Articles on hormone

Hormones in Sex

Dr. Ramesh Maheshwari, Sexologist
In regard to sex and reproduction the most important endocrine glands are pituitary gland and the gonads or sex glands –Testes in male and ovaries in female. The anterior pituitary gland secretes two gonadotropic hormones:Follicle stimulating  Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH).They play major roles in the function of male and female function. During pregnancy placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropic hormone that has the same property as LH. This hormone stimulates the interstitial cells of fetal testis and  produces testosterone which promotes formation of male sexual organs. No testosterone is produced during childhood until the age of 10 to 13 years and lasts throughout life. On stimulation by LH from anterior pituitary, Testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells  of Leydig in the testes. FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates conversion of primary spermatocytes into secondary spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules of testis. However, for complete formation of spermatozoa testosterone is needed. Thus FSH iniates proliferative process of spermatogenesis and testosterone does final maturation of spermatozoa. Testosterone secretion, after puberty, causes the penis, scrotum and testis to enlarge until the age of 20. Testosterone causes secondary sex characteristics of the male. In female, the anterior  pituitary produces gonadotropic hormones FSH and LH which act on ovaries and produce estrogen and progesterone. During the reproductive years there is monthly rhythmic changes in the rate of section of female hormones and as menstrual cycle, is of 28 days.Variation from   20 days to 36 days is taken as normal. At the age of about 8, the anterior pituitary begins secreting gonadotropic hormones, FSH & LH. These act on the ovaries. One of the follicles grows and ovulation takes place on the 14th day (counting from the first day of menstruation). During the growth of the follicle, estrogen is secreted. Following ovulation, the follicle develops into corpus luteum degenerates. The ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone decrease greatly and menstruation begins. Estrogen is responsible for secondary sex characters of the female. Progesterone is concerned with final preparation of uterus for pregnancy and the breasts for lactation. Male’s capacity to be stimulated sexually shows a marked increase  with the approach of adolescence. The frequencies of response to the point of orgasm reach the peak within three or four years after the onset of adolescence. Frequencies of sexual response in the male begin to decline after early thirties and drop steadily into old age. Among females, the median frequencies of sexual activities remain constant from late teens into the fifties and sixties. In maximum incidences of sexual response are not approached until some time late twenties and thirties. Individuals who are physically exhausted or in ill health are not easily aroused sexually if aroused they may not be capable of effective action and may fail reach orgasm. Estrogen occurs in equal amount in pre-adolescent female and male. But at the time of adolescence, estrogen increases abruptly in female. At the onset of adolescence there is no upsurge of sexual activities in the female. It is the male who suddenly becomes sexually active at adolescences. Androgen are found in both males and females. Adrenal glands also produce androgens. In preadolescence, the androgen levels begin to rise more markedly in the male. There is sudden upsurge of sexual  responsiveness and sexual activity are among males. In females, the levels of sexual  response and sexual activity are much lower than the levels in the males.When Testosterone is given to normal male, there is increase in frequency of morning erection, the frequency of erotic response to various stimuli and the frequency of masturbation. Testosterone is also used to increase the low rate of coitus which results in infertility. Sperm count also may increase by administration of Testosterone. However, indiscriminate use of testosterone may involve some danger like inhibited pituitary function and damage to the gonads. It may accelerate malignancy of prostate. Serum prostatic specific antigen estimation and  a digital examination of prostate are mandatory prior to administration of Testosterone. Both, androgen occur simultaneously in both the female and male bodies. There is a theory that estrogens counteract the effectiveness of androgens. Some clinicians use estrogen in effort to reduce the levels of responsiveness of males convicted as sex offenders. Though estrogens reduce the amount of androgens, the use of estrogens to lower sexual responses is debated. The adrenal cortex produces androgens and estrogens in both the males and females . In menopause when the estrogen level falls, the androgen produced by the adrenal glands is responsible for the growth of hair on the face females. Similarly, When the level of androgen falls in elderly males, the estrogen from the adrenal glands dominate and produce enlargement of breasts in the males. Hormonal levels may affect the intensity and frequency of response, the frequency of sexual activity , but there is no relationship between the hormone and individual response to particular sort of psychological stimuli. There is no evidence to prove that the patterns of sexual behavior can be modified by hormone therapy.

