It is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass, dystrophy. Symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood, mostly in boys. Other types don't surface until adulthood. 

Types of muscular dystrophy:-

Muscular dystrophy is defined by a specific feature or by where in the body symptoms first begin. 

1. Myotonic:-

 this form is characterized by an inability to relax muscles at will following contractions. Myotonic muscular dystrophy is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy. Facial and neck muscles are usually the first to be affected.

2. Facioscapulohumeral (FSHD):-

Muscle weakness typically begins in the face and shoulders. The shoulder blades might stick out like wings when a person with FSHD raises his or her arms. Onset usually occurs in the teenage years but may begin in childhood or as late as age 40.

3. Congenital:-

This type affects boys and girls and is apparent at birth or before age 2. Some forms progress slowly and cause only mild disability, while others progress rapidly and cause severe impairment.

4. Limb-girdle:-

 Hip and shoulder muscles are usually the first affected. People with this type of muscular dystrophy may have difficulty lifting the front part of the foot and as a result may trip frequently. Onset usually begins in childhood or the teenage years.


Certain genes are involved in making proteins that protect muscle fibres from damage. Muscular dystrophy occurs when one of these genes is defective. Each form of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation particular to that type of the disease. Many of these mutations are inherited. But some occur spontaneously in the mother's egg or the developing embryo and can be passed on to the next generation.


1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy:-

This type of muscular dystrophy is the most common among children.The majority of individuals affected are boys. It’s rare for girls to develop it. 

  1. trouble walking.
  2. loss of reflexes.
  3. difficulty standing up.
  4. poor posture.
  5. bone thinning.
  6. scoliosis, which is an abnormal curvature of your spine.
  7. mild intellectual impairment.
  8. breathing difficulties.
  9. swallowing problems.

    10.lung and heart weakness.

2. Becker muscular dystrophy:-

It is similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but it is less severe. This type of muscular dystrophy also more commonly affects boys. Muscle weakness occurs mostly in your arms and legs, with symptoms appearing between age 11 and 25. Other symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy include:

  1. walking on your toes.
  2. frequent falls.
  3. muscle cramps.
  4. trouble getting up from the floor.

3. Congenital muscular dystrophy:-

Congenital muscular dystrophies are often apparent between birth and age 2. This is when parents begin to notice that their child’s motor functions and muscle control aren’t developing as they should. Symptoms vary and may include:

  1. muscle weakness.
  2. poor motor control.
  3. inability to sit or stand without support.
  4. scoliosis.
  5. foot deformities.
  6. trouble swallowing.

     7. respiratory problems.

     8. vision problems.

    9. speech problems.

    10. Intellectual impairment.

4. Myotonic dystrophy

It is also called Steinert’s disease or dystrophia myotonica. It can affect your:

  1. facial muscles.
  2. the central nervous system.
  3. adrenal glands.
  4. heart.
  5. thyroid.
  6. eyes.

5. Gastrointestinal tract:-

It is most often appear first in your face and neck. They include:

  1. drooping muscles in your face, producing a thin, haggard look.
  2. difficulty lifting your neck due to weak neck muscles.
  3. difficulty swallowing.
  4. droopy eyelids, or ptosis.
  5. early baldness in the front area of your scalp.
  6. poor vision, including cataracts.
  7. weight loss.
  8. increased sweating.

6. Facioscapulohumeral:-

FSHD is also known as Landouzy-Dejerine disease. This type of muscular dystrophy affects the muscles in your face, shoulders, and upper arms. FSHD may cause:

  1. difficulty chewing or swallowing.
  2. slanted shoulders.
  3. a crooked appearance of the mouth.
  4. a wing-like appearance of the shoulder blades. 

7. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy:-

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy causes weakening of the muscles and a loss of muscle bulk. This type of muscular dystrophy usually begins in your shoulders and hips, but it may also occur in your legs and neck. You may find it hard to get up out of a chair, walk up and down stairs, and carry heavy items if you have limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. You may also stumble and fall more easily.

8. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD):-

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy causes weakness in your facial, neck, and shoulder muscles. Other symptoms include:

  1. drooping eyelids.
  2. trouble swallowing.
  3. voice changes.
  4. vision problems.
  5. heart problems
  6. difficulty walking.

9. Distal muscular dystrophy:-

It is also called distal myopathy. It affects the muscles in your:

1. forearms.

2. hands.

3. calves.

4. feet.

5. It may also affect your respiratory system and heart muscles.

6. The symptoms tend to progress slowly and include a loss of fine motor skills and difficulty walking. 

10. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy:- 

This type of muscular dystrophy usually begins in childhood. The symptoms include:

1. weakness in your upper arm and lower leg muscles.

2. breathing problems.

3. heart problems.

4. shortening of the muscles in your spine, neck, ankles, knees, and elbows.

Treatment of therapy:-

In this include: Range-of-motion and stretching exercises. Muscular dystrophy can restrict the flexibility and mobility of joints. Limbs often draw inward and become fixed in that position. Range-of-motion exercises can help to keep joints as flexible as possible.

1. Exercise: Low-impact aerobic exercise, such as walking and swimming, can help maintain strength, mobility and general health. Some types of strengthening exercises also might be helpful. But it's important to talk to your doctor first because some types of exercise might be harmful.

2. Braces:- Braces can help keep muscles and tendons stretched and flexible, slowing the progression of contractures. Braces can also aid mobility and function by providing support for weakened muscles.

3. Mobility aids:-  Canes, walkers and wheelchairs can help maintain mobility and independence.

4. Breathing assistance:-  As respiratory muscles weaken.