Alopecia areata also called as patchy hair loss is a non-scarring type of hair loss. It can affect any area of the body and can present in different patterns. It is a benign condition, however, it can cause significant psychological stress in the affected patients.
Causes of alopecia areata: The exact cause of alopecia areata is still an enigma. It is supposed to be an autoimmune condition. It is believed that the immune system of the body plays a role against the hair follicles. Various triggering factors like stress, hormones, diet, infectious agents, vaccination are also believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. Alopecia areata is also associated with certain other autoimmune conditions like diabetes mellitus, vitiligo, anaemia, and thyroid disease.
Clinical Features: Alopecia areata commonly manifests as localised well-demarcated patches of hair loss. The patches may be single or multiple in nature. The scalp is the most common site, although any part of the body may be affected. Alopecia areata may affect the eyebrows, eyelashes, axillary hair, pubic hair or any other part if the body.
Treatment: Corticosteroids have been the mainstay in the treatment of alopecia areata. Topical, oral or parenteral preparations can be used. Intralesional corticosteroids have been the treatment of choice in adults with alopecia areata.ILS is given in the deep dermis or upper subcutaneous tissue. Injections are repeated every 4 to 6 weeks.