Articles on child care

Child Care: How to Help Your Child With a Learning Disability

Dr. Satish Erra, Homeopath
How to help your child with a learning disability:-Parents sit with their children while they do their homework, sometimes for hours.Between 4 or 5 percent of the population have one or more learning disabilities. This condition affects the way they take in, retain and express information. Having a learning disability can be frustrating for everyone involved.With proper diagnosis, modification of learning strategies, and a lot of patience and hard work, these challenges can be overcome. Frustration can be replaced with a new way of learning. There is hope.It is important to know what types of learning disabilities exist in order to determine if your child has a learning disability. Learning disabilities can run in families. If one member of your family has a diagnosed learning disability, there is a greater chance that other family members could have one as well.It is important to remember that a person with a learning disability has average or above average intelligence. They are not, however, able to achieve their academic potential without modification and accommodation in the learning environment.Since every person with a learning disability is unique, it is impossible to paint a static picture of every scenario. There are traits common to many people with learning disabilities.Common learning disabilities include challenges in one or more of the following areas:Oral or spoken languageMathematicsWritten languageLogical reasoning and memoryLearning does not need to be traditional to be successful. As you can see, there are a wide range of areas where a person may have difficulties learning. There are also a broad range of options for educationMany parents choose to keep their children in public schools. Many schools provide alternate learning strategies both inside and outside the classroom. Some parents, given their financial resources, choose private school.Because public education in the United States has a fairly structured framework, some parents choose to home school. When deciding to home school your child, make sure to find support from other parents using home education for their children with learning disabilities. This may or may not be the best option for your family.Working closely with your child can be challenging. But it can also provide insight into how they process information. You can gain a greater understanding of their mind and how it works.Your child is more than a diagnosis. When your child has a disability of any sort, it is easy to let the disability define the individual. This is especially true immediately following diagnosis. Try to avoid this. The disability is merely a part of who your child is.Learning may take more time. Since children with a learning disability are, by definition, functioning at average or above average intelligence, they may become frustrated with their own performance. Remind your child, their teacher and yourself that mastering material is not a race.The process of learning is as important as the goal. Remembering this can make the days go more smoothly. Be aware that some individuals become frustrated with their progress and are more prone to depression, or other similar mental health concerns.You are not alone. There are many prominent and successful people with learning disabilities. Telling your child about them can provide them a role model to look to when they are frustrated.If you suspect that your child has a learning disability, educate yourself. Be creative with your solutions and be patient with the progress your child makes. Children with learning disabilities are regular kids, they just need the right tools to help them succeed.

Picking the Perfect Nanny for Your Child

Dr. Rahul Varma, Pediatrician
Finding a good nanny is very hard in real life, here are some key points that you should keep in mind when getting started with your nanny search. Make a list Start off by putting together a list of the qualities that are important to you. For example, do you want your nanny to be well versed in your mother tongue, full time/part time or a good cook? This will help you weed out the not-so-suitable from the suitable candidates.Do your research Spread the word among your friends and family that you are looking for a nanny. Hiring a candidate who is referred through a known source is always better. Contact nanny agencies only after thoroughly checking up on them and asking for references on social media sites. Interview Make a list of all the questions you want to ask your nanny. For instance, what would you do if my child is unable to sleep? or what would you do if my child refuses to eat his lunch? This person is going to be spending a lot of time with your child, so if you’re unhappy with their appearance, mannerisms or anything else, move on. ObserveAllow the nanny to interact with your child. Observe without interfering, so that you can assess whether the nanny and the child are able to bond and whether the nanny’s skills are up to the mark. Remember, your nanny will be responsible for playing a big role in shaping your child’s behavior, education, and cultural development. Do not compromise, but rather, take your time looking for the right person. Be patient, that one perfect nanny is definitely out there! 

Problem Child or Problem Parent?

