STIs (Sexually transmitted Infections) are many - bacterial, viral, parasitic commonly. These are making a comeback due to one or more factors.
Like the developed world, in India too, the bacterial STIs are on decline (gonorrhoea and chancroid) while HPV (Human papillomavirus) and Herpes are increasing.
Most common 5 STDs in India and there usual symptoms:
1. Genital herpes: painless sores on genitals or mouth.
2. Syphilis: single painless sore on genital area.
3. Chancroid: painless sore that bleeds usually on touch.
4. Chlamydia: burning on peeing and/or discharge from urethral opening.
5. Gonorrhoea: primary symptom a thick yellow or green discharge from urine opening with pain on peeing.
Vaccine Preventable STIs
World health Organization (WHO) cites immunization and the provision of clean water as the two public health interventions that had the greatest impact on the World's health.
As the saying goes "Prevention is better than Cure"
Three sexually transmitted disease are preventable by vaccines. it is best to get them before you become sexually active so that you have protection before hand!
Three STIs that are preventable are:
1. Human Papillomavirus
It consists 3 injections given in muscle at 0, 2 and 6 months. In India, quadrivalent vaccine is available by name of Gardasil which protects from 4 strains: 6,11,16,18.
In some parts of the world, nonavalent vaccine available consisting of additional 5 strains (not yet available in India).
2. Hepatitis B infection
3. Hepatitis A
This vaccine is licensed for both adults and children and there is also a combined Hepatitis A and B vaccine.
Vaccination should be combined with safe sexual practices like 100 percent condom usage, limiting sexual partners, etc.