Down syndrome is a genetic condition that results when there is an extra copy of a specific chromosome, chromosome 21. It is not an illness but a term that describes the features resulting from this change. The extra chromosome can affect the physical features, intellect, low IQ and overall development of an individual. It also increases the likelihood of some health problems. 

There can be impairments in cognitive ability and physical growth, mild to moderate developmental disabilities, and a higher risk of some health problems. Through a series of screenings and tests, Down syndrome can be detected before or after birth.


Down syndrome happens when there is an extra copy of genetic material on all or part of the 21st chromosome. Every cell in the body contains genes that are grouped along chromosomes in the cell's nucleus. There are normally 46 chromosomes in each cell, 23 inherited from the mother and 23 from the father. When some or all of a person's cells have an extra full, or partial, copy of chromosome 21, the result is Down syndrome. 


Down syndrome is not a disease, so it may be more appropriate to refer to features or characteristics, rather than symptoms. People with Down syndrome often have distinct physical features, unique health issues, and variability in cognitive development. 

Physical features 

Physical characteristics include:

  • Eyes that have an upward slant, oblique fissures, epicanthic skin folds on the inner corner, and white spots on the iris.
  • Low muscle tone and poor body posture, small stature and short neck
  • Flat nasal bridge
  • Single, deep creases across the centre of the palm   
  • Protruding tongue
  • Large space between the large and second toe 
  • A single flexion furrow of the fifth finger
  • Denture problem 


There’s always some slight chances of improvement in any kind of diseases if we entertain few basic changes in our daily routine, let’s stay, start from the dietary habits like:

1. Try to keep your meal gluten free as much as you can for e.g., wheat and barley.

2. Have more protein in your diet for e.g., bajra, jwar, ragi, amaranth, quinoa, Spirulina, nutritional yeast, eggs & non-veg are mandatory.  

3. Vitamin C rich diets for good dental & oral health.

4. Nutrients & supplements like, DHA, calcium, Vitamin D& Vitamin B12, iron, magnesium and omega-rich food if required for complete growth.

5. For less irritated mood ice cream, chocolates indifferent forms like hot or cold chocolate drinks can be given.

6. Give foods which they enjoy and relish.