Articles on diabetes in aboriginal australians

5 Important Dietary Tips to Prevent Diabetes

Mr. V Ravichandran, Physiotherapist
What is Diabetes?It is a condition whereby the amount of glucose in an individual’s blood is too high due to the body unable to utilise it properly. This is because the pancreas produces little or no insulin to help glucose to enter the body’s cells.Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to regulate the amount of glucose in blood. After a meal, our blood glucose levels will tend to rise. Therefore, insulin is secreted to break down the glucose into energy for the body to use, thus maintaining anormal blood sugar level. However, people with diabetes whom has little or no insulin produced by the pancreas, blood glucose levels remain high and they will feel tired easily as glucose is not broken down to energy for the body to use.Types of DiabetesType 1:Known as an auto-immune disease, where the body’s immune system attacks the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. People with Type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin injections for survival.This disease can occur at any age, mostly in children and young adultsComplications are sudden and life-threateningType 2:Mostly associated with hereditary factors and lifestyle risk factors such as poor diet, insufficientphysical activity and being obese.Body cannot properly use the insulin. Body become resistant to insulin.Occurs more frequent to people of age OVER THAN 40 YEARS OLD, particularly those who are overweight andphysically active.Can be controlled with proper diet and exercise but most diabetics need oral medication.Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)Occurs in about 2-5% of all pregnanciesWomen who were not diagnosed to have diabetes previously will show high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.Signs and Symptoms of DiabetesAlways lethargicFrequent UrinationSudden weight lossWounds that won’t heal or take very long to healSexual problemsConstantly hungryBlurry visionNumb or tingling hands or feetAlways thirstyVaginal infectionsComplications of DiabetesSleep apneaStrokeLung diseaseLiver diseaseCancerGallstonesArthritisGoutHeart diseaseGuidelines to Blood Glucose Levels:Random blood glucose level (Normal): < 7.8 mmol/LRandom blood glucose level (Diabetic): ≥ 11.1 mmol/LFasting blood glucose level (Normal): ≤ 6.0 mmol/LFasting blood glucose level (Diabetic): ≥ 7.0 mmol/LWhat can be done?InsulinInsulin jabs are mainly applicable for individuals with Type 1 diabetes.There are short and long acting types of insulin jabsAlways keep all insulin bottles with a spare one in fridge when not in useHealthy LifestyleDo exercises regularly such as cycling, swimming and many other activities which allows the body to use up the glucose in the bodies, therefore lowering the blood glucose levels in the body.Get a proper diet. Do not smoke. It worsens the narrowing of blood vessels already caused by diabetes. This will then reduceblood flow to many organs and this may lead to many serious complications.Limit alcohol intake. Alcohol interferes with meal plans and blood glucose control especially if taking insulin or other medications for diabetes.Eat More of..Healthy fats from raw nuts, olive oil, fish oils, flax seeds, whole milk dairy, or avocadosFruits and vegetables—ideally fresh, the more colourful the better; whole fruit rather than juicesHigh-fibre cereals and breads made from whole grains or legumesFish and shellfish, organic, free-range chicken or turkeyHigh-quality protein such as eggs, beans, milk, cheese, and unsweetened yoghurtEat Less of..Trans fats from partially hydrogenated or deep-fried foodsPackaged and fast foods, especially those high in sugar, baked goods, sweets, chips, dessertsWhite bread, sugary cereals, refined pastas or riceProcessed meat and red meat from animals Low-fat products that have replaced fat with added sugar, such as fat-free yoghurt 

