How can a man know that he is having azoospermia?

Unfortunately, in most of the cases, the men are not aware that he is having azoospermia. However, if you have any problems in genital organs since birth, any operations (particularly hernia), infections (mumps, tuberculosis, STI), injury, then he should be alert. Men treated for cancers (by chemotherapy), taking anabolic steroids, having problems in pituitary gland or liver diseases are at high risk. Men, having inadequate body hair, sexual dysfunction and varicocele should also discuss this issue with their doctor. 

The semen test shows no sperm. What should I do? 

A single report is not conclusive. This is, because, sperm production requires 3 months and it needs cool temperature than rest of the body. This is why, men have their testes hanging outside the body in the scrotum. Thus, today's semen analysis reflects a man's health 3 months before. Again, the results can vary from one laboratory to another.

So, we usually advise repeating the test after few days, preferably from a second laboratory. Sometimes, careful examination may reveal few sperms, that can be used for ICSI.

The repeat test also showed azoospermia. What is the next step?

The next step is to find out the cause. Your doctor may ask you some questions and with your permission, may check your body areas (hair growth, breast development, penis, scrotum, testicular size etc). Doctor can advise you some tests like ultrasound of your testes, or sometimes of your prostate gland. Some hormonal tests are advised (blood tests- LH, FSH, Testosterone, prolactin etc) and in some occasions, karyotyping and Y chromosome Microdelection (chromosomal analysis).