Articles on flora of the united states

Interesting Facts About Bird's Eye Chilli

Treasa Thomas
This chilli-Capsicum frutescence was introduced and used by the Native Americans for about 9000years.It is more common in South East Asian countries including India. In India, this chilli plant is mostly seen in Kerala, Assam, Meghalaya and some parts of Tamil Nadu.Birds love to pick the ripe chillies and since it is spread by birds the name” Birds eye chilli”came to this chilli.Also known as Thai chilli.This particular chilli is included among the 10 hottest chilli peppers in the world. Great taste enhancer making of traditional food items. Always been a favourite of several large hotels in North India. The pungency of this chilli always making it more  demanding.Serves as a nutritious food item as well as flavour to dishes.Very small in size ,not more than 2-3cm,with around 10-20 seeds .Available in different colours like white, darkgreen, palegreen,red(ripen).Smallest one is always the best. This makes you extremely alert.Role in Nutrition and healthIncreasing Appetite-These chillies helps in increasing appetite and thus improves the digestion through capsaicin content present. It will stimulate the action of stomach and speed up the movement in the intestinal tracts. Also, helps to get relief from flatulence when used at moderate levels.Help in weightloss-Capsaicinoids reduces the overall caloric intake. Consumption of this chilli will increase the metabolic rate, therefore, more calorie gets burned that would be otherwise settled as fat and cholesterol. As we know lesser metabolism will make fat to get accumulated in the body.Reduces cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure.As a medicinal plant, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Prevents blood clots, reduces heart diseases and tuberculosis. Capsaicin is same time a very powerful pain reliever.Precautions-People suffering from ulcers or heartburn are not supposed to have this chilli since it may cause stomach irritation. Capsaicin can increase the stomach acid levels making certain drugs less effective.

Child Nutrition Tips

Dr. Yogesh Kumar, Ayurveda
By eating the right amount and type of food recommended here, children can get the nutrients they need to grow and thrive. Young children can have small appetites which can sometimes make meal time a challenge. Check out some ideas on how to meet their needs.Serve small nutritious meals and snacks each day.Because preschoolers and young children have small stomachs, they need to eat small amounts of food more often throughout the day. One Food  Serving from a food group can be divided up into smaller amounts and served throughout the day. For example, half a Food Guide Serving of Meat and Alternatives can be served at two different meals such as one egg at lunch and about 30 g (1 oz.) of chicken for dinner.Do not restrict nutritious foods because of their fat content. Offer a variety of foods from the four food groups.Offer a variety of nutritious foods, including some choices that contain fat such as 2% milk, peanut butter and avocado.Satisfy their thirst with water.Encourage young children to drink water to quench their thirst and replenish body fluids. children and adults choose vegetables and fruit more often than juice. Children also need a total of 500 mL (2 cups) of milk every day to help meet their requirement for vitamin D.Respect your children's ability to determine how much food to eat.While parents and caregivers determine the selection of foods offered, young children can determine how much food they need. Throughout the day, children are able to adjust their intake. This explains why some children eat more at one meal than at another.Be a good role model.Be a role model for healthy eating. Start by having meals together as a family as often as possible. Turn off the TV. Set a good example. If your child sees you eating your vegetables - he/she will be more likely to eat them too!Be patient.If an unfamiliar food is rejected the first time, it can be offered again later. The more often children are exposed to a new food the more likely they are to accept it.Organize fun physical activities.Young children rely on parents and caregivers to provide opportunities for physical activity. Some ideas include: bicycling, walking, dancing, games of ball or tag in the summer and sledding or building a snowman in the winter. For more great ideas check out tips for being active.

Health Benefits of Red Onion

Ms. Ashu Gupta, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Some love it, some hate it because of the smell that stays behind. However, it is advisable to eat a lot of onions, as they are very good for your health.Cooking the onions kill their medicinal properties. That is why red onions should be eaten raw and untreated. There are a lot of combinations, and if you're brave enough, you can eat it as a side dish almost every lunch. Today, we'll give you 7 reasons to add red onions to your diet.Stops cancer cell growthOnions are rich sulfur compounds that protect the body from stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. They are also effective in fighting off bacteria in the urinary tract.Controls diabetesRaw onions increase the production of insulin. If you are a diabetic, you have a good reason to regularly eat fresh raw onions.Cures constipationFibers found in raw onions can help you in the fight against constipation. They force out toxins and hard food particles from your intestines.Help for a sore throatMake onion juice. It's great for healing colds and sore throats.Nose bleedingIf you are tormented by nosebleeds, red onions can stop the bleeding. You can also smell onions for healing nose bleeds.It protects the heartOnions can help protect the heart from coronary disease. Onions can also control high blood pressure.Controls cholesterol levelsRaw onions control cholesterol levels and lower bad cholesterol (LDL) in the blood.

