Disorder of one of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an impaired ability to listen, speak, spell, read, write, think (e.g. planning) or to do mathematical calculations (not due to mental retardation [MR] or sensory deficits [e.g impairment in hearing, vision etc].

Common Elements in the Definitions

ü  Brain dysfunction

ü  Uneven growth pattern/psychological processing deficits

ü  Discrepancy between potential and achievement

  • Exclusion of other causes

Types of Learning Disorders

ü  Dyslexia– Difficulty in reading

ü  Dysgraphia– Difficulty in writing

  • Dyscalculia– Difficulty in mathematical abilities
  • Etiology - Often genes + disorder
  • Tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Head Injury
  • Other
  • Males predominate
  • Familial
  • Up to 5-10% of "seemingly normal" schoolchildren have this hidden disability.
  • Dyslexia affects 80% of all those identified as learning-disabled.
  • SpecificLD is now believed to be a result of functional problem with brain"wiring" rather than an anatomic problem and is genetically inherited.

  • Preschool children
  • Language delay
  • Pronunciation problems
  • Slow in acquiring vocabulary
  • Difficulty in rhyming words
  • Trouble with learning numbers, alphabets, days of the week, colors and shapes
  • School-going children             
  • Presenting problems-more commonly with school performance-difficulty is in one particular subject
  • Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds
  • Confuses basic words (run, eat, want)
  • Makes consistent reading and spelling errors
  • Transposes number sequences &confuses arithmetic signs
  • Poor spelling, slow reading
  • Has difficulty in left right coordination
  • Has difficulty in tying shoe laces, organizing pencil box.
  • Comprehension of these children is often superior to isolated decoding skills
  • Reading Disorder(Dyslexia)  
  • There is generally a combination of difficulties in the ability to compose written texts as evidenced by grammatical or punctuation errors within sentences, poor paragraph organization, multiple spelling errors, and excessively poor handwriting.
  • This diagnosis is generally not given if there are only spelling errors or poor handwriting in the absence of other impairments in written expression.
  • Slow
  • Comprehension defects
  • Vocabulary limitations
  • Limited experience
  • Figure notations – complex and dense
  • Directing– dense, readability very high, in high distraction  position
  • Slow
  • Vocabulary limitation
  • Spelling
  • Punctuation
  • Organization
  • Experience
  • Handwriting– poor readability
  • Note taking
  • Reading is very difficult ( + x )
  • Multiplesteps
  • Poor tool use
  • Self confidence
  • Anxiety
  • Written
  • Oral
  • Etiology
  • Course
  • FamilialCourse
  • IQ
  • Readingrate
  • Standardscores
  • Comprehension
  • Spelling
  • Standardscore
  • Can person read what they have written
  • Impaired vision and hearing
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)
  • Mental Retardation
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Communication Disorder
  • Lack of opportunity, poor teaching
  • Normal variations in academic achievement
  • Anxiety
  • Poor studying skills

    • Consensus ClinicalCriteria (CCC) for Diagnosis of Learning Disorders -adapted from DSM IV-TR
  1. IQ85 or more
  2. No vision impairment
  3. No hearing impairment
  4. Presence of adequate opportunity for learning with proper motivation
  5. GLAD score below 40%, at two levels below the child’s current class level
  6. Difficulty in reading / writing / mathematics that significantly interferes with academic functioning.
  • Along with GLAD, Bender Visuo-motor Gestalt Test will be used to assess motor coordination
  • Onset during infancy or childhood
  • Most show a delay or impairment in developing functions and most undergo a steady course.
  • Outcome depends on the severity of the disability, the age or grade when remedial education is started, the length and continuity of treatment, presence or absence of associated emotional problems, and parental and school supports.
  • With appropriate remedial education and provisions,most children with LD can be expected to achieve academic competence and complete their education in a regular mainstream school.
  • However, some children may still be unable to cope up and need to continue their education in special schools.
    • 1. Management of Primary Problem
      • Remediation and Accommodation
      • Behavioural & Psychological treatment
  • Allowing extra time
  • A separate quiet room for taking tests  
  • Alternatives to multiple choice questions
  • Providing access to syllabi and lecture notes
  • Tutors ‘talk through’ and review the ‘content’ of reading material
  • Tape recorders and recorded books
  • Allowing use of computers with spell checkers
  • Calculator
    • Read problem
  • Wordprocessing
    • Spell checker (right-click)
  • Notes
    • Photocopies
    • Instructor Outlines
    • Note taker
  • Folder for each subject
  • Where are the classes
  • Library– contact person
  • Schedule
  • SupportService
  • Course load – start slow
  • Disability certificate.
  • Extra time to write examinations, grace marks, supplemental writer during their examinations and also the facility of integrated as well as inclusive education.
  • TheNational Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Mental Retardation andMultiple Disability, 1999, recommends promotion of inclusive education.
  • The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2000), pledges to “ensure that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided education in an appropriate environment".