Articles on safety measures

Food Safety Measures

Ms. Harpreet Pasricha, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Celebrating World Health this month, let us provide some insight on food safety measures and how to ensure you are eating healthy!Clean: Always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters and cooking utensils.Separate: Keep raw food separately. Germs can spread from one food to another.Cook: Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.Chill: Put fresh food in the refrigerator right away. Store food at the proper temperature.Important: Do use safe water and raw materials.Eating a Balanced DietA healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A properly balanced diet (in addition to exercise) is also thought to be important for lowering health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer.At the core of the balanced diet are foods that are high in vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients and low in unnecessary fats and sugars. The following are essential parts of a balanced diet:Fruits: Besides being a great source of nutrition, fruits make quick and tasty snacks.Vegetables: They are primary sources of essential vitamins and minerals. Dark, leafy greens (Eg. spinach, kale etc.) generally contain the most nutrition and can be eaten at every meal.Grains: All types of grains are good sources of complex carbohydrates and some key vitamins and minerals. Grains are also naturally low in fat.Proteins: Meats and beans are primary sources of protein, which is essential for proper muscle and brain development.Dairy: Dairy products provide calcium, Vitamin D, and other essential nutrients. Opt for reduced-fat or fat-free cheeses, milk, and yogurt.Oils: Opt for low-fat versions of products that contain oil, such as salad dressing and mayonnaise. Good oils, such as olive oil, can replace fattier vegetable oil in your diet.HEALTHY EATING TIPSFill up on colorful fruits and vegetablesEat more healthy carbohydrates and whole grainsEnjoy healthy fats & avoid unhealthy fatsPut protein in perspectiveAdd calcium for strong bonesLimit sugar and saltBulk up on fiber

Injury Prevention and Safety in Children

Dr. Rahul Varma, Pediatrician
Injury Prevention in ChildrenEvery day around 1000 children die worldwide. Most of these deaths can be prevented by taking simple injury prevention measures. Huge number of children becomes seriously injured for life. In developing countries like ours where we lose so many children to infectious diseases; it adds to the mortality burden of country. More than 90% of these injuries are unintentional.Common Causes:RTA ( road traffic accidents), fall from height, burns, poisoning, drowning are the main causes of death in children due to injuries.Road traffic accidents (RTA)It is the leading cause worldwide. various methods which can help in preventing these deaths are Proper use of seat belts and child restrainer devices , wearing helmets, driving and walking in designated lanes, driving within speed limits and to avoid drunken driving.Fall:Fall from beds are very common and most baby survive with only bruises and scratches. But still more than 100 children die daily due to fall from height. Many of these deaths can be avoided by using well fitted window panels, child proofing doors and windows and play areas.Burn:Burn injuries from hot water or flames are commonly seen in young children. Preventive measures which can help are smoke alarms, temperature regulators, using fire crackers under supervision of adults.Poisoning:Another common cause of death in young children is poisoning. Daily numerous calls are received by poison cell. Accidental poisoning can be prevented by child proofing cabinets, keeping toilet cleaner out of reach of children, keeping kerosene oil safely and all the medicines away from children.DrowningDrowning is another cause of death in coastal areas. But many small children can drown head down in buckets or bathtub.So to prevent these deaths, we need to store water only in closed container and keep tub empty.PovertyChildren living in poor economical conditions are more likely to be living in unsafe environment. They might be living close to road with high traffic, poor and unstable construction, illegal electricity connection etc.PreventionChild deaths have decreased significantly over last decade (in western countries) due to following measures:Enforcing laws for child safety like having child proof cabinet for storage of medicines and floor cleaners etc.Structural modification in public places like proper railing for child safety in stairs, well fitted windows, fencing around pools, life guards etc.Public awareness campaignsBetter emergency careProper storage of flammable objectsParental guidanceBetter disaster managementIn India major issue is with enforcing laws rather than making them. Authorities should be more vigilant and we should also know our social responsibility.Right to safetyAll children have the right to a safe environment and deserve protection from injury. With proper awareness, environmental modifications and good emergency care, it can be achieved.

To Wear Helmets or Not?

