complete truth.Talk about the monthly cycleThe first and foremost rule is to have ‘the talk’ early. There is nothing wrong in letting your child know the reason why you do not enter a temple on certain days etc. You may explain that a mother’s body prepares itself to have a baby every month by producing an egg. When mother does not have a baby, the egg falls off from the area where we pass urine. This process takes a couple of days and we do not enter holy places during those days.Always be open to questions and truthful. This will ensure that your children will trust you and listen to you when they are older.Skip the sermonNever give a sermon or lecture to your children or they will tune out before you blink. Try to start a conversation by asking neutral open-ended questions such as whether they discuss about sex with their friends or they have friends who talk about sex. Understand that their curiosity is natural and do not make them feel embarrassed about it. Most importantly, listen to them and let them know that you are always available for them. A conversation is a two-way process.Prepare in advanceThe worst thing that can hamper an open and friendly dialogue about sex is not being prepared when, and if, your teen approaches you about it. Prepare yourself in advance about how to approach the conversation and answer possible upcoming questions. Do not show embarrassment even if you feel embarrassed. Be composed and calm at all times.Do not judgeWhile having a conversation, simply keep in mind that your teen is much more exposed and aware and has more knowledge about sex than you had at their age. Therefore, arm them with adequate information about the pitfalls of pre-marital sex, and the dangers of an unexpected or early pregnancy. If you are the parent of a boy, your responsibility doubles itself. The last thing you would want for your young ‘innocent’ boy is to be responsible for emotional trauma and pain for someone he might care a lot about.Tell them that sex is a natural act of expression of love and respect and not a tool for displaying ‘cool attitude’.

How Much Sex Should You Really Have?

Dr. Rahman, Sexologist
How much sex should you really have?Sex is an extremely personal and subjective matter. Different individuals relate to and indulge in sex differently. The idea of sex also varies from person to person and may not always fit the stereotypical penile-vaginal penetrative intercourse.There is no way of determining exactly how much sex is good and how much of it is too much. Some people like to be sexually active with thorough regularity while others find comfort in abstinence. Age also plays an important role here with people between the ages of 18-29 indulging in higher levels of sexual activity than those who are middle-aged or elderly.The different levels and frequencies of sexual activity have varying degrees of impacts on the overall mental, physical and sexual health of a person. There are numerous health benefits attached to having an active sex life, which manifests themselves in both the body and the mind.The health benefits of having sexAs per studies conducted, it has been shown that having sex, at least, two times a week can boost overall physical and mental health. The many health benefits of being sexually active are as follows:It improves immunity and makes the body more resilient to diseasesIt improves bladder control in women and prevents urinary incontinence It prevents erectile dysfunction in menIt improves blood circulation and lowers blood pressureIt acts as a stress relieverIt improves functioning of the heart and lowers the risk of heart diseaseIt reduces sensitivity to painThere are several other benefits of sex, which include the effective healing and nurturing of the body in a holistic manner.