Home Remedies To Stop Type 2 Diabetes

Dr. Nikhil Prabhu, Diabetologist
Approximately 95% people suffer from type 2 diabetes, which is primarily obesity & lifestyle related diabetes and can be prevented by diet modification & exercise. We normally diagnose diabetes when fasting blood sugar is more than 125 mg/dl, which is primarily affected by hours of fasting and quantity & quality of carbohydrate meal consumed at dinner last night. Also, 2 hours post prandial blood sugar depends on what we consume at breakfast or lunch. More than 200 mg/dl is diagnosed as diabetes. Majority of obese people, who are in the range of fasting sugars 100-125 mg/dl and/or post lunch sugars in range of 140-200 mg/dl, are about to develop diabetes in succeeding years are termed as Prediabetic. Diabetes can be reversed at Prediabetes stage with lifestyle modification (diet & exercise).Home remedies can help you a lot to control blood sugars at Prediabetes stage to prevent its progress to Diabetes.Now, we have a more reliable test called HbA1c ( Glycated Hemoglobin), which shows an average of blood sugars over last 3 preceding months which is not affected by hours of fasting and quality of food consumed. Normal person has a HbA1c value of 5.7% or less. Prediabetic person ranges between 5.7 -6.4 % of HbA1c , 6.5 % & above is diagnosed as Diabetes.(HbA1c value is also affected by certain rare conditions like blood loss, hemoglobinopathies, adminstration of certain drugs like aspirin, Vitamin C, etc.)Type 2 Diabetes is a progressive disease. When diabetes develops approximately 60% of pancreatic beta cells are dead and eventually over the time beta cells keep on diminishing and finally a stage arrives when exogenous insulin is necessary to control blood sugar.Natural home remedies are fruits and vegetables which helps to lower sugar by reducing carbohydrate absorption from gut, delaying gastric emptying or preserving and promoting beta cell function.In prediabetic stage these home remedies can help a lot to prevent its progress to diabetes. Also, in case of already developed diabetes these home remedies along with medication, can help to keep sugar under control. In diagnosed diabetes patients it is not an alternative to medication but adjunct to medication.Commonly used Natural home remedies includes :Fenugreek (Methi): Methi seeds can be soaked in water overnight and can be consumed in morning along with water or powdered methi seeds can be consumed along with milk or water. Normally two tablespoon is an appropriate quantity.Bitter gourd (Karela): Drinking karela juice daily on an empty stomach helps to lower sugarCinnamon (Dalacini): Adding dalacini to beverages and food helps to lower blood sugar to some extent.Indian Goosebery (Amla): Amla is a rich source of Vitamin C. Drinking small quantity of amla juice daily helps to lower sugars.Black Plum (Jamun): Powdered dried seeds of Jambul can be consumed along with water on empty stomach daily or jambul fruits can be consumed directly.Other Natural home remedies includes consumption of guava, powder of mango leaves with water, black coffee without sugar, green tea, okra, aloe vera, cloves, peas etcAll these home remedies are effective only if they are consumed daily for atleast 2-3 months. In known diabetes patients already on insulin or certain medication, occasional or sudden use may induce Hypoglycemia. In such a case, it is advisable to consult your diabetologist before starting such home remedies.Other Home remedies includes:Lifestyle modification with diet & exercise.Daily high quality sleep to minimize stress.Avoid smoking & tobacco.Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol.Staying lean with healthy diet & regular exercise is key to prevent diabetes.If you like this article , Please share it with your friends & family.Awareness is Prevention!

Diabetes and Pregnancy - Your Lifestyle Matters!