Dr. Shreedhar Archik, Orthopedist
As an orthopedic surgeon who sees accident victims every day, I follow the debate on helmet use with great interest.We, as a group of orthopedic surgeons, have seen a tremendous rise in accidents as the two wheeler use has increased over last few years. In case of an accident, the most fatal injury one can sustain is to the head. The common argument is why should I use a helmet when I am just going around the corner to buy groceries or run an errand. The funniest argument is why the pillion rider should be wearing an helmet?I would like to answer these questions with a few stories of my accident victims.Asha, a 40 year old lady, was driving her 2 wheeler carefully at a speed of probably 20km/hour. Someone who had parked their car, opened the driver side door suddenly which knocked Asha down. As she fell on the road, the truck behind her went over her right elbow. The injury was so bad that we had to amputate Asha’s arm below the elbow. Asha was driving from her home to a corner shop and was not wearing a helmet. She also sustained a head injury and took 6 months to recover from it. For 6 months, her speech was affected and she used get annoying headaches.  You will say it was not her fault  and it was a careless driver opening the driver side door without looking carefully over his shoulder, but she would have at least escaped from a head injury if she was wearing a helmet.Ashok was driving his 2 wheeler and had his 4 year old son sitting on the fuel tank of his bike and his 7 year old daughter as a pillion rider. He was to drop off his kids at their school. He was wearing a helmet. His mistake? He was driving in the opposite direction, at  a no entry road as most bikers do in India! A car suddenly took a proper right turn into this one way street and knocked Ashok’s 2 kids. Both the kids landed badly and died on the spot. Ashok escaped with minor bruises. Kids on the fuel tank or someone sitting behind the driver usually have nothing to hold and when they fall on their head, it is usually fatal.Our government imposing a fine on people not wearing helmets is similar to liquor prohibition in some states. No one stops drinking just because the liquor is not available. Similarly, people have to realize on their own that using a helmet is for their  own safety and opposing the use of helmets is an useless exercise.What our government should do is to publish stories like these everywhere so it can create awareness about helmet use.

Seat Belt Sign and Indian Scenario: Those Belts Might Just Save You!

Dr. Shreedhar Archik, Orthopedist
I studied for my Masters in orthopaedics in India and then went to Great Britain for further studies in 1991. During my first few weeks into the job, I started seeing a rash on the  side of the neck of patients involved in a vehicular accident. See the figure below.I had not seen this in India. My senior in training educated me on this. This he said was termed “seat belt sign”. Seat belts are known to prevent 50 to 80 % of deaths in high velocity traffic accidents. However, if this sign is seen on a patient the doctor examining the patient first should be more careful. This sign indicates that the accident was very high velocity and the restraint can cause serious intra abdominal and neck injuries. One should be more aggressive in investigating these patients for internal organ injuries he taught me.When I returned to India I had this ingrained habit of looking for this sign and never ever found one in last 20 years of my practice. Did I see a lot of high velocity accidents in India? Sure I did, but then realized that hardly anyone wore a seat belt.Few months ago, I treated a 38 year old guy whose entire family was killed in a highway accident. His wife, only son, brother in law were all killed instantaneously. This guy broke both his thigh bones, pelvis, one elbow and one shoulder. He also had a tear in his liver. He had no seat belt sign. He recovered very slowly from his injuries but went into a severe mental depression for obvious reasons. I discussed the whole accident issue with him. None of the family members were wearing a seat belt! When I quizzed him a bit more he came out with an alarming statement “seat belt is meant only for the driver, isn’t it doctor?” He was aghast when I explained why a seat belt is mandatory for everyone in the car. Today he is back to work but still get nightmares and is under a psychiatrist’s care for his depression.I then started observing people whenever my car was stationary at a signal. I found an amazing fact. Even the back seat occupants of a 7 series BMW were not wearing a seat belt! Surprisingly most of the drivers of Mercs and BMWs were seen to have their seat belt on, though their owners seating behind had no protection! Most of our cabs do not have a functional seat belt. One of the cab drivers had pulled the belt across the chest and was sitting on the buckle instead of putting it in the clip, answer was typical “police se bachne ke liye hai”!The last surprise came a week ago. I offered to drop a few of my resident doctors home after a lecture series. Three of the future orthopaedic consultants got into my car but not a single one attempted to put a seat belt on!India not surprisingly has a very high mortality rate in road traffic accidents…come on guys have you put on your seat belt?

