CONFIRMATION OF PREGNANCY: Pregnancy tests check for the presence of the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in your urine. Your body begins to produce HCG after you conceive. If you get a positive test result on the first day of your missed period, it's probably about two weeks since you conceived. A blood test can also detect HCG. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and may detect pregnancy from about six days to eight days after ovulation. However, your doctor won't suggest a blood test for pregnancy until after your period is due, and only if there is a medical need.
Once Pregnancy is confirmed, some routine prenatal blood tests in India include the following:
1. Blood group and Rh – This test is used to determine the blood typing (ABO group) & Rh typing (positive or negative). If the mother is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive, then the mother will be advised by her Obstetrician steps to avoid complications.
2. Complete blood count – This test is used to measure the levels of hemoglobin and WBC in the blood to identify anemia or iron deficiency.
3. Blood glucose level – This test is performed to check the glucose level and rule out gestational diabetes.
4. HIV and other STD screening- This test will rule out all the possibilities of sexually transmitted diseases.
5. Hepatitis screening – This will check for Hepatitis B and C which may interfere with the baby’s health.
6. Hemoglobin Electrophoresis- This test is done to check for Thalassemia and avoid further risk.
7. Hormone levels – Thyroid levels are monitored for the good health of the baby and the mother.
SCREENING FOR TORCH INFECTIONS – The TORCH panel test is used to help diagnose infections that could harm the fetus during pregnancy. TORCH is an acronym of the 5infections covered in the screening. The full form of TORCH is toxoplasmosis, other viruses (HIV, measles, and so on), rubella,cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. Sometimes the test is spelled TORCHS, where the extra "S" stands for syphilis.
TRIPLE MARKER: It analyzes how likely an unborn baby is to have certain genetic disorders. Triple marker screening is administered as a blood test. It’s used for women who are between 15 and 20 weeks pregnant. It measures levels of three important substances in the placenta:·
- AFP: A protein produced by the fetus. High levels of this protein can indicate certain potential defects, such as neural tube defects or failure of the fetus’s abdomen to close.·
- HCG: A hormone produced by the placenta. Low levels may indicate potential problems with the pregnancy, including possible miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. High levels of HCG can indicate a molar pregnancy, or a multiple pregnancy with two or more children.·
- Estriol: An estrogen that comes from both the fetus and the placenta. Low estriol levels may indicate risk of having a baby with Down syndrome, especially when paired with low AFP levels and high HCG levels.
8. Urine test – This is to track if there is any urinary tract infection.