Orthognathic surgery is a procedure which is done to correct various conditions of jaw and face. These include TMJ disorders, malocclusion or other orthodontic problems, problems related to growth and sleep apnea. Orthognathic surgery can also be used as a secondary option in the congenital disorders like cleft lip and palate. Here the correction of the jaw is done successfully, so as to bring the patient’s face and jaws to the normal condition and also improve the esthetics. Therefore, orthognathic surgery is also called corrective surgery. Problems like gummy smile , over bite , underbite , reverse bite , protruded teeth and buck teeth can be corrected by this procedure.
Orthognathic surgery is indicated in the cases of gross jaw discrepancies, conditions involving sleep apnea, soft tissue, temporomandibular joint problems as well as airway defects. An oral surgeon and orthodontist play an important role in the success of an orthognathic surgery. Before and after the surgery there is a requirement of the brace as well as retainer so as to stabilize the condition of the patient. Moreover, if the patient has undergone surgery for the cleft lip and palate then orthognathic surgery is done. During the whole procedure, the orthodontists along with the oral surgeon make sure that the teeth are fit correctly after surgery. Thus the esthetics and functional properties of the teeth and other oral structures are maintained.
In orthognathic surgery, planning plays a very important role. Oral surgeons and orthodontists should team up with ENT specialists, plastic surgeons as well as speech therapists. The team focuses mainly on achieving a correct bite, proper esthetics as well as sufficient airway space. General anesthetic is given to the patient during the treatment. Intubation is used via nose instead of an oral tube so that the teeth arrangement can be done properly by the orthodontist during the surgery. When the bone is cut, it is called as osteotomy. If both the sides of the maxilla are used, then bi-maxillary osteotomy is done. Various modern techniques are being used at the time of surgery in order to get the best results from the procedure. Stainless wires are used in order to join the parts of the bone at the completion of the procedure.Post operative measures are to be taken so that the patient heals in the right way. For us, the diet of the patient is modified. Initially, semi-liquid diet is recommended and gradually hard foods are given to the patient. The recovery pain is possible in the areas of minor nerve damage. For this, the patient should visit then doctor on regular basis and follow his advice and recommendations. The patient should avoid chewing unless and until the dentist advices him to do so. This will prevent any kind of obstructions in the process of healing of the patient. In case the dentist observes the improper bending of the bone, then he can recommend another surgery to improve the healing period keeping in mind about the results of the second surgery. This indicates that orthognathic surgery is a very delicate and needs to be handled properly to get the right results.