Halitosis originates from the latin word "halitus" which means "Pathologic alteration of one's breath", A persistent unpleasant odour in exhaled breath usually not serious, commonly called as " BAD BREATH"
Also known as - Halitosis, Fetor oris, Oral malodor and Putrid breath
- Unpleasant smell present on breath
1. Genuine :
a. 85% of cases come from inside the mouth
b. The remaining cases are believed to be due to disorder in the nose,sinuses,Throat,Lungs,Oesophagus or stomach
c. Rarely bad breath can be due to an underlying medical conditions such as Liver failure or Keto acidosis
2. Non genuine :
Someone feels they have bad breath but someone else cannot detect it
Usually from inside the mouth:
d. Other less common causes
a. MOUTH : In about 90% of geuine halitosis cases the origin of the odour is in the mouth itself known as intraoral halitosis,oralmalodor or oral halitosis .
common causes - a) Biofilm on the back of the tongue
b) Biofilm below the gumline
c) Biofilm in the pockets created by gum disease between teeth and the gums
This biofilm result in the production of high level of foul odour
b. TONGUE : Location for mouth halitosis is tongue,in tongue bacteria produces 80 - 90 % of all causes mouth related bad breath.
Degree of tongue coating affect more in halitosis than severity of periodontal disease
c. GUMS : Gingival cervices are the small grooves between teeth and gums and they are present in health , although may become inflammed when gingivitis is present
People with uncontrolled diabetes are more prone to have multiple gingival and periodontal abscess,their gums are widened with large pockets,where pus accumulation occurs.This nidus of infection can be a potential source for bad breath.Removal of the subgingival calculus (tartar or hard plaque) and freeable tissue has been shown to improve mouth odour considerably
This is accomplished by subgingival scaling and root planing and irrigation with an antibiotic mouth rinses.
VSC'S (VOLATILE SULPHUR COMPOUNDS):
Vsc's is known to be the greatest contribution in halitosis,the level of vsc's on breath has been shown to positively corelate with the depth of periodontal pocketing.The number of pockets and whether the pockets bleed when examine with a dental probe.However not all patients with periodontal disease have halitosis,and not all patients with halitosis have peridontal disease although patients with periodontal disease are more likely to suffer from halitosis than general population.
d. Other less common causes : Deep carious lesions
Recent dental extraction sockets
Interdental food impaction
Acrylic dentures (plastic false teeth)
Stress / Anxiety
Smoking (second most common cause of oral malodour)
e. Nose and Sinuses
i. Systemic diseases
j. Delusional halitosis (olfactory reference syndrome)
FAST FACTS ON BAD BREATH :
Here are some key points about bad breath
1. Bad breath is estimated to affect 1 in 4 people globally.
2. The most common cause of halitosis is bad oral hygiene,so every 6 months dental checkup is mandatory
3. If particles or food left in the mouth they break down and bacteria produces sulphur compounds
4. Keeping the mouth hydrated can reduce the mouth odour
5. The best treatment for bad breath is regular brushing,flossing and hydration
Simple home remedies and life style changes such as improved dental hygiene, and quiting smoking can often remove the issue
If bad breath persists however,it is advisable to visit doctor and check for underline causes
Obsessive complusive disorder
- The best method to reduce halitosis is to maintain good oral hygiene
- It is recommended that individual visit dentist for checkup twice a year
- Dentist may recommend a tooth paste that includes antibacterial mouth wash
- Alternatively if gum disease is present professionally cleaning may be neccessary to clear out the buildup of bacteria in pockets between the gums and teeth
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