Paralysis is defined as complete or partial loss of muscles function.
Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are:
- Road traffic Accident (RTA)
- Trauma with nerve injury
- cerebral palsy
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Spina bifida
- Multiple sclerosis
- Guillain Barre syndrome
Types of Paralysis
Doctors can classify paralysis in many different ways.
1) Localized paralysis affected: Only one part of your body, either face or hand. Example - Bell's palsy
2) Generalized paralysis is group of condition that affects multiple body parts. The type usually depends on where your brain or spinal cord is injured.
i) monoplegia - just one limb affected
ii) diplegia - affected the same area of both like both arms
iii) hemiplegia - affects just one side of body
iv) quadriplegia - when all four limbs are paralyzed sometime along with certain organs.
v) paraplegia - paralysis from the waist down.
vi) locked in syndrome - is the rarest and most severe form of paralysis, where person loses control of all their muscles except the ones that control their eye movement
Physiotherapy treatment for paralysis focus on:
1) Muscle strengthening
2) Stretches to maintain muscles length and joint range of motion
3) Core stability exercises
4) Dynamic balance work
5) Transfer practice
6) Re-education of walking pattern
7) Sensory stimulation
8) facilitation to return to hobbies, driving and work
9) Use of gymnasium facilities like treadmill, cycling.
10) Provision of walking aid and equipment.
These are the positive step that will ensure the holistic management and optimum improvement in overall quality of life.