Nutrients and Hormonal Imbalance in Men

Dr. Priyam Sharma, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Do you feel tired and irritated, suffer from a low libido and low testosterone levels, and seem to be losing hair along with your temper? Often people confuse these symptoms with signs of aging, but they can also be the cause of a hormonal imbalance in men.Though aging is a known trigger of hormonal imbalance, a poor diet, lack of exercise and an unhealthy lifestyle can also trigger hormonal imbalance. The good news is the hormones can be controlled and imbalances can be set right with a few changes to your diet. Getting the right amount of food and nutrition in the body can reverse your hormonal problem, and help you optimize your health. So, start making the following changes now.Include calcium-rich, healthy foods like milk, cheese, leafy veggies, almonds, broccoli and kale to your diet.Hormonal imbalances can cause kidney stones, fractures, and weakened bones; by increasing the intake of calcium-rich foods, you can keep all these side effects away.Increased consumption of Omega 3 fatty acids like oily fish, flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, soybeans, tofu, winter squash and olive oil will help in maintaining the balance of the hormones in the body.Vitamin D is an essential nutrient which can help maintain a healthy balance of hormones in the system. Milk, eggs, fish and cod liver oil are rich in vitamin D. You can also get Vitamin D by standing under direct sunlight for a few minutes every day.Increase intake of small, medium and long chain fatty acids. Avocados, coconut oil, salmon and some dairy products contain essential fatty acids in abundance, which are the building blocks for male hormone production in the body.These are some safe and natural ways to balance and restore hormones in the body. The right balance of micronutrients and macronutrients will help produce optimal hormone levels, so eat up and be healthy!

Balance Your Hormones to Lose Weight

Ms. Swati Kapoor, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Routinely cheating on your eating plan or shying away from physical activity may explain why your weight loss has come to a screeching halt - or failed to take off in the first place. If you’re not burning more calories than you take in, pounds will stick around. But if conscientious calorie counting and regular gym sessions get you nowhere, consider another factor at play in the feud against fat—your hormones. Though as yet there is no proven miracle combo of foods or behaviors that will jump-start those internal executors into setting our fat on fire, we can give our hormones a better chance by creating a stable environment in which they can work.Eat Whole FoodsThink a diet high in fiber, complex carbs, and low-glycemic-index foods like whole grains and fiber-rich vegetables and fruit, as well as unsaturated fats, which will take longer to metabolize and help you stave off cravings, says Alice Chang, M.D., assistant professor of endocrinology and metabolism in the department of internal medicine at UT Southwestern.Eat foods in their intact form, Greene adds: whole oranges, for instance, instead of juice. "One glass of juice might take three oranges, plus the added sugar," he says, "but if you were eating oranges themselves, you'd probably stop after one-and-a-half." Having five or six small meals of lean protein and complex carbohydrates throughout the day will help keep your blood sugar stable.MoveCameron recommends exercising an hour per day, five days a week, to combat hormonal weight gain. But that doesn't have to mean a solid hour of running: "Park the car at the end of the lot," she says. "Take the stairs."Strength-training can also help with hormonal balance, says Brian McFarlin, Ph. D., associate professor of exercise, physiology, nutrition, and immunology at the University of Houston: "It alters the cortisol level, helping you burn calories and fat. Even at rest, muscle burns more calories than other tissue."Check Your StressFor most people, basic stress-relief measures, such as getting a massage or seeing a counselor, "will lead to better hormonal balance," Gluck says. A variety of research shows that people who practice yoga three times a week tend to gain less weight; one study published last year by the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that middle-aged people who did yoga gained less weight over a 10-year period than those who didn't.Get  Plenty  Of  SleepA 2004 study at the University of Wisconsin-Madison revealed that subjects who slept less had lower levels of leptin [satiety hormone] and higher levels of ghrelin [hunger hormone]. Other research has shown that just three days of sleep disruption increases insulin resistance in humans.These 10 hormones hold the secret to losing weight and feeling great.InsulinIn essence, insulin governs your body, and it has a profound effect on aging.GlucagonGlucagon performs the exact opposite function of insulin—it melts fat.LeptinIf a person is having trouble in controlling appetite, it is always a leptin imbalance problem.Human Growth HormoneHuman growth hormone (HGH) is the quintessential anti-aging hormone.ThyroidThe thyroid hormone keeps us fit, provides energy, improves thinking abilities, boosts the immune system, decreases bad cholesterol, and lowers blood pressure.TestosteroneTestosterone makes men masculine, but it is also present in small amounts in women, and aids libido in both genders.EstrogenEstrogen increases alertness, lowers body fat, protects against heart and Alzheimer’s disease, and more.ProgesteroneProgesterone reduces anxiety and has a calming effect on mood - it makes women happy.Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)DHEA is gaining ground as a hormone that improves one’s sense of well-being, relieves fatigue, fights depression, and plays a role in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.CortisolCortisol, a stress hormone, gives us energy. This major hormone keeps us alive thanks to its three essential and powerful properties: it increases blood sugar levels (and thus energy levels), raises blood pressure, and neutralizes inflammation.