Dr. Sujoy Dasgupta, Gynecologist/Obstetrician
India is nowadays considered the “Diabetic Capital” of the world. The rate at which diabetes is increasing in modern societies is, indeed, a matter of concern. Diabetes does not merely mean increased and sometimes uncontrolled blood sugar. It affects various organs and systems of our body , particularly affecting heart (coronary artery disease), brain (stroke), eye (retinopathy), kidney (nephropathy), blood pressure (hypertension), liver (fatty liver), nerves (neuropathy), increased risk of infection and even some cancers. Obesity and diabetes go hand-in-hand. So, the main control measures are life style changes (controlling weight, diet, exercise, avoidance of alcohol and smoking); drugs (oral drugs and insulin) and monitoring by physician.Sexual Dysfunction: Diabetes is a major cause of sexual dysfunction in both male and female. It can reduce the libido (sexual desire) by altering the sex hormone levels. In case of male, Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is sometimes the first symptom of diabetes. So, if a male suffers from ED, rather than taking drugs directly from medicine shops, the cause of ED must be evaluated, particularly diabetes. Often patients do not know that they are diabetic but when the cause of ED is investigated, diabetes is discovered incidentally. It can also affect the nerves and thus can worsen the sexual problems. In female, it can lead to decreased arousal leading to avoidance of sexual activity. In some cases, it is responsible for premature ejaculation (PE) in males. Thus any person with sexual problems, should be evaluated for diabetes. Control of diabetes often resolves the problem. Menstrual problems: Obesity and diabetes together can affect hormone balance leading to irregular menstruations ranging from periods occurring at every 2-3 months, sometimes too frequently (every 10-15 days), scanty flow and sometimes heavy flow. This is particularly true in case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) which can affect various organs and systems of the body. In PCOS, insulin is there in the body but it cannot function properly and ultimately it leads to diabetes. In some cases, this high blood sugar may be responsible for appearance of excessive hair growth (male-like hairs) in females. Even in some cases, diabetes may be associated with increased thickening of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus). In the worst cases, these women may have cancers in endometrium. So, women with menstrual problem need proper evaluation. Reduction in weight and control of blood sugar help to control menstrual problems. Infertility: As mentioned above, PCOS is a common cause of infertility. Similarly, diabetes and obesity can lead to problems in ovulation and thus creates problems in having pregnancy. Control of weight and blood sugar lead to successful conception in most cases. Similarly in male, high blood sugar can affect sperm production and thus impairs male fertility. Sexual dysfunction can aggravate the problem. Infection also plays a important role.Infection: Diabetes is notorious for increasing susceptibility to infection and often interferes with eradication of infection. In female, the infections may lead to vaginal white discharge and even in severe cases can block the fallopian tubes leading to infertility permanently. In male, it can cause phimosis (tight foreskin) and sometimes infection of sperm conducting-passage leading to infertility. So, male and female with genital infection must be evaluated for diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar and antibiotics are needed to control these. Pregnancy problems: Women diagnosed with diabetes are encouraged to control blood sugar before pregnancy. Otherwise there will be problems for mother as well the baby. Diabetes can cause miscarriage, preterm labour and worsens maternal problems like hypertension, nephropathy and retinopathy in pregnancy. It can lead to sudden unexplained death of the baby inside the uterus. The baby can have excessive weight (that leads to its diabetes in later life) and other problems like low blood sugar at birth, problems in breathing, problems in brain and problems in heart etc. So, proper control of blood sugar is needed before pregnancy and should be continued throughout pregnancy. GDM: Some women may have normal blood sugar before pregnancy but may develop diabetes in pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes (GDM). It is also associated with increased risk of complications to mother and baby. 50% women with GDM can develop diabetes in later life. So, women with repeated miscarriage, still birth and very large baby should be evaluated for diabetes. Treatment must be continued throughout pregnancy.To summarize, diabetes is not only responsible for diseases of heart and brain but it can affect your reproductive life, particularly sexual function, conception and pregnancy. So, if you suffer from these problems, do not hesitate to check blood sugar. If diabetes is detected, there is no need to worry as proper control will solve all these problems. 

Li'l Changes in Diet to Conquer Giant Diabetes

Ms. Raminder Kaur Deshmukh, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Therapeutic diet plays an important role in the treatment of Diabetes. The diet may be used alone or in combination with Insulin injections or oral drugs.These are some tips to control diabetes:Avoid fried food like puree, pakora, etc. as they will be laden with calories and may lead to weight gain  and complicate the things more. steamed and grilled foods are better than fried foods.Avoid sugar, sweet drinks, colas, glucose water and ice-creams as they may increase blood glucose levels.Increase intake of fresh veggies in form of salads and soups as the fiber in them will not only take care of glucose levels but will also  protect your heart.Use skimmed, double toned milk for preparing tea or curd or low fat paneer. Use whole pulses and whole grains like oats, daliya rather than refined ones like maida or products made up of maida like pasta, cookies, noodles etc.Decrease intake of refined oils, ghee, butter. the less you use the better it is.Fruit juices should be avoided. Whole seasonal fruits in limited amounts can be enjoyed.Don't skip meals. Take small meals at regular intervals of time to keep blood glucose levels in checkDon't fast and feast . Fasting may lower blood glucose level whereas feasting will increase blood glucose level.If you are non-vegetarian then avoid mutton,organ meats. chicken or fish are better choices.Commercial and packaged food should be avoided. Tinned foods, salted chips and nut crackers contain high amount of sodium and preservatives.Go for walk on daily basis.If you have high B.P along with diabetes then control your intake of salt as well.For personalized diet chart consult a dietitian who will formulate a diet plan for you keeping in mind your individualized preferences, likes and dislikes, physical activity, schedule and medical reports.With these li'l changes in the diet you can conquer the GIANT diabetes.  

