Your tooth consists of three different components which remain closely integrated, throughout the life of tooth:

1. Enamel

2. Dentin

3. Pulp

Root Canal Treatment or Endodontic treatment is performed by Endodontist to clean infected pulp of your tooth. Pulp is a tissue consisting of nerves,blood vessels, ground substance and cells. It is encased within dentin, so there is only little space for accommodation of exudate during inflammatory reactions. In simple terms, it means the pulp is unable to swell, thus creating abnormally high pressure and local necrosis. This leads to unbearable tooth-ache and inability to chew using that particular tooth. 

Causes of Pulp Diseases

1. Physical-This includes injuries due to mechanical trauma or thermal insult.

2. Chemical-These are least common with advancements in dental sciences.

3. Bacterial- The most common reason for pulp injury. Bacteria may enter the pulp through a break in the dentin, either from caries or deep grooves. Once bacteria invades the pulp, the damage is almost always irreparable.Many more root canals are treated today than before because of greater interest in saving natural teeth and advancements in dental materials and technologies.

RCT has become a routine procedure performed in one or two sittings, using local anaesthesia for a pain-free dental treatment.