Are You Suffering From Hormonal Imbalance?

Dr. Disha Sridhar, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Dear ladies, kindly pay attention.I know that you want to lead your best life but somehow you have gotten off balance. I know how that happens. You have been working too hard to keep a pace between work and home. You have been playing many roles at one go - life, relationships , career, motherhood and things are pulling you in so many directions and you just don’t look and feel like you should.You can fix your issues more naturally without drugs.  Often, western medicines prove ineffective when it comes to hormonal imbalance. Most doctors prescribe pills, shots & creams that only treat surface symptoms and not the root cause of your suffering which is rather lame and highly ineffective.In recent years, we have a silent and growing epidemic of hormone imbalances amongst women. Why is it a serious problem and why you should not ignore it? Because, If it is not treated early, it can also lead to serious health problems like diabetes, heart disease, and even cancers. Not only the symptoms of hormone imbalance make your life miserable, there is a scientific proof that they also  increase your chances of developing a big disease later on in life, like full-blown diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, and even cancers. The BioCycle study (NIH 2009) showed that untreated, hormonal imbalances increase significantly a woman's  risk to diseases of inflammation - heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and premature aging.That’s why I created Truhealing because I was myself in a similar situation a couple of years back. After trying to heal my PCOS with pills and drugs, I was diagnosed with autoimmune Thyroid disease which is supposed to be incurable according to the conventional medicine. But there was something in me that I did not break down. Through extensive study and research, continual self-experimentation and experience working in women’s health, I recovered from this mysterious illness . Now I am on this mission to help ladies who are struggling with hormone imbalances. If I can prevent one lady also from going through the misery I have gone through,my purpose in life is accomplished! Of course, I want to help more than one woman :)Here I am going to share some root cause of hormone imbalances and how to fix them.What causes hormone imbalanceThe environment is not very friendly to women's hormones these days and there are a number of factors affecting this balance.Medications (especially birth control), soy, rancid fats and oils, lack of healthy fats, hormones in meat and dairy products, pesticides, pollution and plastics are some of the main ones. I will address one of the top factors here - Birth Control pill.For many unfortunate reasons, we are choosing synthetic chemical agents that alter the natural cycles of the body. Birth control is being used for acne, “hormone balancing,” or simply “convenience” of not having a menstrual cycle. This is traumatic on many levels to the woman and society as a whole. This is contrary to God’s design of women.  Birth control is one of the biggest reasons for infertility today. Even after stopping birth control, the dangerous negative effects of synthetic estrogens are long-lasting such as infertility, increased risk of cancer and stroke, decreased bone density, high blood pressure, yeast overgrowth, and infections.What promotes hormonal balance?As we work to eliminate all or most of the above factors, let’s also focus on healing the body to promote health.Step 1: Focus on your eating habits:Quality fruits and vegetables are best. Avoid SOY.Eat good quality fats: What does an avocado look like? An ovary. It takes 9 months from blossom to a mature fruit. Avocados and olives are great food for good ovary health. And citrus fruit is great for breast health.Limit consumption of sugar, caffeine, processed foods.IC-3 from cruciferous vegetables. Supplement or eat cruciferous vegetables, especially steamed! Broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, etc.Increase fiber intake. We don’t want constipation.Citrus peels from lemons and limes remove excess estrogen.Eat OATS. Oatmeal will remove bad estrogen.Step 2: Exercise and Sunshine!Exercise gets you grounded and connected to the earth which re-balances your hormones.  Exercises also stimulate the production of many hormones.  Sunshine on your skin and sun in your eyes is what starts the cycle of hormone production in the human body.  Sunlight should govern waking up and going to sleep.  Sunlight is needed to produce Vitamin D and also melatonin so you can get a good night’s rest. Without melatonin production, it can be difficult to sleep for many.Fertility is also governed by moonlight. Step 3: Decrease Synthetic Estrogen LevelsAvoid chemical contaminants, birth control, synthetic hormones, hormone filled meat and dairy, plastics, pesticides, etc.Step 4: Increase methyl donor groupsMethylation is required to pull good hormones into the system. Bad hormones are missing vital methyl groups such as- MSM (sulfur), TMG, B-6, B-9, B-12, Glutathione, Melatonin.Raw fruits and vegetables are a good source of glutathione which is the mother of all antioxidants.Take a good B-vitamin complex.Step 5: Increase Progesterone Levels with herbs and foodsCoconut  AvocadoTurmericBerries like amla support the endocrine system and boost progesterone productionLife is all about choices we make. May this year we choose nature. May this year we choose rejuvenation and healing. To a healthier and hormonally balanced you! We at Truhealing believe in addressing the root cause of your acne and or menstrual issue without masking the symptoms with synthetic hormones.Wishing you health and 