Colds and Coughs in Children

Dr. Murali Gopal, Pulmonologist
This is one of the most common issues in kids of preschool age. Almost all toddlers would have had at least one episode of common cold (runny nose) and cough before they turn 2. It is commonly caused by viruses and mostly seen in winter months or during weather changes.  These viral infections are self limiting illness, where the child will get better by two weeks from onset of symptoms.It is usual to have fever when kids develop these respiratory tract infections. Some children especially preschool children can develop wheezing following viral upper respiratory tract infections. These can repeat with further infections. Most of these preschool wheezers out grow their symptoms by the time they reach 6-8 years of age. Some of them may require inhaler therapy during episodes. Few children with allergic symptoms may develop asthma as they get older. There is advancement of inhaler therapy over the last few years both for children and adults. There is misconception that inhalers are ‘addictive’. It is best way to give the medicine directly into the lungs as it is breathed in to where it is needed and it reduces the chance of side effect from oral medicines given for wheezing. These medications when given by mouth as syrup or tablets can cause undesired side effects compared to inhalers.Cough is a worrying symptom for most parents. Cough is a natural, protective reflex we have to expel the irritant,phlegm in the breathing tubes and lungs. Cough lasting for more than 3 weeks needs attention especially if it sounds moist. Cough medications may reduce the cough and makes the secretions thicker making it harder to cough up. Some cough medicines available in the market can lead to serious side effects and some are not licensed to be used in children. When do we worry about child’s respiratory symptoms? Cough in newborn baby and unvaccinated babies in the first 4 months of age.Child has persistent cough for more than 3 weeks which sounds moist.Sudden onset of cough following choking and breathing difficulties.Child has breathing difficulty like breathing faster, working hard to breath.Coughing up greenish sputum or blood.Do not self medicate children as their symptoms may vary with episodes. Always consult your child’s doctor before giving medicine to your child, even if medicines are prescribed for similar symptoms in the past.

Are You Giving Your Child the Nutrition He Needs?

Dr. Poonam.M. Sambhaji, Pediatrician
As a mother of two, I too, find myself wondering (though less often) about healthy food intake of my kids, So I can imagine what nightmare it is for a parents. Here is a brief knowledge one should have to monitor your child's nutrition intake.As the preschoolers grow, they develop curiosity about food and new eating habits. They develop preferences and unique dietary needs on their likes and dislikes. To overcome this offer your child foods from all five major food groups (grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy, and protein) at every meal. He may not eat the way diet chart states, but if you serve a variety of healthy food, he'll eventually get what he needs over the course of a week.GrainsGrains aids digestion because it contain fibre, and provide energy from complex carbohydrates. It is also great sources Vitamin B. There are 2 types of grain– whole grains and refined grains. Whole grain products use the entire grain kernel and have more fiber, iron, and B vitamins than refined grains. Eg. whole wheat flour chapati, oatmeal, whole cornmeal and brown rice.  Refined grain products include white flour and bread, white rice, and most kinds of pasta. The USDA recommends getting at least half of your grains from whole grains.How much preschoolers need daily:Children 2 to 3 years old: 85 gmsChildren 4 years old: 140gmsHow much is that?  So, for a 2-3 year it will be equals 3 small 6 inch chapatti , 2 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or 1 cup of cooked cereal.VegetablesVegetables is store house of fiber, vitamin C, and A and potassium and loads of antioxidants which are disease fighting substances which lowers the long term risk of  cancer and heart disease.Make a timetable so that over  a week, your child has lots of different-colored vegetables – dark green broccoli, light green beans, orange, carrots, red tomatoes, and so on. That way, we are  sure he's getting all the nutrients, plus itsnot boring for him. Make the recipe presentation easy for you and interesting for kids. Get hold of some cookie cutter, cut the salads along with your kids, make meal preparation time a game time for them, and you will be surprised, tosee your child eating carrot cucumber and so on.How much preschoolers need daily:Children 2 to 3 years old: 1 cup.Children 4 years old: 1 1/2 cups.FruitsContains huge amounts of fiber, Vitamin C, A and potassium and Antioxidants. Use fruits as munching bites in between meals, or soon after food. Or, just be liberal with fruits, offer it whenever child wants it.How much preschoolers need daily:Children 2 to 3 years old: 1 cup.Children 4 years old: 1 to 1 1/2 cups.DairyDairy products are rich sources of calcium, which helps your child get strong teeth and bones. And source of protein. It is a good substitute especially if your child hates meat. If children 2 years old and above, are good weight, it is safe to switch to low-fat or fat-free milk, because they'll get the same amount of calcium and vitamin D, but less solid fat and fewer calories. This will decrease chances of obesity. Solid fats are mainly saturated fat, which can raise blood cholesterol levels.How much preschoolers need daily:Children 2 to 3 years old: 2 cups.Children 4 years old: 2 1/2 cups.What does this mean : A cup of dairy can be 1 cup milk, yogurt, or soy milk; 1 1/2 ounces, two slices, or 1/3 cup shredded hard cheese (such as cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss, or Parmesan); 2 ounces processed (American) cheese; 1/2 cup ricotta cheese; 2 cups cottage cheese; 1 cup pudding made with milk; or 1 1/2 cups ice cream.ProteinThis category contains meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, soy products, and nuts and seeds are all protein foods. (Beans and peas are also part of the vegetable food group.) Try to serve seafood at least twice a week. Protein food give child iron, zinc, and some B vitamins.How much preschoolers need daily:Children 2 to 3 years old: 60 gmsChildren 4 years old: 120gmsOils and fatsOils aren't considered a separate food group, but they do provide some nutrients necessary for a healthy diet, and they are the major source of vitamin E .Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking or salad dressings. Some foods, such as nuts, certain fish, avocados, and olives, are naturally high in oils. (Two tablespoons of peanut butter contains 2 teaspoons of oil.) Children get all the oils they need in the food they eat or in salad dressings or oils used for cooking. Children 2 to 3 years old need about 3 teaspoons of oil per day,  and 4-year-olds need 4 teaspoons a day.Happy Parenting! 

