Acne is a skin condition that causes white heads, black heads, and inflamed red lesions (papules, pustules, and cysts) to form. These growths are commonly called pimples. Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin, called pores,become clogged. Each pore is an opening to a canal called a follicle, which contains a hair and an oil gland. Normally, the oil glands help keep the skin lubricated. When glands produce too much oil, the pores can become blocked,accumulating dirt, debris, and bacteria. The blockage is called a plug or comedoneCAUSES & CONTRIBUTING FACTORSNormal Follicles:Sebum produced by the sebaceous gland combines with cells being sloughed off within the hair follicle and "fillsup" the hair follicle. When the follicle is "full", the sebum spreads over the skin surface giving the skin an oily appearance.Obstructed FolliclesWhen the sebum is trapped in the hair follicle causes plugging up the follicle. The process of obstructing follicles is called comedogenesis. It causes some follicles to form a type of acne called comedones, also known as blackheads and whiteheads.Propioni bacteriumacne:Propioni bacterium acne is a bacterium that lives on your skin and uses the sebum as nutrients for his growth. The sebaceous glands are hypersensitive to androgens that causes enlarge of gland and more sebum secretion. In puberty the androgens hormone is secreted more and thus there is more sebum secretion and more Propionibacterium acne in the follicle. The presence of P.acne attracts WBC to the follicle and thus an inflammatory reaction is settled up.No one factor causes acne. Several factors can contribute to the cause of acneChanging Hormone LevelsFor most people with acne, it begins at puberty. This is when the body starts to produce hormones called androgens. Androgens cause the enlargement and over stimulation of the sebaceous glands.Sensitivity to these androgens also cause acne to appear during the menstrual cycle and sometimes in pregnancy. Starting or stopping birth control pills can also cause acne.StressSevere or prolonged emotional tension and stress may aggravate the Acne condition. Stress cause the production of hormones, such as cortisol, which can aggravate acne.Drugs:Some medications may cause acne, such as anti convulstant drugs, lithium, bromides, or oral or injected steroids. Most cases of acne, however, are not drug related.Skin Care ProductsSome cosmetics and skin-care products are pore clogging. The skin care products which have the ingredients of ‘waterbased’ are usually safe.PATHOGENESIS OF ACNEThereare 4 basic factors involved in the development of acne.Acne arises due to blockage of follicles, the sebaceous follicles which are found in the face, neck, chest,and/or back. In acne patients, the sebaceous glands attached to these follicles secrete excessive amounts of sebum. It has been shown that the sebaceous glands in acne patients tend to be hyper responsive to androgens, which are first released in the pre-pubertal period. Thus, these patients produce more sebum than is normal; this excessive secretion is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of acne.Second, the epithelial cells (keratinous squamous cells) lining of inner most layer of the follicles undergo abnormal desquamation. The cause why it happens is unknown. Normally, keratinous squamous cells are loosely organized in normal follicle, but they become denser and more coherent as a result of abnormal desquamation. The combination of abnormally desquamated cells and excessive sebum forms a “plug,” or microcomedo — the precursor lesion of both non inflammatory comedones and inflammatory lesions.Third, the propionibacterium acne is a bacterium that lives on your skin and uses the sebum as nutrients for his growth. The sebaceous glands are hypersensitive to androgens that causes enlarge of gland and more sebum secretion. In puberty the androgens hormone is secreted more and thus there is more sebum secretion and more Propionibacterium acne in the follicle. The presence of P.acne attracts WBC to the follicle and thus an inflammatory reaction is settled upFourth, P acnes produces pro-inflammatory mediators and chemotactic factors that can cause microcomedones to inflame and evolve into papules, pustules, and nodules.HOW HOMEOPATHY HELPSA proper homeopathy treatment reduces the hypersensitivity of sebaceous gland to androgen hormone so helps to maintain a normal secretion of sebum. That prevents the acne formation.Homeopathyremedies have anti inflammatory effect and accelerate the healing process ininflamed acne conditions.Pro pionibacterium acne is a frequent cause of bacterial keratitis and may cause propionibacterium acne keratitis. Homeopathy remedies treats successfully to the P.acne keratitiscondition.Homeopathy treatment controls the scar formation.A constitutional homeopathy treatment not only treats the acne condition but also treats the whole patients as a whole.