Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are rock-like masses made of crystals. Kidney stones typically originate in kidneys, but can later expand anywhere along the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra. Kidney stones are acknowledged to be one of the sorest medical conditions.

Types of Kidney Stones:

Not all kidney stones are formulated from the same crystals. They are different types of kidney stones which include: 

1. Calcium:

Calcium stones are the most common and are usually made of calcium oxalate (commonly), phosphate, or maleate. Eating high-oxalate food such as potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, and spinach can cause stone in the kidney. 

2. Uric Acid:

This sort of kidney stone is more common in men as compared to women. They can transpire in people with gout or those undergoing chemotherapy. This type of stone grows when urine is excessively acidic. 

3. Struvite:

This type of stone is originated mostly in women having urinary tract infections. Struvite stones are caused by long prevailing kidney infection. Treating the basic infection can avoid the growth of struvite stones.

4. Cystine:

Cystine stones are uncommon. They take place in both men and women who have a genetic disorder namely cystinuria. With this sort of stone, cystine- an acid that transpires naturally in the body- seeps out from the kidney into the urine.

Signs and Symptoms of a Kidney Stone:

Kidney stones are well-known to cause ruthless pain called renal colic. Symptoms of kidney stones might not crop up until the stone begins down the ureters. You might feel pain on one side of your back or abdomen. In men, pain may spread out to the groin area. The pain of renal colic comes and goes away but can be severe. People with renal colic become restless.  

Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:        

1. Blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine)      

2. Vomiting and Fever

3. Nausea

4. Urinating small amounts of urine      

5. Discoloured or foul-smelling urine        

6. Frequent need to urinate