What are Polyps?
Polyps are usually non-cancerous growths, which when developing inside the uterus, are called as uterine polyps. These can lead to many problems like abnormal vaginal bleeding, severe pain during menses (Dysmenorrhoea), inability to conceive (Infertility), recurrent miscarriages etc. There is a remote risk of development of cancer as well, over a period of time. These are usually diagnosed in ESP Ultrasound. Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVS). After this, it is usually recommended that the lady should undergo Diagnostic Hysteroscopy with the removal of polyp in the same sitting. The procedure is called as Hysteroscopy Polypectomy.
Hysteroscopy Polypectomy Procedure:
A camera is used to visualize inside the uterus and fine instruments are used to remove the polyp. Even very large polyps can be removed using this technique. In earlier days, blind D&C used to be done which can damage and remove the normal endometrium along with the polyp. This is highly detrimental in cases of infertility where the patient wants to bear children in future. With the advent of modern technologies, the uterine cavity can be visualized clearly and even very small polyps hampering the conception and pregnancy can be removed easily, without causing any damage to the normal lining of the uterus. There is no cut or incision on the body surface. So there is no need for suture removal and there are no scars as well. The procedure is absolutely painless as it is usually done in general anaesthesia. There is no need for prolonged hospitalization.
Prior to Procedure:
The patient is usually called up in the morning and can easily go home in the afternoon or in the evening. The patient is asked not to eat or drink at least 8 hrs prior to the procedure. Mostly it is advisable to plan procedure in the morning and patient is asked to have dinner before 10 pm the prior night.
She should not take any medicines in the morning except thyroid medicine if advisable, that too only with a sip of water. She may be asked to insert a small tablet vaginally in the morning. This helps in softening the mouth of the uterus. So the procedure becomes easier and smooth.
Duration of the Procedure:
Hysteroscopic Polypectomy itself takes hardly 30 minutes. There are no major complications and side effects if done by an expert.
Also, there are no major precautions to be taken after the procedure. The patient can resume normal day to day activities from the next morning itself. Few medicines (antibiotics and painkillers) are prescribed which have to be taken for few days. There can be slight spotting or blood stained discharge for few days, but there are medicines by which this can also be taken care of. All complaints of the patient e.g. bleeding, pain etc are usually resolved within few days and there is complete relief from previous symptoms after the procedure. In cases of infertility, the patient can start trying for conception from the next cycle itself. Success rates of the surgery are extremely good. Though rarely polyps may recur also, there is an immediate benefit from the procedure. Also, the polyp removed should be sent for histopathological examination too. The result of the biopsy report is highly beneficial in deciding future management and prognosis.