The Unmet need for Contraception in India!

Dr. Neelam Nath Bhatia, General Physician
26th September Is World Contraceptive Day & India Needs More Awareness.We were 1 billion in 1999 and we are 1.3 billion now in 2016. Why is one billion figure is worth its might- to cause a scare or to remind us about our depleting resources like water, food, and polluted air?Also because Dev Anand made a movie around same time titled 100 Crore to remind us about our might to Fight Corruption!If a qualified doctor happens to work in a one amongst thousands of rural villages right within Delhi/ NCR ,the harsh reality of numbers stares at us. No family has less than 4- 5 children and women are married at less than 18,the official age ,they have kids one after another every year in a row,by the time they are 25 , they are anemic mothers along with malnourished kids hanging around them but not willing to go to school despite education being made free.Still, it is our duty to guide these people, being visited by Government Vans to give them advice for free.Nobody offers them a Cafeteria approach to choose.Every contraceptive does not suit all women. It cannot be robotic.Why I wrote women here? Do men share no responsibility about family planning matters? The harsh reality is Yes.There are Myths associated with Male sterilizations, though medically it is the Safest for man and his family as Abdomen is Not involved. It is No Cut Vasectomy and the man walks out of clinic as if no procedure has been done, ready to go to work the same very day ,including lifting weights etc.Compare this with keyhole surgery of tubal ligation (safest choice for a woman who has completed her family) It looks like 1 stitch operation , but without sounding scary about the surgery, local anesthesia is given and abdomen is bloated up with gas to see tubes through a machine and bands are tied on both tubes one after another. Like any abdominal surgery, there is pain afterward , the woman is advised Not to Lift heavy weights for about 2 weeks lest the bands come out and Operation is a Failure.For temporary contraception, Pills, Condoms ( protection against STDs also ) are suggested but side effects are - Condoms have 20% failure rate,pills have side effects associated with hormones ( more on that later in another article)IUCD-Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is fairly good provided it is inserted to women under hygienic conditions & she does not suffer from heavy periods.I-pill means Only Emergency pill, it is loaded with hormones and can make regular cycle as erratic.Some girls have become habitual of taking it as a routine.Similarly, OCs should Not be given for more than 6 months at a stretch.A recent introduction is an injection for 5 years. This injection is the one being given every 3 months to avoid pregnancy. It is for women who forget to take a pill every day.Injection has hormone Progesterone. The woman is loaded with a dose for 3 months instead of a low dose to be taken daily. These women tend to get an Early Menopause & other conditions related to high doses of hormones. Motivate as many women as possible for safer procedures like Laprascopic Ligation / IUCD after asking them the details about their complex problems.One Happy woman may Not Share her Experience but another unhappy woman with wrongly fitted IUCD in a Van by Inexperienced Nurse/Health Worker is going to badmouth to entire Mohalla about bad effects of IUCD/Ligations.

