Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease....it occours bcos of reduction in bone density due to reduction in bone mass.... clinically putting it we can say that 'when the rate of bone formation cannot match up with the rate of bone reabsorption' osteoporisis occours.
- Post menopausal
- Bed ridden for a Long time
- Protein deficiency
- Hyperthyroid state
- Long term steroid therapy
CLINICAL FEATURES-it is fairly an asymptomatic disorder unless complications occour.... usually a fracture occours bcos of loss of bone mass which renders the bone weak hence even a slight trauma can cause fracture.. Thigh bone,lower back and forearm fractures are common.Knee pain in post menopausal women is fairly common.
INVESTIGATIONS done to arrive at a Provisional Diagnosis would include
- Serum Calcium/phosphate levels,
- Bone mass density-it is a Gold standard as far as quantification of bone mass is considered...levels below -2.2 indicate a certain osteoporotic cause.
- Bone biopsy
- Neutron Activation Analysis (less popular)
As it is a multifactorial condition hence the treatment also has to be multidiciplnary..(services of General physician to Orthopadecian to Physiotherapist can be availed)
Common general treatment includes
- Calcium supplementation
- High Protein diet
- Harmonal injections (Androgens & estrogen)
- Vitamin D
- Calcitonin & fluoride
Along with this...proper exercise regime
Active,static,closed chain kinematic,Aquatic exercises are beneficial for gaurded activity and bone formation.
Use of orthosis (knee cap,lumbo sacral belt) and bracing also brings about much needed relief to the person.
'Osteoporosis can be a debliting and irritating disease but with proper diet,precautions,orthosis,supplementation and exercise the person can live a Normal Life.