It is an infectious disease, epidemic, and endemic in nature throughout the world. It is basically a virus infection of nerve cells in the anterior gray matter or cranial nerve nuclei in the brain stem leading in many cases to temporary or permanent paralysis of the muscles that they activate.
It is a disease that occurs effectively in humans.
HOW TO RECOVER FROM POLIO
In this physiotherapy plays an important role. Exercises are the most important part to recover from this condition.
1) Splintage is given so that the lower limb can be immobilized so as to prevent any further damage to the neural structures. Moreover giving a splint also reduces the pain arising from the muscles by immobilizing them and offering support. Splinting in this stage also prevents the muscles from going into contractures.
2) MMT: immediately after the muscular pain gets reduced and the patient comes out of the initial stage of inflammation, manual muscle charting should be done to know the extent of weakness or paralysis.
3) Gentle passive movement: the parents of the child should be shown to do the gentle passive movement at least 2 to 3 times per day mainly to keep the muscle and joints flexibility as well as to improve circulations to the limbs. This depends on the tolerance of the patient and should not be given when the muscles are painful or tender.
4) Stretching of contractures: the tight and contracted soft tissue should be gently but consistently stretched to prevent the chances of gross deformity. The principle contractures are IT band and ankle equines. If the tendo Achilles is weak with grade either 0 or 1 then while stretching it out excessive stretch should be avoided as there is more anterior gliding of tibia which could lead to calcaneal deformity. Therefore it should be stretched only to a neutral position.
IT band contracture needs full stretching normally but in cases where there is gluteus medius weakness, full stretching of the IT band will further weaken the gluteus medius due to excessive stretch and will lead to or exaggerated Trendeleburg’s lurch. Thus in cases where there is a gluteus medius weakness a decision has to be made whether to stretch it fully or to stretch it only to neutral.
5) Stimulation and facilitation technique: may be given to maintain the muscular property so that it facilitates improvement in the next stage.