Contraception - Common Myths and Misconceptions

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Sex is a basic human right. But to have sex safely and without fear of unwanted pregnancy - should be the priority. Many women across the world die every day as a result of unwanted pregnancy, mostly due to unsafe abortion. So, couples can avoid pregnancy and enjoy sex life fully, only if they can follow safe and effective contraceptive advice. Let me clarify some popular myths and misconceptions abut contraception. 1. Contraception is useful for allWhile the ideal contraceptive is necessary but it does not exist. So, what may seem suitable for a couple may not be useful for another couple. We need to assess various points like a number of children they have, wish to have further children and plan to have children, general health of wife and husband (and any diseases they suffer from), the frequency of intercourse, the chance of infection, the age of the partners etc. 2. Regarding barrier methodsMost popular barrier method is a male condom. But the myths are that" condoms reduce sexual pleasure" and" condoms get easily damaged leading to failure.Condoms are especially useful for those who are at risk of infections, who do not have very frequent intercourse and who are not suitable for other methods. Condoms do not decrease sexual pleasure, some of the condoms have medicated products which can increase the duration of intercourse and also act as a lubricant to facilitate intimacy. But men should know how to use it properly. It should be worn on erect penis expelling all the air and projecting the tip beyond the tip of the penis. While withdrawing penis after intercourse, the condom should be held at the base of the penis. Actually, failure/ rupture of condoms occur because of mishandling of condom or not knowing the proper use of it. So, before use, please make sure that you know its correct use. Definitely, some men can feel latex allergy and they have to use a non-latex condom, which is widely available.There are barrier methods for females also- like female condom, diaphragm, and cervical cap etc. But they are not very easy to use and are not so popular.3. Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCP)Myths OCP causes an increase in weight.OCP cause cancers.Facts CP seldom causes gain in weight. The gain in weight is coincidental, that means you have some other reason of gaining weight- like not having exercise, ignoring diet control and some other diseases. OCP rather reduces risk of cancer- especially ovarian cancer (which is very difficult to diagnose and very lethal), cancer of colon, cancer of endometrium (inner lining of uterus). Of course, there is little risk of breast cancer, but the risk is not very high, it can be easily detected by examination by doctor. So, if you take ocp, get rid of all the fears. Just try to have self- breast examination every month. 4. Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCD)Most popular is copper T. Medicated iucds are also available, that contains hormonal drugs. Copper T does not increase risk of infection, a common misconception lies among woman.5. Emergency contraceptive pills (i pill etc)Often couple uses these pills regularly after intercourse. Remember these pills contain very high content of hormonal drugs, which can lead to serious side effects like hormonal imbalance, irregularities in periods (and thus can prevent you from getting pregnant in future, even when you want pregnancy), ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside tubes that are life-threatening) etc. So, use regular contraception if you want to prevent pregnancy. I pill is not meant to be taken for every time.  6. LigationLigation of male (vasectomy) and female (tubectomy) is done as permanent contraception for couples having more than 2 children. Ligation in male does not disturb sexual activity. It is easier than female ligation. Again, female ligation is also a very safe technique. So, please remove all misconceptions and myths about contraception. Have safe sex, enjoy life.

Is Your Thyroid Pill/OC Pill Really Helping You?