World Food Day & Road Safety Day on Same Day-Today.

Dr. Neelam Nath Bhatia, General Physician
Do Not Drink and Drive- Is written on most of the heavy vehicles as a lesson to driver or the passer by ?Doctors recommend alcohol for heart patients - True or False. It depends upon the school of thought the person belongs to and the study one believes in- one study says yes another study says No.Make up your mind and remember that excess of everything is Bad.Do not leave Food in plate , have a helping enough to eat , not to splurge.More than half of food produced by hard working farmer is wasted due to transportation, left overs, greed of traders , hoarding of onions and tomatoes leading to rot vegetables in places where they are stored to be sold at a higher price. Fasting is bad for health,so is feasting.Recently a 13 years old girl died due to fasting for more than 50 days. The matter is religious in nature but people are annoyed.Girls are taught to show delicacy while eating , leaving few morsels as left overs. If they do so in Germany , they would be fined for wasting food.Know your self and eat accordingly.Eat according to Constitution,Job profile & Must be familiar with own metabolism.About Road safety , police fines for Not Wearing a Helmet or not with a seat belt.Why ?It is our life and it is for our safety.Many SUVs are having seat belts for persons on the back seat but very few are aware about it.If there are 3 seats , the cars do have a Belt for person sitting in the middle , besides for each one on either side.Trauma and impact can be as bad for every one in the car.Never let the babies ride along with mother clinging along with her while she is driving. It invites heavy fines in USA but women do not care about safety of kid Eat Fresh foods , locally grown with minimum time spent on transportation.Save Food for the sake of hard working farmer, for the sake of own heart & Do Not Drink & Drive.Help Police without Fines being Imposed on us for our own safety.Be an enlightened citizen & remain cool on heavy roads with road blocks and traffic jams.Road rage is due to Attitudes & Us & Roads + lots of vehicles on roads are Not due to usTake care.

Make Food Safe to Eat- Food Safety the Best Security for a Healthy Life

Dr. Rekha Gupta, Dietitian/Nutritionist
“From farm to plate make food safe”It is very necessary to create awareness regarding food safety to avoid foodborne diseases. We can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. Handling food is as important as buying and storing them. It becomes my duty as a nutritionist to bring awareness regarding food safety to the common man.These are some common facts which should be kept in mind while handling food:Purchase refrigerated foods the last and don’t buy packets which are leaking or torn.Never thaw food on the counter. Harmful bacteria’s grow when foods are in the danger zone between 40°F and 140°F.  Thaw foods in the refrigerator, cold water or in the microwave.Don’t taste food to see if it bad because you can’t see, smell and taste bacteria with your eye. Furthermore, you are increasing the chances of contracting a disease. Don't leave food out of the refrigerator for more than two hours or one hour if it is over 90°F outside. Instead, always refrigerate foods in a timely matter.Never eat any raw eggs because they may contain Salmonella or other harmful bacteria. Instead, cook eggs thoroughly, avoid foods that contain raw or undercooked eggs.Always marinate raw meat, seafood and poultry in the refrigerator. Otherwise of bacteria growing on meat becomes very high.Cooked food is safe only after it’s been heated to a high enough internal temperature to kill harmful bacteria.Illness-causing bacteria can survive in on your hands. Washing your hands the right way can stop the spread of these bacteria.Sponges and kitchen cloths can hold on to harmful foodborne pathogens and cause a serious health risk. Always sanitise your sponges at least every other day and replace them every week.Five keys to safer foodFood safety is a shared responsibility. It is important to work all along the food production chain – from farmers and manufacturers to vendors and consumers. Five keys to safer food offer practical guidance to vendors and consumers for handling and preparing food:Key 1: Keep cleanKey 2: Separate raw and cooked foodKey 3: Cook food thoroughlyKey 4: Keep food at safe temperaturesKey 5: Use safe water and raw materials.It is our responsibility to keep food safe and free from contamination of any kind to have a good health. 

