In the present scenario, we come across many high-velocity injuries, which are seen due to road accidents or high demand sports activity, resulting in Hidden Injuries (Ligament Injuries). As the pain gradually increases and with the inherent habit of being adjusted we don't bother much about the instability and minimal alterations in the Biomechanics which act very slowly leading to the early wear and tear and affecting our day to day activity/sporting activities.
Most commonly these injuries occur around the knee, taking the brunt on every moment. Our knee is stabilized by 4 ligaments, 2 collaterals in the sides and 2 Cruciates in the front and back, in between the washers (Meniscus) that help in the smooth functioning. Among these, Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and the Meniscus are the ones which frequently get injured.
Depending on the severity of the injury they are present in combinations. Most of the injuries are picked up by thorough clinical evaluation, supported by MRI for the understanding of the patient as well as the Doctor.
In the human body, if there is an injury, it heals with the good blood supply and neogenesis. Depending on the severity of the injury AND the level of activity it has to be rehabilitated (Physiotherapy)or reconstructed and rehabilitated.
With the advent of arthroscopy (Keyhole surgery) and advanced instrumentation, the reconstruction has become more precise and rehabilitation has been much faster. For the reconstruction, tendons ( part of muscle attach to bone ) are used such as hamstring and with the graft link technique, the bony tunnelling has been minimal, leading on to minimal pain, faster recovery and rehabilitation.
Many patients come with a query of stem cells being used for these ligament injuries and also the arthritis of the knee. The stem cell therapy which includes PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) and BMAC (Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate) is used for chronic tendinopathies such as tennis elbow, Calcaneal Burritis, TA Tendinopathy, Plantar Fascitis Chronic collateral strain and early stages of the osteoarthritis.
The treatment modality depends on the patient's condition, activity levels and the expectations postoperatively. StemCell Therapy will heal but it cannot be a replacement for reconstruction (Arthroscopic) or the Total Joint Replacement in advance osteoarthritis where there is the need for Biomechanical Restoration surgeries and stabilization.