Nose Bleeds (Epistaxis) is a very common problem in children and one of the commonest causes for bringing a child to the Emergency of a Hospital.

The causes may be because of

- Simple nose picking

- Sinus infection

- Foreign Body in the Nose

- Bleeding disorders

- Nasal tumours - especially the Juvenile Angiofibroma which occurs in male children

The First Aid in case of a Nose Bleed in a child is to do the following

- make the child sit on a chair and lean forward - making the child lie down will cause the blood to trickle to the back of the throat and may cause choking

- Pinch the nostril and ask the child to breath through the mouth. Reassure the child

- Apply some ice over his nose - this will help to constrict the blood vessels and stop the bleeding

This usually stops the bleeding in a majority of cases.

Subsequently, the child must be shown to an ENT Specialist who will carefully evaluate the child to look for the cause. Some blood tests or maybe a CT scan may be ordered.

The main stay of the diagnosis and treatment is the nasal endoscope - a quick nasal endoscopy will, in most cases reveal the location and cause of the bleeding.

Conservative treatment usually works. However, in the presence of recurrent nose bleeds a nasal endoscopy evaluation with cauterisation of the bleeder may be required.

An early opinion of the ENT specialist is important because sometimes the cause may be more serious and in that case an early diagnosis is very important.