To Wear Helmets or Not?

Dr. Shreedhar Archik, Orthopedist
As an orthopedic surgeon who sees accident victims every day, I follow the debate on helmet use with great interest.We, as a group of orthopedic surgeons, have seen a tremendous rise in accidents as the two wheeler use has increased over last few years. In case of an accident, the most fatal injury one can sustain is to the head. The common argument is why should I use a helmet when I am just going around the corner to buy groceries or run an errand. The funniest argument is why the pillion rider should be wearing an helmet?I would like to answer these questions with a few stories of my accident victims.Asha, a 40 year old lady, was driving her 2 wheeler carefully at a speed of probably 20km/hour. Someone who had parked their car, opened the driver side door suddenly which knocked Asha down. As she fell on the road, the truck behind her went over her right elbow. The injury was so bad that we had to amputate Asha’s arm below the elbow. Asha was driving from her home to a corner shop and was not wearing a helmet. She also sustained a head injury and took 6 months to recover from it. For 6 months, her speech was affected and she used get annoying headaches.  You will say it was not her fault  and it was a careless driver opening the driver side door without looking carefully over his shoulder, but she would have at least escaped from a head injury if she was wearing a helmet.Ashok was driving his 2 wheeler and had his 4 year old son sitting on the fuel tank of his bike and his 7 year old daughter as a pillion rider. He was to drop off his kids at their school. He was wearing a helmet. His mistake? He was driving in the opposite direction, at  a no entry road as most bikers do in India! A car suddenly took a proper right turn into this one way street and knocked Ashok’s 2 kids. Both the kids landed badly and died on the spot. Ashok escaped with minor bruises. Kids on the fuel tank or someone sitting behind the driver usually have nothing to hold and when they fall on their head, it is usually fatal.Our government imposing a fine on people not wearing helmets is similar to liquor prohibition in some states. No one stops drinking just because the liquor is not available. Similarly, people have to realize on their own that using a helmet is for their  own safety and opposing the use of helmets is an useless exercise.What our government should do is to publish stories like these everywhere so it can create awareness about helmet use.

10 Powerful Winter Foods You Should Start Eating!

Ms. Mitalee Doshi, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Winters are said to be a good time to power pack a year's health. Here is your guide to a healthy winter.10 Powerful Winter FoodsGreen GarlicGarlic with long leaves just like Spring Onions. This one is very good for health and fights cold, cough, viral fever and has a very strong flavour. Add it to your veggies, to bajre ki rotis or just about everything.Hara Chana/Fresh Green Garbanzos Boil them, add some tomatoes, onions, salt, lemon juice and red chilli powder and serve as a snack. The traditional way is to roast it on a sigdi and then eat them.Orange & Yellow Haldi (Amba Haldi)This one is medicinal. It is Analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, antioxidant, antiseptic, digestive, diuretic. BajraThis one is extremely good for winters. Serve it with baingan bharta and udad ki dal.AmlaFilled with Vitamin C, this one is extremely nutritious. Add some salt and haldi to add to the taste.Green leafy veggiesA good source of beta-carotene and Vitamin C - both powerful antioxidants that help fight disease and build immunity.Sweet PotatoTry lots of different recipes with this one like tikkis and chaat or just eat it plain with some chaat masala.Black Til (Black Sesame seeds)This one is heaty so you may need to restrict it during other months. Eat it in the form of chikkis or add it in the parathas. It is rich in iron.CarrotsThe beta-carotene in carrots is an excellent source of vitamin A and a powerful anti-oxidant. TulsiIt is a herb that protects against cold, fever and helps strengthen immunity. 