Dr. Milan Balakrishnan, Psychiatrist
I strongly believe that a problematic child is a result of a number of factors, the most important of which is the parenting. Effective parenting is the best way to solve these problems.To begin with, let me introduce some of the common behavioural problems that children have and how you as parents can deal with them.It takes time for children to learn how to behave properly. With help and encouragement from parents and teachers, most of them will learn quickly. All children will sometimes disobey adults. Occasionally, a child will have a temper tantrum, or an outburst of aggressive or destructive behaviour, but this is nothing to worry about. He may argue fight, hold his breath, bawl and threaten you as long it is occasional it does not create a problem. You just need to leave him alone and give him time to recover.Behavioural problems – the signsBehavioural problems can occur in children of all ages. Very often they start in early life. Toddlers and young children may refuse to do as they are asked by adults, in spite of being asked many times. They can be rude, swear and have tantrums. Hitting and kicking of other people is common.So is breaking or spoiling things that matter to others.Some children have serious behavioural problems. The signs of this to look out for are:If the child continues to behave badly for several months or longer, is repeatedly being disobedient, cheeky and aggressiveIf their behaviour is out of the ordinary, and seriously breaks the rules accepted in their family and community, this is much more than ordinary childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness. This sort of behaviour can affect a child’s development, and can interfere with their ability to lead a normal life. When behaviour is this much of a problem, it is called a conduct disorder.What does this mean?Children with a conduct disorder may get involved in more violent physical fights, and may steal or lie, without any sign of remorse or guilt when they are found out.They refuse to follow rules and may start to break the law. They may start to stay out late at night and create trouble in school during the day.Teenagers with conduct disorder may also take risks with their health and safety by taking illegal drugs or having unprotected sexual intercourse. They experiment with alcohol, cannabis and inhalantsWhat effect can this have?This kind of behaviour puts a huge strain on the family and makes you as parents feel very upset and sometimes even guilty. Children who behave like this will often find it difficult to make friends. Even though they might be quite bright, they don’t do well at school and are often near the bottom of the class.On the inside, the young person may be feeling that they are worthless and that they just can’t do anything right. It is common for them to blame others for their difficulties if they do not know how to change for the better.What causes oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder?A child is more likely to develop an oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder if they:have a difficult temperament;have learning or reading difficulties – these make it difficult for them to understand and take part in lessons. It is then easy for them to get bored, feel stupid and misbehave;are depressed;have been bullied or abused;are ‘hyperactive’ – this causes difficulties with self-control, paying attention and following rules.Parents themselves can sometimes unknowingly make things worse by giving too little attention to good behaviour, always being too quick to criticise, or by being too flexible about the rules and not supervising their children adequately. This often happens if one of the  parents especially the mother is depressed, exhausted or overwhelmed. Parents not getting along with each other and domestic violence can add to this.Giving too little attention to good behaviour:As a parent, it can be easy to ignore your child when they are being good, and only pay attention to them when they are behaving badly. Over time, the child learns that they only get attention when they are breaking rules. Most children, including teenagers, need a lot of attention from their parents, and will do whatever it takes to get it.Perhaps surprisingly, they seem to prefer angry or critical attention to being ignored. It’s easy to see how, over time, a ‘vicious cycle’ is set up.Being too flexible about the rules:Children need to learn that rules are important and that ‘no’ means ‘no’. Keeping this up is hard work for parents. It can be tempting to give in ‘for a quiet life’. The trouble is that this teaches the child to push the limits until they get what they want. Teenagers need to know that their parents care about them. They must also understand that rules are needed to protect their safety and that they must learn to live within these rules.What can you as parents do?Treat children as young adults. Children go through the same emotional issues that adults do only their coping is limited making it difficult for them to handle it in a mature manner and with all that pent up energy it manifests in physical and behavioural waysParents can do a lot. It helps if discipline is fair and consistent, and it is crucial for both parents to agree on how to handle their child’s behaviour (Read article on good parenting All young people need praise and rewards when they improve their behaviour. This can be hard. Remember to praise even the small, everyday things, and let them know that you love and appreciate them.It is worth asking the school about whether they are also worried about your child’s behaviour. It is helpful if parents and teachers can work together. Extra teaching may sometimes be  necessary.If serious problems continue for more than 3 months, its best to seek professional help from a psychiatrist or a psychologist dealing with children’s issues.Leave your comments on this article. Criticism and brick-bats are also welcome.