Dr. Disha Sridhar, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
Hormones are an important and often confusing topic. They can literally make or break how we feel. Hormones relate to stress, anxiety, joy, happiness, energy, metabolism, digestion, sleep, sexual function, fertility and almost every other human function. These days we have taken extreme steps to balance our hormones by taking synthetic hormone supplements.We have gone the route of synthetic chemicals, synthroid or elthroxine(synthetic thyroid hormone), birth control pills, Hormone Replacement Therapy ( synthetic estrogen, progesterone and testosterone) and now to the confusing world of “bio-identical” and “natural” hormones.The problem with using synthetic hormones externally is that it will suppress the natural function of the gland. It’s like telling the body that it does not need to produce the hormone anymore and the gland shuts down and atrophies. USE IT OR LOSE IT. That’s why people taking a synthetic thyroid supplement have to keep on increasing dosage as their thyroid gland gets weaker and weaker.Hormone replacement therapy offers a quick temporary relief, but at a cost. Merely masking symptoms that are associated with decreased hormone production has potential side effects. Just keeping the symptoms at bay by introducing extra hormones without removing the reasons why hormone production is unbalanced, can have happy wheels demo long-term consequences.One often ignored area is the emotional aspect of hormones. Hormones are the physical messengers of our thoughts and feelings. For every thought we think, we make a neurotransmitter (hormone) in the brain that informs every cell of our body what we were thinking. Emotional states, withheld anger, frustration, fear, not feeling worthy enough, are thoughts that have a physical aspect (e-motion, or energy in motion). The endocrine hormones fluctuate according to how we feel about our self and our world. They are less physically controlled than most people assume or believe.Our bodies are wonderful and Mother Nature has given us many amazing gifts to heal our hormones. Nourishing the body with real food is important but we often forget about peace, deep breathing, exercise, loving others, kind words, saying no to negativity, nature walks, prayer, going to bed on time, unplugging the electronics, lighting candles, vacations on the beach, sunshine and playtime. All these things are very powerful in healing our hormones but are sadly forgotten in our busy lives.Life is all about choices we make. May this year we choose nature, May this year we choose rejuvenation and healing!To a healthier and hormonally balanced you!

PCOS Is More Than a Hormonal Disorder

Dr. Neelam Nath Bhatia, General Physician
PCOS-Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome or POCD-Polycystic Ovarian Disease means presence of tiny water filled balloons on the ovaries. Ovaries have developing follicles in women from puberty to menopause. A baby girl is borne with a numbers of them but they start maturing at puberty, few per cycle. Not every egg she is carrying gets ripe in each cycle & this is the way the capability of reproducing is protected in a woman.Few follicles develop & rupture per cycle, egg is released which travels towards uterus for implantation. Uterus has made arrangements to receive the mature egg for conception. In case no conception takes place, the lining is shed for 5 days in the form of periods.The size of follicles in Indian women is about 20 mm or 2 cms but some women may do have a size larger than this but it is never more than 2.5 cms.What is a Cyst? Cyst is a balloon with clear water like transparent substance.If Cysts are present in ovaries , it is a disease or a Lifestyle Disorder?Cyst in ovaries can be a big follicle that did not rupture on day 14- Ovulation time or it can be due to other reasons not known to us,  but the affected woman gets diagnosed by an Ultrasound.She has symptoms of irregular periods, delayed cycles with less blood and obesity, acne on face, black patches here and there, hair loss, hirsutism (hair on face), risk of getting type 2 diabetes and heart disease, thyroid disease being on the low side and infertility / and if she conceives risk of a complicated pregnancy with high BP, swellings and pre eclamptic changes.Her blood levels are high  for SteroidsTestosterone hormoneFollicle stimulating hormoneFasting blood sugar is high but herHDL-the good cholesterol is low CRP-C reactive protein is high-it is an indicator of inflammation and infection Anywhere in the body.Doctors usually prescribe a 21 day course of low hormone oral contraceptive pills, even to young girls who do not need it to prevent conception. Metformin medicine given to Type 2 Diabetics is also prescribed.But OCs / Hormone therapy does carry side effects like making periods more irregular than before, break through bleeding, weight gain, nausea, mood swings among others. PCOS can also be considered a lifestyle disorder:Correct it by modifying lifestyle byReduce the weight by taking no sugar, minimal salt, no bad fats like burgers, pizzas and street food, packed food rich in salt and fats as salt is a preservative and fats add to the taste.Do yoga and meditation Reduce stress but do enjoy the fruitful result oriented stress as it boosts the good cholesterol, Exercise regularly but according to constitution and tolerance.Eat as much as possible-every seasonalfruits and vegetables, at least 5 types with 5 different colours.Even borderline low thyroid becomes normal without giving extra thyroid hormones as tablets (eltroxin has lots of side effects like palpitations and high end personality who wants to be always on the go!)Take a glass of warm water with juice oflemon + a spoon of honey added to it, every day in the morning on emptystomach. This helps to reduce weight, bring down levels of blood sugar andcholesterol.Apple cider vinegar if taken with juice/water /honey helps also.Treat PCOD minus hormones & sugar lowering medicine metformin