6 Dietary Tips for Speedy Recovery From Tuberculosis

Dr. Yogesh Kumar, Ayurveda
Tuberculosis is an infection of Lungs,You may experience Cough and weight loss.The recovery process may be long depending on the severity of the condition.Tuberculosis lease the patient weak and malnourished.The core emphasis of the Tuberculosis Diet is to supplement the Medicines and clear the weakness in the body.1. High Protein DietEat Food rich in proteins. Some sources of good protein are Fish, Lean meat, Chicken, Eggs, Unpolished Lentils, Soybeans. High protein diet helps in repair of the damaged cells, promotes  growth and   protects the body from malnutrition.Eat more pulses,sprouts and beans.2. VitaminsEat food that is rich in vitamins like green leafy vegetables and seasonal fruits or you can take vitamin supplements also.Eat plenty of Fish liver oil, Liver, Milk, Egg yolk, Spinach, lettuce, Turnip, Almonds and other dry fruits as these are good sources of Vitamin A.Vitamin B complex:Yeast, whole grain, lentils, milk, green-leafy vegetables, eggs, nuts, sunflower seeds are some sources of vitamin B complex.Vitamin C:Citrus fruits, berries, vegetable, Tomatoes are rich sources of Vitamin C.3. IRONIron from natural food sources should be considered as the Iron supplements available in the market are not devoid of side effects, hence the natural iron is the best and healthiest option. Meat,Seafood,Oysters ,Fish,Mussels,Tofu and beans,Chick peas,Black eyed peas Vegetables,Spinach,Onions,Pumpkin,Beet root,Turnip And other green leafy vegetables.4. Milk-Take milk with protein powder two to three times a day.5.Carbohydrates-You can have normal quantities of carbs and fats.So take your roti,rice chapati,potato and vegetables.You can also have oil,ghee.Oil should be polyunsaturated or unsaturated.6.Others-Take plenty of water and fluids.for snacks you can have idli,vada,bread fruits like banana,apple.Take thin soups avoid deep fried foods like samosa,pakodas,chips.Avoid cold drinks,cold water.ice cream,chilled food from the refrigerator.Avoid heavy meal eat in small quantities.Take early Dinner.

A Personalized Touch to Your Dentures

Dr. Abhijit Anil Tambe, Dentist
Our teeth are most important part for our facial appearance. The arrangement of teeth in arch, their color, size, shape reflects aesthetics along with personality. An Individual with round face has more rounded kind of teeth which gives more feminine appearance whereas a person with square face has more square shaped teeth which gives masculine appearance. That shows how important teeth are for our appearance.The number of missing teeth depends upon the age and oral hygiene status of the patient. Missing teeth cause loss of function; aesthetics and also it affect personality of the individual. Complete loss of teeth is major problem for aged people. It leads to inability to have food, difficulty in speech and also loss of good appearance of face.Various prosthodontic treatment options are available for replacement of completely missing teeth for elderly. Those are complete dentures and implant supported fixed or removable dentures. For the all these artificial teeth proper diagnosis and meticulous execution of dental treatment is required. Along with proper functioning if desirable aesthetics can be given for the prosthesis, patient will be more satisfied. For this aesthetics characterization of prosthesis is required.Characterization is nothing but a modification of prosthesis or artificial teeth according to individuals requirements, rather it is a custom made prosthesis for particular individual which is fabricated by specialized dentist called as prosthodontist. This kind of prosthesis is easily accepted by patient because they look like natural teeth and not like artificial teeth, thus more aesthetics of prosthesis.Simple way of making few changes for constructing personalized prosthesis:Selecting proper teeth size, shape and color of teeth according to each patient’s facial appearance, tone of skin and required visibility of teeth.Making gingival (gums) characterization with different shades of pink, red and brown color.Making some root elevation on prosthesis as if teeth is coming out of gums feeling, same as that of natural teeth.Giving some natural appearance like minor rotation or spacing in prosthesisLittle bit of Stains can be applied on teeth rather than full one shade white teeth.How to get personalized or characterized denture:Always ask in detail about aesthetics of prosthesis to your dentist.Take help of dental surgeon and work on how much natural appearance to dentures can be achieved.Always give proper consent to dentist regarding the appearance of prosthesis during trail prosthesis as later on it cannot be changed much. Specialized in the same filed are always there to work on it.     Appearance does matter a lot. Who does not want more natural looking teeth? Or it should be the basic need for all the patient, only thing is that it is most commonly ignored.Don’t get accustom with artificial looking denture, rather it is time to shift on more natural, good looking and personalized teeth sets.