Nurturing Young Minds - The First Five Years of Child Development!

Dr. Sulata Shenoy, Psychiatrist
It is universally acknowledged that the first five years of life are probably the most crucial in an individual’s development. There is no other time in human life when so much is learned in so brief a period.  In our short – term concern for preparing the child adequately for formal academics, we sometimes tend to neglect the true nurturing of their minds.What do we mean by mental stimulation? What are the intellectual needs of the young child? To put it succinctly, it consists of giving children certain opportunities, which facilitate them to:make sense of the environment and adapt to its changing requirementshave as many experiences involving the senses communicate and express themselves  explore and experimentsolve problemscreateHOW DO CHILDREN LEARN? Anyone who has ever spent time with young children knows how strong their impulse is to see, hear, touch, taste and smell everything they encounter. This behavior illustrates a fundamental fact of early childhood experience. Young children learn best when they are actively involved, when they can handle materials and try things out for themselves.Early learning must, therefore be based on sensory experiences. Play is an indispensable avenue for learning.  The crucial value of play in the development of children’s thinking is yet to be fully appreciated by many of us.  Adults who have watched young children at play know the intensity and seriousness they often bringing to it. Play clarifies concepts and gives children opportunities to explore, to imagine and to translate experience into something meaningful to them. Play is the natural and most effective means through which a young child learns.Activity and play by themselves are not enough to enhance a child’s learning. Children need asocial environment with peers and adults to help them interpret or clarify their experiences and to relate new learning to their previous experiences and to assimilate new learning to their existing repertoire of knowledge. This type of social interaction is crucial. As a parent or teacher, how do you enhance a child’s learning ability?  Evidence from recent research suggests that the kind of dialogue or interaction which seems to help the child most, is one in which a caring adult engages with the child, enters the child’s psychological space, listens to the child, makes appropriate comments and helps clarify concepts.