Dengue: Facts And Prevention Measures

Jayakrishnan
With dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains.Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, peoothingUse mosquito repellents, especially during the monsoon seasonSince dengue is caused by a virus, it is the symptoms that are treated and the chronic phase of the illness with fever and myalgias lasts approximately one to two weeks.The symptoms:Severe joint and muscle painSwollen lymph nodesHeadacheFeverExhaustion - RashesThe risk of complications is in less than 1% of dengue cases The danger of dengue lies in dehydration, so it is vital to consume a lot of fluids and to only opt for a platelet transfusion if there is active bleeding or your platelet count is below 10,000.

How to Manage Hearing Loss?

Mr. Bibin Georgie Thomas, Audiologist
5.3% of the world's population is affected by the disabling effects of hearing loss. It is an invisible handicap. Some have congenital hearing loss, while others acquire it later in life.Fortunately,there are medical/surgical and/or assistive devices (hearing aids) to aid them. As per World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, one-third of those above the age of 65 years acquire hearing loss known as Sensorineural hearing loss. This occurs when there is damage to the inner ear (cochlea), or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. Most of the time, sensorineural hearing loss cannot be medically or surgically corrected. This is the most common type of permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss will reduce a person's ability to comprehend speech. Greater the loss,larger is its impact upon speech comprehension. Hearing loss can be conductive or sensorineural based on which part of the ear is affected.In conductive hearing loss, the outer or middle ear does not conduct sounds well as it should, causing a loss of sensitivity for hearing soft sounds. Conductive hearing loss could be caused by impacted wax in the ear canal, perforated eardrum due to an injury or middle ear infection.The fragile inner ear is subject to infection by a variety of viruses including mumps, measles or any illness accompanied by very high fever resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. Certain drugs that areototoxic also cause sensorineural hearing loss. It is nothing but reduced sensitivity to soft sounds as well as difficulty in distinguishing one sound from another.The causes mentioned here are only a few, but the list is exhaustive.The degree of hearing loss can range from mild to severe/profound hearing loss. Even mild hearing loss can isolate hard of hearing people from the mainstream culture and severely restrict their social lives.Symptoms of hearing loss:Avoiding communicative situationsSaying you understood something when you did notRefusing to admit you have a hearing lossExpressing anger through outburstsContinually talking so that you do not have to listenSaying "Never mind, it's not important"Simply nodding your head for everything spoken infront of youPeople who mumble and speak too softExperience of a ringing sound in the earsOften asking people to repeat what they sayComplaints that you play the TV too loudDifficulty in understanding a conversation in a large groupStruggling with localization of the soundsHaving been told that you speak too loudly Denial is an initial reaction, Projection is the second reaction i.e., blame someone else. The next step is anger, misdirected,at the person in closest proximity. Depression may follow resulting in self-imposed aloofness.TreatmentTreatment measures for hearing loss are: medication, in cases of infection causing conductive hearing loss; surgery to correct the outer ear, middle ear bones and eardrum problems, and hearing aids; makes some sounds louder so that a person with hearing loss can listen and communicate.Hearing aids are the effective therapeutic device for 90% of the hard of hearing people. Only 10% of hearing loss can be corrected medically or surgically. Properly fitted and used, hearing aids are able to enhance the quality of life of hard of hearing people.Hearing aids are highly sophisticated devices, reflecting a blend of advances in computers, communication and electronic technology, with added features and development appearing at a rapidly increasing rate. A number of programmable and digital hearing aids are currently in the market, arriving every year.The first step the hearing-impaired person should take is to ensure that he or she has the proper hearing aids and that they are properly adjusted to one's hearing loss. This requires consultation with an audiologist. The hearing-impaired person should not hesitate to ask questions regarding the relative effectiveness of different aids and adjustments. The manipulation of conversational situations is also necessary.People with a hearing loss have a lot of difficulty in understanding speech in noisy situations. The right kind of thing to do in this situation is to ask that the background sounds be reduced e.g. the radio does not have to be on when one is talking to another person in the car. At public performances, they can ask for seats up front / directly in line and close to the loudspeaker. In other types of public performances, they should arrive early and select the most appropriate seats, which would ordinarily be up front. In these situations,changing seats to determine whether another location is better is perfectly appropriate. It is always good for the speaker to ensure that the hearing-impaired listener can see his / her face during a conversation. People with hearing loss may not even realize it, but they are speech reading to some extent as long as they can seethe other person's lips move. The person who communicates should make sure that they do not inadvertently cover their lips. Conversations can be moved to quieter sections. In any type of situation, the closer the speaker and listener are, the easier it will be to hear.Ways to Prevent Hearing LossDeafness and being deaf may not be in our hands, but if we take care and see to the issues of the ears before it is too late, it can be prevented or reversed in a number of cases. The health of the mother during pregnancy should be given adequate consideration so as to have a healthy and fit baby. Similarly in any case of ear problem or pain, the doctor should be consulted very soon to make sure that is not something serious.Taking care and consulting an Otolaryngologist or Audiologist while having medicines that are proven bad for the ear can help to reduce medicine related deafness. In the same way staying away from too much sound or wearing ear defenders when in noisy environment can also help in preventing the problem. Hearing loss imposes some adjustments in life; some easier to cope with than others. Try to recognize it, admit your problem and seek medical help at the first indication of hardness of hearing.There’s help available...all you have to do is ask for it!