Menopause and Sexuality

Dr. Sharmila Majumdar, Sexologist
Sexuality in all its forms can be an important part of our health and identity. However, in the indian society sexuality is often considered the domain of the young, and the idea of older women having and enjoying sex sits uncomfortably with many people. The ideas of older women’s sexuality often stem from Victorian times, where the woman was passive in her sex life, and sex was mainly for reproductive purposes Hence, the idea was that sex would stop after the menopause.The menopause is often described as a very negative time for women, especially in medical literature. On the other hand, many feminists celebrate the menopause and subsequent years as a time of positive change, without the commitment to childrearing, and a time to find new fulfilment. The experience for each individual woman is probably somewhere in the middle. Hormonal changes in the menopause, such as a drop in oestrogen levels within the body, can bring about physical changes such as vaginal dryness, which can affect the sex life. But at the same time, there are many ways of adjusting to these bodily changes that can lead to new ways of lovemaking.Physical complaints and sexuality:Vulval discomfort -When you get older, your body produces less oestrogen. This can cause vaginal dryness, which means that sex might become less enjoyable or even painful. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)-When a woman’s vaginal walls become thinner because of lower levels of oestrogen in her body after menopause, penetrative sex can not only cause vaginal discomfort, it can also cause urinary irritation or urinary tract infections. This is because the urethral passage also thins. Penetration might irritate the bladder and the urinary tract through the thin walls of the vagina. This irritation can lead to infections.Sexual health: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and AIDS-Articles and books on STIs hardly ever talk about older women specifically, but STIs as well as HIV/AIDs are on the increase in older women. This might partly be because women after the menopause do not need to use birth control, and therefore also do not use protection such as condoms anymore. If you have had the same partner for many years, and your partner has also not had any other sexual partners, the risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection is low. But if either you or your partner has unprotected sex with anyone else, the risk is increased. There are many different STIs, and some of them do not have any symptoms. However, if you notice any unusual or smelly discharge from the vagina, bleeding, blisters, itches, pains or sores, you should go to a sexual health clinic.Pelvic Cramps-Sometimes women may experience pelvic cramps during or after sex, especially women who have penetrative sex. It is more likely to happen if you do not have orgasms very often, and is generally nothing to worry about. Just like any muscle in the body, it can ache if it doesn’t get used very much and then gets a lot of exercise.Psychological changes:Sometimes, changes in the family can be difficult to adjust to when getting older, for example if your children leave home or you stop working and retire. It can help to talk with your friends and your partner about these changes and how they make you feel.Because of the physical changes that occur as part of the aging process, it is possible that you may feel less comfortable with your body and that you lose some of your self-esteem. But again, these changes happen gradually, and many women adjust well to them.However, if fatigue or psychological illnesses such as chronic depression or anxiety develop, they can interfere with your libido and sex life.Medications and sexuality:As women get older, they are more likely to need long-term medications. Often, these medicines have side effects that influence libido, for instant blood pressure medications, and tranquillisers. However, alternative therapies might be available, and if you think that medication impacts negatively on your sex drive, speak to your doctor and ask if there is an alternative. Antihistamines and other drugs can cause drying of the vagina, and although this might not influence your libido, it might curb your enjoyment of sex.Final thoughtsMany women actually enjoy sex more in later life, maybe because they are more experienced, and know what they want and enjoy. In addition, there may be more opportunity for spontaneous sex, for instance if you have children who have now left home. Overall, women in their late 40s are said to be much more likely to have fulfilling sex lives and multiple orgasms than women half their age 5.Women’s sexual response is thought to be different from men, and many women do not have ‘spontaneous desire’, meaning it may not be until starting to engage in some sort of sexual activity that they start to feel sexual desire, and many women do not have any sexual feelings or thoughts, unless engaging in sexual activity. Because women’s sexuality is so complex, it might actually be more appropriate to try and solve occurring problems with counselling first, rather than medications.

Male Erectile Disorder or the Dreaded Impotence in Men

Dr. Ramesh Maheshwari, Sexologist
Persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of sexual activity, an adequate erection. This is also know as erectile dysfunction.The disorder may cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. There are different patterns. Some individuals report inability to obtain erection from the beginning of sexual experience; while others report being able to experience erection only during masturbation or on awakening, but not during the coitus. Some experience adequate erection, lose it when attempting penetration. Still other report that they have an erection that is sufficiently firm for penetration, but they lose erection before or during thrusting.Male erectile disorder is frequently associated with anxiety, fear of failure, pressure of sexual performance, and decreased sexual excitement and pleasure. This can disrupt marital relationship and may be the cause of unconsummated marriage and infertility.Causes: Ageing: With advancing age,The orgasm is less intensive,The ejaculate is reducedThe interval between the two successive acts is increased.Psychological factors: Fatigue,Depression,Stress,Mental disorders,Guilt,Fear of failure,Low self esteemReligious restrictionsHomosexualityLong/serious illnessTraumatic initial experienceNegative feelings towards the partnerVascular causesUse of tobacco/AlcoholAtherosclerosisPeyronie’s diseaseDiabetesHypertensionVenous leak or occlusionTraumaSurgeryRadiationHormonal causes: HypogonadismHyperprolactinemiaDiabetesThyroid diseaseAndrogen deficiencyEstrogen excess Adrenal pituitary of Hypothalamic diseaseNeurogenic causes:Peripheral NeuritisAutonomic neuropathy (in Diabetes)Multiple sclerosisSpinal cord diseaseDrug related causes:AntiandrogensH2receptor antagonistsDiureticsAntihypertensiveAnticholinergicsAntidepressantsAntipsychoticsCNS DepressantsSubstance abuseMiscellaneous:Renal failureProstatectomyDiagnostic testsStamp Test: A long strip of postal stamps is wound around the base of the penis at night before going to bed. Next morning if the perforations of the strip are found to be torn off, impotence is supposed to be of psychological in origin.Peno-brachial index: The ratio of penile systolic blood pressure to that of brachial systolic blood pressure is normally 0.6. If found to be low, impotence is vascular in origin. Papaverine Injection Test:  Papaverine is a vasoactive drug. Using a 26 gauge needle, 30 mg papaverine is injected at the mid-shift of Corpus cavernosum of penis. He is isolated, asked to stoke the penis and expose to erotic literature. Erection will occur in 10 to 15 minutes. If the erection is short-lived or partial, then impotence is considered as vasculogenic.  If the erection is full, then impotence is considered to be neurogenic or psychogenic in origin.Caution : This test should be performed in a hospital setting or where the facilities for detumescence  are available. The patient should be observed for next few hours till the erection subsides.Rigiscan Test: This is a gold standard for evaluation of Nocturnal Penile Tumescence and Rigidity (NPTR). This test is based on the physiological principle that a male gets erection 3 to 5 times during REM sleep. At night, before going to sleep one ring of Rigiscan is slid over the base of the penis and the over the tip. Next morning, the tracing obtained are studied. This test can quantify erectile tumescence and rigidity. Rigiscan tracing indicates whether the impotence is organic or psychological in origin.Arterial insufficiency  and venous leaks can also be suspected on the basis of Rigiscan graphs. Patients with purely artery disease have low levels of rigidity but of adequate duration. Patients with venous leak will have varying rigidity levels with shortened duration.Penile Ultrasound : This test is for evaluation of functioning of the penile areteries. A simple acoustic Doppler emits auditory signals or a colour Doppler can help visualization of arteries. Cavernosometry  & cavernosography: This haemodynamic  test is useful for diagnosing veno-occlusive dysfunction of the corpora. Biothesiometry, electromyography , nerve conduction studies: These are for evaluation of neurogenic impotence.TreatmentCounselingSexual dysfunction is a marital unit problem and therefore both, husband and wife, should attend. Counselling is towards strengthening marital relationship. Wife is requested to co-operate. Client is requested to quit smoking and alcohol. He is advised relaxation exercise, yoga. The couple is educated about anatomy, physiology of sexual organs sexuality are countered. Their myths and misconceptions about  sexuality are countered. They are also explained that he does not have to do anything to have an erection. Erection is a physiological response to effective stimuli.