Child Dental Care

Dr. R. Rajkumar, Dentist
DENTAL TREATMENT FOR KIDSDentistry for Children: Paediatric dentistry is a very gentle method of dental treatment of children which aims to make a visit to the dentist a more comfortable experience for your children. We have purpose built area specifically designed to make your children feel relaxed and at ease. The Children's Dental Centre is dedicated to encouraging as many children as we can reach, to adopt good habits in dental hygiene.To this end, we offer reduced fee dental services to underprivileged children. Although the centre would like to offer its services as broadly as possible, it is necessary to establish eligibility guidelines pertaining to prospective patients.Children's Teeth Children's teeth begin forming before they are even born. The first primary, or baby teeth, to erupt through the gums are the lower central incisors. These are followed closely by the upper central incisors which come through around four months after birth. Although all twenty primary teeth have usually appeared by the time the child reaches three years old, the pace and order of eruption varies from child to child.Oral care should begin soon after birth. Gums should be cleaned after each feeding. You should begin brushing your child's teeth as soon as they appear.Pit and Fissure Sealings for Teeth of Children At the age of six years, permanent molar erupts in children. The deep grooves are prone to caries. In case of children, this grooves can be sealed in order to prevent decay. This is called pit and fissure sealings treatment for children.Dental Care for ChildrenYou should always clean your infant's gums after feeding. Gums should be wiped with a clean, damp cloth or gauze pad. Parents should brush children's teeth daily with a soft wet toothbrush and a pea sized amount of fluoride toothpaste. When children are very young it is necessary to supervise their brushing to ensure proper brushing habits are adopted. Your dentist will probably recommend regular fluoride treatments which will strengthen enamel and help your child’s teeth resist decay. To prevent your child suffering from nursing bottle mouth, you must give your baby a bottle at nap or bed time. Fill the bottle with plain water and not milk, formula or juice.ROOT CANAL TREATMENT OF MILK TOOTHIs Root Canal Treatment of Milk Tooth necessary?There was a time when countless milk teeth were extracted stating that they are just "temporary tooth" or "milk teeth know ,anyhow it is going to fall" and for so many other reasons. But the milk teeth are there for a specific purpose. Each and every milk teeth has to stay for a particular period of time. The change in dietary habits have resulted in a lot of milk teeth getting decayed at an earlier stage than before. These milk teeth have to be preserved whenever possible. They are the natural SPACE MAINTAINERS which are there to preserve the space for permanent teeth. Whenever a milk tooth is decayed badly, where a normal filling cannot be placed root canal treatment has to be considered before removal of tooth is considered.How many sittings it will require to perform root canal treatment for a milk tooth?It can be performed in single as well as multiple sittings. The pediatric dentist will decide the best method depending upon the situation.Is the procedure painful?No, it is not painful. If necessary the pediatric dentist can anesthetize the tooth and carry out the procedure.After root canal treatment will the milk tooth will fall on its own?Yes, after root canal treatment the tooth is almost like a natural tooth. It will fall on its own.After root canal treatment is follow up necessary?Yes, after root canal treatment the tooth has to be monitored at least once in every six months.Is there any way to prevent this?Yes, and the only way is to detect tooth decay early and treat it. If we detect tooth decay early we can save the tooth by a normal filling. It is better not to wait until pain develops, because once pain develops then preserving the tooth needs extensive treatment like root canal treatment. Hence it is always better to start the FIRST DENTAL VISIT when the first milk tooth erupts into the mouth (between 8-12 months of age). If the first dental visit has taken place at this stage one can completely prevent tooth decay if the parents strictly follow the pediatric dentists instructions.

Home Care for Elderly

Dr. Shreedhar Archik, Orthopedist
Dr. Gandhi fell at home and broke his hip bone. Dr. Gandhi is 87-year-old, who practiced till he was 78 years old. He had no diabetes or blood pressure. His only problem was dementia, from which he was suffering since last 5 years. He hardly remembers anything and stays all alone with his 80-year-old wife. Dr. Gandhi has two married daughters.Dr. Gandhi underwent a replacement surgery of his hip bone successfully and suffered no complications. However, our physiotherapist could hardly get anything out of him. He used to be violent at times or simply refuse to co-operate. He used to stay awake most nights in spite of sedatives, and then sleep the whole day. His diet suffered. He was on a urinary catheter and a diaper. He was put on an air mattress since he refused to turn in bed and we were worried that he would end up having bed sores.The time came to discharge him from the hospital as there was nothing to be done from the medical team. Physiotherapy was advised by the doctors so that he could get out of bed and get going, however, sadly, he refused to co-operate with the doctors, mainly due to his poor mental health. Both his daughters started panicking as we started discussing with them about his discharge. Though from a well-off family, the daily bill of a good hospital started pinching them. How would they take care of their father at home? How would their frail mother manage him? They had their own families to look after and could not spend the entire day with him.This is where the new home care startups came to our help. These new startups provide almost entire hospital facilities at home. We arranged a hospital type of bed and an air mattress on rent. We arranged two ward boys to take care of him in two 12 hours shift. We arranged a MBBS doctor to visit him once a week to check on his parameters. The cost of all this was almost 50 % of his daily hospital bill.We lack nursing home facilities for such elderly patients who need to be discharged from the hospital but are not fit enough to go home. In foreign countries, these facilities are available (though very expensive). The new startups in India have managed to fill this gap very well.We see patients like Dr. Gandhi who have their kids in the USA and no one local to take care of them. For such elderly couples, any such institution that takes care of them and yet lets them live a quality life, is a god-send facility.These startups vary from region to region and your treating doctors would be happy to share their numbers with you.

