Leukoplakia is defined a white plaque of questionable risk having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk for cancer. Though only 2% of the world population show presence of this lesion, the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia to oral cancer is 20 per 100000 populations per year.


- Smoking: Oral leukoplakia is seen six time more in smokers than nonsmokers.

- Smokeless tobacco

- Alcohol: It is an independent risk factor regardless the type of beverage and pattern of drinking.

- Candida albicans: role of it still unclear

- Human Papillomavirus Infection: Though the results of studies conducted are conflicting.

- Idiopathic


- Clinically classified into two types: Homogenous & Non Homogenous

- Homogenous Leukoplakia appears as uniformly flat, thin and exhibit shallow cracks of the surface keratin.

- Non Homogenous Leukoplakia appears in various forms such as speckled (mixed red & white with predominant white areas), nodular ( small polypoid outgrowth rounded red or white excrescences), verrucous (wrinkled or corrugated surface appearance).


- Age group: usually occurs after 30 years with peak incidence in 50 years.

- Seen more in males.  Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia a type of non homogenous appears more commonly in females.

- Can involve any of oral and oropharyngeal sites

- Seen unilaterally however can be observed bilaterally in some cases

- Pain and discomfort can be present. Most of the time it might go unnoticed.


- Removal of the cause

- Pharmacological management

- In some cases of leukoplakia it desirable to get a biopsy followed by histopathological reviewing done to notice if any
   malignant changes are happening within.

- Surgical management

- Periodic follow up a must.