This is a condition in which there is flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot. It is usually associated with a valgus deformity of the foot (i.e. twisting outwards). At birth, the foot is always flat. The arches of the foot develop only when the child stands. The arches are maintained by

  1. Shape of the bones

  2. Ligaments

  3. Muscles of the sole and the calf muscles


  • Loss of spring in the foot – A shuffling gait

  • Loss of shock absorbing function, which leads to increase liability to trauma & development of tarsal osteoarthritis

  • Loss of space in the sole of the foot, leading to compression of the nerves of the foot & leading to neuralgic pain

  • Compression of the blood vessels leading to coldness and vascular disturbances in the toes.

This can be cured by Occupational Therapy with its effective assessment, therapeutic exercises & use of orthosis.