Toddlers and Tablets

Rajat Kaur Thukral
There is a recent trend among children, as young as 1 years old, being exposed to television and other electronic devices such as cell phones and tablets. With rapid technological advancement in the recent years, the number of electronic devices in each household has increased. There is some research that points to negative effects of electro-magnetic frequency (EMF) on the health of the consumers. Since the brains of the infants and toddlers are not fully developed and have a thinner brain skull, therefore the impact of these frequencies on the child’s brain could be higher. Currently, there is limited research on long term effects of EMF’s on children, so a preventative and precautionary approach is recommended.A child’s brain is developing rapidly during the first three to five years of life, the information that the child can absorb during these years is unparalleled to any other stage of life. Hence it is crucial that caregivers engage with a toddler in various sensorimotor activities, interactive play, communication, educational toys, and books. Screen time among toddler’s has been linked with language delays, attention problems, obesity, and lower scholastic achievement later in life. Watching TV reduces the amount of interaction that the caregiver has with the child. Children learn languages through interactions with the caregivers. Humans are hard wired to learn best from the caregivers’ voices, tones, and words as it has long lasting impact on the memory of the child than any other electronic device can fulfill. There is a short window for learning languages in early childhood and it can become very difficult later on in life to learn a new language. Even just having a TV switched on in the background can impact the language development of the child. This is so because the child and the parent is distracted and there is not much quality interaction or attunement between the child and the parent. Here are some specific suggestions for parents with toddlers and preschoolers-Limit the duration of quality screen time to 1- 2 hours every day for preschoolers. Make sure that the child is engaged in educational shows during that time. Try to sit along with the child and engage in a discussion with the child regarding the educational content of the show. This is called active watching rather than passive watching. The child can develop critical thinking skills if the caregiver engages with the child in a conversation related to the content of the show.Parental supervision is suggested for monitoring the content of the shows if a child is watching. Violent or aggressive content on TV has been linked to aggressive behavior among kids.Avoid feeding children during screen time. Children are not good multi-tasker’s. They can focus on one thing at a time. Multi-tasking can be overwhelming for children. When children focus on eating food themselves, then they master their sensorimotor skills and tend to interact with adults. If you just feed the child while they are glued to a screen, the child does not recognize the fruits and vegetables that one is eating. The food does not get well digested if the child is not focusing on chewing the food properly, which can lead to digestive problems.Limit your own use of multiple devices. Children learn from observing parents than what is being told to them. If the parents could avoid using their devices in front of their children and use only if there is important work, then the child will understand the rules around using the screen time. Try to create tech-free spaces in your home. This will encourage the child to use his creative abilities to engage in other playful activities or develop new interaction patterns with the family members.Limit the screen watching for day time only. The blue rays emitted by the cell phones and tablets tend to impact the sleep hormone levels for both children and adults. Research has shown that screen time is associated with irregular sleep pattern among children below 3 years of age. Poor sleep pattern can have negative impact on attention and mood levels of a child.The best way to stimulate creativity of a child is to provide things to build or manipulate some objects with which one can construct something. Provide any simple household items such as brooms, pans, and spoons to play with. These simple games are much better than automated toys where the child is passively interacting with the toy. 