Reduce Risk of Falling in Elderly

Dr. Nidhi Kumar, Physiotherapist
Falls are preventable health problems that can cause moderate to severe injuries & may become primary Etiology of deaths in persons above 65 years of age. High risk of falls in elderly can be attributed to many factors which are broadly categorised into two groups. These are extrinsic/external factors and intrinsic/internal factors.Intrinsic/internal factors arePoor muscle function due to ageing,Reduced co-ordination due to ageing,Medication use (drugs that increase risk of falling are sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-hypertensive drugs, cardiac medicines, hypoglycaemic agents {used in diabetes}, etc.)Impaired vision,Sensory deficits,Alcohol consumption,Poor nutrition,Fall from bed due to disorientation, vertigo, poor balance/muscle power due to chronic illness, etc.Neurological problem such as Stroke, Parkinson’s {balance, gait and postural disturbances}, neuropathy {diabetes}, myopathy {muscle disorders}etc.Loss of consciousness due to epileptic convulsions, cardiac problems, dehydration, vertigo, etc.Extrinsic/external factors are environmental factors such asSlippery floors(waxed or with water),Broken pavements,Slippery rugs/mats,Folded carpet edges,Use of faulty/improper footwear,Use of faulty /improper walking aids,Electrical wires, etc.Falls may cause moderate to severe injuries. The following are health hazards caused due to falls;Fractures;most commonly seen at hip, spine, ribs, forearm, pelvis, hand, ankle, etc. The bones in elderly are already weakened due to osteoporosis. Any trivial trauma may become a trigger for fracture. This leads to dependence, bed recumbency, reduced activity and mobility, which further leads to enhanced rate of osteoporosis.Head injury; which may vary from a mild concussion to severe injury, may become fatal even.Ligament sprains.Psychological fear leading to dependence, further fear of falling & increased self-restriction of activities.Increased morbidity & bed recumbency.Prevention of fallsExercise regularly; ageing process, reduced activity level, morbidity, etc. are few factors which lead to reduced muscle strength, balance & co-ordination. This may pre-dispose to falls. Thus organising camps or group interventions motivates the elderly and also gives them a chance to socialise.Ergonomics; free active and resistive exercises should be done using thera-tubes, thera-bands, putty, pulleys, balls, etc. 10 repetitions each 2-3 times a week throughout range of motion.Regular eye check-up; regular eye check-up should be done & update glass power to maximise vision.Reduce fracture risk; elderly should be regularly screened for osteoporosis through bone density tests, DEXA scan etc. Adequate calcium & vitamin D levels in blood should be maintained through dietary intake and through supplements too. Weight bearing/loading exercises should be regularly followed to strengthen & enhance bone health.Postural hypotension; regular blood pressure check-up, regular updating of medications. If patient has regular postural hypotension attacks, ask him/her to lie down immediately with foot end of bed elevated. Ask patients to perform ankle pumps.Medication review; ask doctor to review medication that may cause dizziness/drowsiness. Few drugs that cause drowsiness thereby increasing the risk of fracture are; sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-hypertensive, cardiac medicines, hypo-glycaemic agents, etc.Home check safety listRemove throw rugs.Secure carpet edges on floor & stairs.Reduce floor & wire clutter.Install handrails on staircase.Avoid floor waxes/slippery tiles.Use anti-skid mats.Ensure adequate lighting in lobby/walking areasBathroomInstall hand rails in shower & bathtubs.Use anti-skid mats.Avoid wet surfaces.Avoid detergent/soap spillage on floor.Walking aidsEnsure proper balance of walking aids.Regular check of anti-skid rubbers/buffers of walking aids.Ensure proper hand grips.FootwearRegular check of footwear wear & tear.Regular change of footwear grip & comfort.Regular screening & modifications can prevent falls in elderly thereby improving upon geriatric health, wellness & lifestyle.