5 Myths About Osteoporosis

Dr. A N Roy, Rheumatologist
 1. Osteoporosis is a Woman’s Disease.Osteoporosis strikes men too. Worldwide it affects one in five men versus three Women.Osteoporotic fractures in older men (> 50 Years) are common and associated with considerable mortality and morbidity, including reduced function and mobility, pain, hunch back and respiratory compromise. The result is diminished quality of life and loss of Independence.Following hip fracture, men are twice as likely to die when compared to women.The lifetime risk of a man suffering an osteoporotic fracture is greater than his likelihood of developing prostate cancer.One-third of all hip fractures worldwide occur in men.2. Osteoporosis is a natural part of ageing and you can’t prevent it. Breaking a bone after a minor fall or bump is NOT normal at any age.   There are actions that can be taken early in life to reduce the risk of getting osteoporosis.  Adopting a bone-healthy lifestyle at all ages is the first step to prevention. Risk Modifiable risk factors that can be addressed are : eating food rich in bone-healthy nutrients , including Calcium and Vitamin D ; avoiding negative life style habits    e.g. :excessive use of alcohol and smoking; getting regular weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercise.3. Osteoporosis is not an urgent health concern and an immediate action is not necessary.Worldwide, populations are ageing rapidly and life expectancy in men is increasing steadily. From 1950 to 2050 there will have been a 10-fold increase in the number of men aged 60 years or over –the age group most at risk of osteoporosis.In Europe the total number of fractures in men will increase by 34% from 2010 to 2025. In some other regions of the world the numbers of men with osteoporosis and fracture is escalating at a far greater rate.Healthy, active ageing must be prioritized so that men and women can lead active, independent lives as they age. Without effective prevention strategies, an enormous increase in fractures will place a heavy burden on individuals, families and communities as well as on health –care budgets. 4. Osteoporosis cannot be diagnosed or treated.Simple tests exist to help identify those with osteoporosis as well as fracture risk, and effective treatments are available.Men over the age of 50 years who have had a previous fracture are at double the risk of subsequent fracture compared to those who haven’t fractures. A prior fracture is a clear sign that men must talk to their doctor, get tested and treated appropriately.Taking the IOF-One –Minute Osteoporosis Risk test is a good way to identify personal risk factors. In men two common risk factors are hypogonadism (Testosterone Deficiency) and long term corticosteroid use, among others.Men with risk factors discuss their bone health with their doctors. The doctor may order a dual-energy- x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test to measure Bone mineral Density and/or assess future fracture probability using the FRAX calculator. Following a clinical assessment, medication may be prescribed.5. Osteoporosis has a minimal impact on men and the family unit.Men play a critical role in families as fathers and sons, providing care and support to other family members. Worldwide, a significant number of working days and productivity is lost due to fractures (e.g. Spinal) in men between the ages of 50-65 years.Healthy ageing and maintenance of independence is important to older men and their families. After sustaining a hip fracture, approximately 10-20% of formerly community dwelling men will require long term nursing care.Men have a lower life expectancy than women so hip fractures cause them to lose a greater proportion of the number of years of life left than they do in women.Improving the health of men through early detection of osteoporosis and timely treatment can result in reduced morbidity and mortality resulting in benefits for men, families and Society.