Care and Management of Geriatric Patients

Dr. Yogesh Rao, Dentist
Introduction- Aging is a natural process. Old age should be regarded as a normal, inevitable biological phenomenon. As a result of the advances made in medicine and public health measures in the last half of the 20th century, there is a substantial increase in the life span of man. Elders above 65 years (old age) have health problems as a result of aging process, which calls for special consideration.In India, with its population of over one billion people, people older than 60 years constitute 7.6% of the total population, which amounts to 76 million. Incidence of oral cancer, which is an old age disease, is highest in India.A LINK TO SYSTEMIC HEALTHThe exploding geriatric population, coupled with recent discoveries surrounding links between oral health and systemic health, make it increasingly important for the dental community to be prepared to treat geriatric patients in the dental office or where they live. Ongoing research suggests that periodontal bacteria entering the bloodstream may be linked to conditions such as respiratory disease, diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke, and osteoporosis. Studies further suggest that periodontal bacteria can pose a threat to people whose health is already compromised by these conditions.3 In light of this growing body of research, comprehensive dental care becomes increasingly important to help improve our geriatric patients’ quality of life and outlook.ENCOURAGING SENIOR VISITS AND PREVENTIVE CAREA natural part of aging can be dramatically diminished pain perception, which can easily mask the need for professional dental care. Additionally, many individuals accept oral problems and tooth loss as inevitable results of aging, making dental visits unimportant to them. These patients may not understand that regular dental appointments become increasingly important as they age or that professional care can positively impact their quality of life and attitude. Given this, the entire dental team needs to encourage older patients to maintain daily oral hygiene as well as regular dental visits.With patients who wear complete or partial dentures it is just as important to stress proper care and maintenance procedures as it is to encourage follow-up appointments. One report showed that only 19% of denture wearers remember their dental professionals’ instructions regarding regular checkups. In particular, it is advisable to stress oral re-evaluations for denture patients when considering bisphosphonate therapy. By remembering to emphasize these details to your elderly patients and explain why it is important they follow your advice, you can help make check-ups routine and not just a painful emergency.  STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSDental care for seniors has always posed unique challenges. It requires understanding and sensitivity to the medical, psychological, social, and financial status of elderly patients. When providing care to aging patients with physical and sensory limitations, the entire dental team needs to ensure that patients feel welcomed and comfortable. Be sure that written information such as health history forms, business cards, brochures, appointment cards, and postcards are available in large-printArrange furniture to accommodate wheelchairs and walkers, and to reduce or eliminate barriers. Be sure to offer supportive armchairs (that are not too deep or too low) in easy-to-access areas of the reception room. For wheelchair transfers, always position the seat of the dental chair at the same height as the patient’s wheelchair..BEFORE THE EXAMDental providers will find more success when they communicate clearly, respectfully, and reassuringly with elderly patients. Speak slowly and directly to the patient. Knowledge of the patient’s medical and dental history aids the practitioner in planning and providing safe, personalized, appropriate, and comfortable treatment. An accurate health history is more than a legal necessity..ENCOURAGING CAREGIVER INVOLVEMENTGeriatric patients may have difficulty performing routine oral hygiene procedures due to physical limitations and/or memory problems, making the instruction and coordination of home care particularly important. Because of the possibility of actively declining skills. Demonstrate the use of power brushes and interdental aids and, most importantly, have the caregiver don gloves and participate. Dental professionals need to make sure patient and caregiver completely understand the oral care they will be practicing at home.CONCLUSIONGeriatric healthcare is complex. The medical team’s goals include maximizing each person’s function, health, independence, and quality of life. Ideally, every geriatric team should include a dentist and/or dental hygienist to promote optimal quality of life through proper oral care. Poor dental health does not have to be an inevitable consequence for America’s aging population. By keeping abreast of the complex issues that impact geriatric dental care and offering treatment that takes into consideration the physical, mental, and social status of older adults, dental healthcare providers can enhance their older patients’ health, thus enabling them to enjoy healthier, longer lives with improved comfort, outlook, and quality of life.

