A glaucoma is a group of chronic and progressive eye conditions in which the optic nerve head is gradually degenerated and that causes visual field defects. It is the second leading cause of blindness in the world.
Why it happens:
To maintain the optimum functionality of eye, a certain amount of fluid is continuously generated and drained inside the eyeball. When this balance is disturbed, the pressure inside builds up leading to glaucoma.
Risk factors for glaucoma:
- Increased intraocular pressure
- A family history of glaucoma
- Genetic etc
Early Diagnosis of Glaucoma:
Glaucoma is asymptomatic and silent disease during the initial stages. It poses a major challenge to diagnose it early and prevent disease progression. More than 50% of glaucoma cases remain undiagnosed. Significant deterioration of visual function may only occur at advanced stages of the disease which is not reversible.
Early glaucoma management is essential to prevent the risk of blindness or significant visual impairment and poor quality of life. Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT) showed that early treatment significantly reduce glaucoma progression. The main modality of the treatment aims to decrease the eye pressure to a safer level by putting eye drops topically. Surgeries are usually done for patients with more advanced glaucoma.