Calorie: Carbohydrates, fats and proteins provide energy. The energy in food is measured in units called calories. A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. 

There are 6 essential components of nutrition. These are: 

1.  Proteins 

2.  Carbohydrates 

3.  Fats 

4.  Water 

5.  Vitamins:§ Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and Water soluble (B, C) 

6.  Minerals  

The first four groups are called macronutrients, because the body needs them in large amounts. The last two groups are required in only small quantities and so are known as micronutrients. Although minerals and vitamins are needed in only small amounts, they are as vital to health as are any of the other classes of nutrients.The daily diet should include a portion from each of the five major five food groups: 

1. Vegetables like green leafy vegetables, potatoes etc.

2. Fruits (one fruit at least depending on the season).

3. Breads, cereals, rice.

4. Milk, yoghurt and cheese. 

5. Meat, chicken fish and eggs (for non-vegetarians); beans, peas, legumes and nuts (for vegetarians).   

Food provides certain chemical substances needed for good health.  These substances, called nutrients, perform one or more of three functions.  

1. They provide materials for building, repairing and maintaining body tissues. 

2. They help regulate body processes and chemical reactions. 

3. They serve as fuel to provide energy.