9 Ways to Take Care of Your Eyes

Dr. Charu Tyagi, Ophthalmologist
There is a huge population of people in India who are suffering from severe Visual loss.While not all eye diseases can be prevented, there are simple steps that everyone can take to help their eyes remain healthy now and reduce their chances of vision loss in the future.1. WEAR SUNGLASSESUV blocking Sunglasses delay the development of cataracts, since direct sunlight hastens their formation. Sunglasses prevent retinal damage; they also protect the delicate eyelid skin to prevent both wrinkles and skin cancer around the eye, and both cancerous and non-cancerous growths on the eye. Check for 100 percent UV protection: Make sure your sunglasses block 100 percent of UV-A rays and UV-B rays.2. RIGHT FOODVitamin deficiency can impair retinal function. The belief that eating carrots improves vision has some truth, but a variety of vegetables, especially leafy green ones, should be an important part of your diet. Researchers have found people on diets with higher levels of vitamins C and E, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA are less likely to develop early and advanced AMD.3. QUIT SMOKINGTobacco smoking is directly linked to many adverse health effects, including age related macular degeneration ( ARMD). Studies show that current smokers and ex-smokers are more likely to develop AMD than people who have never smoked. Smokers are also at increased risk for developing cataracts.4. BASELINE EYE EXAMINATIONAdults with no signs or risk factors for eye disease should get a baseline eye examination done at 40 — the time when early signs of disease and changes in vision may start to occur. Based on the results of the initial screening, an ophthalmologist will prescribe the necessary intervals for follow-up exams. Anyone with symptoms or a family history of eye disease, diabetes  or high blood pressure should see an ophthalmologist to determine how frequently your eyes should be examined.5. EYE PROTECTIONIt is important to wear proper eye protection to prevent eye injuries during sports such as hockey and cricket and home projects such as home repairs, gardening, and cleaning. For most repair projects and activities around the home, standard approved protective eye wear will be sufficient. Sports eye protection should meet the specific requirements of that sport; these requirements are usually established and certified by the sport's governing body .6. KNOW YOUR FAMILY HISTORYMany eye diseases cluster in families, so you should know your family's history of eye disease because you may be at increased risk, retinitis pigmentosa,high myopia with degeneration,.. Age-related eye diseases, including cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and age related macular degeneration ( ARMD)are expected to dramatically increase in coming decade.7. EYE STRAINBe aware of eye strain.If you have eye strain working on computers or doing close work, you can follow the 20-20-20 rule: Look up from your work every 20 minutes at an object 20 feet away for twenty seconds. If eye fatigue persists, it can be a sign of several different conditions, such as dry eye, presbyopia, or spectacles with lenses that are not properly centered. See an Eye Doctor. to determine why you are having eye fatigue and to receive proper treatment. 8. EARLY INTERVENTIONMost serious eye conditions, such as glaucoma and AMD, are more easily and successfully treated if diagnosed and treated early. Left untreated, these diseases can cause serious vision loss and blindness. Early intervention now will prevent vision loss later.9. KNOW YOUR DOCTORWhen you go to get your eyes checked, there are a variety of eye care providers you might see. Ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians all play an important role in providing eye care services to consumers. However, each has a different level of training and expertise. Make sure you are seeing the right provider for your condition or treatment. Ophthalmologist are highly trained professionals who can help you,from prescribing glasses and contact lenses to complex and delicate eye surgery.

Is Your Child Sleeping Well?

Dr. K R Bharath Kumar Reddy, Pulmonologist
Sleep is an important fundamental need of every child for both mental and physical well being. We underestimate the importance of sleep, which is shown to influence the child's growth, immunity, memory and development. The amount of sleep required varies according to the age of a child.A new born baby requires around 16 to 18 hours of sleep.A pre-school toddler may need around 12 hours of sleep including both night and day time sleep.A school going child, requires around 10 hours of sleep at night.Teenagers are recommended sleep of 9 hours but this obviously never happens.Adult requirement is nearly 7 to 8 hours.But it is important to note, that it is not the quantity or duration of sleep that is important for good health, but the quality of sleep. So we need to always question whether a child is actually sleeping well, even though he/she sleeps for long hours.When do you start suspecting a sleep problem?Nearly 25-30% of children are known to suffer from sleep problems as per international data. Adults when sleep deprived are sleepy during the day, but this is not so with children. They can present with varied symptoms such as:Excessive sleeping during the dayMoodiness and irritabilityTemper tantrumsEmotional surgesHyperactive behaviourGrogginess when they wake up in the morningReluctance to get out of bed in the morning or difficult to awakenNot achieving bladder control at nightExcessive movement of legs during sleepSo in case your child has any of the above symptoms, it is important to consider the possibility of a sleep problem and consult your doctor for the same.