Gynecomastia is a disorder of the endocrine system. The size of the breasts in men will increase with the excessive production of estrogen. The increase in the breast tissue is non-cancerous. The breast development in boys will take place during adolescence. There will be temporary Gynecomastia in newborn babies and adolescent males. The hormonal changes will take place during puberty. If the testosterone production is less than estrogen production, the enlargement of breasts will take place. 


  • The altered ratio of estrogens to androgens will lead to gynecomastia. There might be raise in estrogen production or reduction in androgen production. In some people, there will be an occurrence of both factors.
  • Estrogen will act like growth hormone and it will lead to the growth of male breast tissue.
  • 10% to 25% of people suffering from gynecomastia are drug addicts. There will be breast growth due to other reasons as well.
  • People suffering from kidney diseases and liver issues will also suffer from the excess growth of breast tissue. The growth of breasts in men is found in people suffering from liver disease. 
  • There are certain kinds of medications which will increase the breast tissue size. Methadone, HIV medication, ulcer medication, calcium channel blockers and antifungal medications will lead to the growth of breasts in men.
  • A small percentage of males will get gynecomastia through hereditary as well. However, such instances are very rare. 

Other reasons 

  • The gynecomastia will start in boys between 10 and 12 years. There will not be any impact after 18 months. 
  • Gynecomastia is also noticed in older men with a decrease in testosterone level and increase in subcutaneous fatty tissue. However, it can be considered as part of the ageing process. If there is an increase in fatty tissue, it will lead to the conversion of androgenic hormones into estrogens. 
  • There are several reasons that will lead to a reduction of testosterone levels. If males suffer from nutrition, testosterone levels will come down. However, adrenal glands will produce estrogens and it will lead to hormonal imbalance. 

Diagnosis and Treatment

The physician will go through the history and physical examination of the patient. The evaluation of male breast tissue, penile size, testicular development and assessment of masses will take place. The male breast tissue will be evaluated to isolate breast cancer possibility. The distribution of pubic hair and underarm hair will be studied by the physician. A review of medications and relevant tests will be conducted to rule out liver disease or kidney disease. 

There are various kinds of treatments to deal with gynecomastia. If there is minor enlargement of breasts, it can be arrested with medication. The chronic gynecomastia is treated by surgery. The surgical removal of glandular breast tissue will take place. Radiation therapy will be applied to prevent gynecomastia. It is applied to deal with breast pain as well and treated by Minimally Invasive Total Chest Reshaping.