Oral Cancer - Say No to Tobacco

Dr. Sumit Dubey, Dentist
As we all know because of best diagnostic tools and increased awareness of Cancer via government programme, initiative of Non government organization, individuals and also cancer survivors , we are able to control to some extent. But cancer still exists down the rural areas and many other remote areas. Just sharing few thoughts for the same. Take control by making healthy changes in your life such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular assessments. It's well recognized that your odds of developing cancer are affected by the lifestyle choices you make.Therefore if you’re nervous about cancer prevention, take comfort in the fact that some simple lifestyle changes can make a big difference. 1. Tobacco is strictly "NO" - Smoking has been linked to various types of cancer — including cancer of the lung, bladder, cervix and kidney - Chewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Even if you don’t use tobacco, exposure to second-hand smoke might increase your risk of lung cancer - Avoiding tobacco — or deciding to stop using it — is one of the most important health decisions you can make. It’s also an important part of cancer prevention. If you need help quitting tobacco, ask your doctor about stop-smoking products and other strategies for quitting 2. A Healthy Diet is your "Best Friend" - Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Base your diet on fruits, vegetables and other foods from plant sources — such as whole grains and beans. - Eat lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-fat foods, particularly those from animal sources. High-fat diets tend to be higher in calories and might increase the risk of overweight or obesity — which can, in turn, increase cancer risk. - Drink alcohol only in moderation. The risk of various types of cancer — including cancer of the breast, colon, lung, kidney and liver — increases with the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time and your frequency 3. Physical Activity is a "MUST" - Sustaining a healthy weight might lower the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, prostate, lung etc - Physical activity on its own might lower the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer - For considerable health benefits, strive to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic physical activity. You can also do a combination of moderate and vigorous activity. As a general goal, include at least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine 4. Safeguard yourself from the "SUN" - Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun’s rays are strongest. - When you’re outdoors, stay in the shade as much as possible. Sunglasses and a broad-rimmed hat help, too. - Wear tightly woven, loose fitting clothing that covers as much of your skin as possible. Opt for bright or dark colors, which reflect more ultraviolet radiation than pastels or bleached cotton. - Always use sunscreen when you’re outdoors, and reapply often 5. Get "VACCINATED" - Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk adults — such as adults who are sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with sexually transmitted infections, intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, and health care or public safety workers who might be exposed to infected blood or body fluids. - Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cervical and other genital cancers as well as squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. The HPV vaccine is available to both men and women age 26 or younger who didn’t have the vaccine as adolescents 6. "AVOID" dangerous actions - Limit your number of sexual partners, and use a condom when you have sex. The more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more likely you are to contract a sexually transmitted infection — such as HIV or HPV. People who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical cancer, but it might also increase the risk of cancer of the anus, penis, throat, vulva and vagina. - Don’t share needles. Sharing needles with an infected drug user can lead to HIV, as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C — which can increase the risk of liver cancer. If you’re concerned about drug abuse or addiction, seek professional help 7. Get regular "MEDICAL CHECK UP" - Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers — such as cancer of the skin, colon, prostate, cervix and breast — can increase your chances of discovering cancer early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. - Ask your doctor about the best cancer-screening schedule for you. Take cancer prevention into your own hands, starting today. The rewards will last a lifetime.