Controlling Diabetes Is Like Playing Cricket

Dr. Sachin Chittawar, Endocrinologist
Type 2 Diabetes is a day to day affair in our locality. The recent upsurge in diabetic patients has given the disease a complete new status. Patients start thinking of doom, look for instant cures and end up being stressed and worried. People are more concerned with the diagnosis rather than management and control of sugar level in the body.Like diabetes, cricket is also a common day to day affair. Look at the popularity of T20 /IPL When I say diabetes is like cricket, I end up making it a simple disease with fixed targets and a common goal to achieve. The fixed 20 overs go with our lifespan and type 2 diabetes mostly come after 10 overs are gone.In T20 mostly, the run rate becomes the primary aspect to win a match and it becomes indispensable especially when the first 10 overs are gone. The required run rate needs to be followed. Like cricket, in diabetes your run rate for fasting sugar should be within the range of 100 to 125 mg % and after meals it should be below 180 mg%. The average glucose of last 3 months should be around 7%. When we score as per the runs required per over, we have a strong possibility of winning the match. The same rule stands for diabetes. We need to keep blood sugars in range to avoid complications which is equivalent of losing the cricket match.What is meant by losing a match in diabetes? We should play to win the match against diabetes to avoid, delay or prevent the microvascular complications like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy.Changes in blood sugar levels can cause the following complications:Uncontrolled sugar levels can cause changes in retina leading to blindness.Urinary protein loss in the form of microalbuminuria can lead to poor renal functions which means dialysis and even renal transplant.Feet can become numb and you can lose your sense of touch. This leads to injuries even while doing daily activities. The skin around the feet has no immunity which gives way to infection, gangrene and in severe cases amputation of foot.This vicious cycle can be completely avoided by playing the match according to the run rate fixed. However, do keep in mind that as run rate changes as per certain factors, it is the same for diabetes. Your sugar levels would be best decided keeping your age, gender, co-morbid illnesses, etc. all into consideration. No two goals would be the same. Just as your favourite batsman would have different run rate according to the current status of the match, your sugar levels would be different from another individual.The best way to know your run rate, is to consult your endocrinologist. The need of the hour is playing with zeal and with a clear idea about your goals. Just as India is the cricket capital, let’s all strive to make the country a diabetes-free capital too. Let the cricket spirit win! Chak de India!

Myths & Facts About Diabetes

Aparna Indoria
1. Diabetes is always inherited.There does seem to be a genetic element to both type 2 diabetes and obesity, which is why they can sometimes run in families. However, environmental factors, including diet and exercise, play a huge part In the development of both these conditions. It is important for everyone to eat healthy and exercise regularly to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or obesity.2. Type 2 diabetes is not always caused by lack of insulin because some people with diabetes do not need to take insulin.In type 2 diabetes, the body has increased insulin needs due to the reduced responsiveness or insensitivity of body cell to insulin, and the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to meet these increased needs of the body. The diet, exercise and drug treatments for type 2 diabetes attempt to both overcome insulin insensitivity and to stimulate more insulin secretion. Ultimately, however, the ability to stimulate the cells of the pancreas to produce more insulin is not enough and insulin injections are usually needed to achieve good control of blood glucose.3. A high level of blood glucose is normal for some people.This is untrue. People with diabetes should always try and keep their level of blood glucose as close to the normal range as is possible and convenient. High levels of blood glucose lead to an increased risk of eye, heart, Kidney and foot problems.4. Insulin use causes weight gain.Without sufficient insulin, digested food and muscle tissue are broken down and turned into glucose (sugar) by liver. This excess sugar is lost in the urine, an unnatural process not found in people without diabetes. Improved blood glucose control will reduce this loss of sugar in urine, and the calories retained are stored as extra fat, as in people without diabetes. Weight gain can also occur if too much insulin is being taken and extra calories are being taken to prevent or treat low blood glucose level.5. People with diabetes cannot drink alcohol.Drinking a moderate amount of alcohol with food has no adverse effect on blood glucose or insulin levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However alcohol can cause low glucose levels, If taken on an empty stomach or in excess. Beer contains a lot of carbohydrate, which counters the effects of the alcohol in causing hypos, but leads to weight gain if drunk regularly. People with or without diabetes can benefit from the heart protective effects of light to moderate intake of alcohol, red wine is beneficial.

6 Common Myths About Diabetes

Sheetal Aversekar, Diabetologist
      1. ONLY OLDER PEOPLE GET DIABETESEarlier, diabetes occurring in children and youngsters was considered to be type 1 (juvenile/ insulin dependant) diabetes. However the scenario is fast changing nowNowadays, unhealthy lifestyles are causing a lot of youngsters to develop the more common variety of type 2 diabetes. Today, it is not uncommon for teenagers or people in their 20s and 30s to be detected as being  type 2 diabetic.        2. DIABETES MEDICINES SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN FOR LONG AS THEY DAMAGE KIDNEYSMany people stop their diabetes medicines once their blood reports are normal, fearing damage by long term usage of medicinesThe truth is that stopping medicines will again cause the blood sugar level to rise and an uncontrolled blood sugar may damage not only the kidneys, but also eyes, nerves, heart, liver in the long run     3. MY FASTING AND 2 HOUR POST LUNCH REPORTS ARE WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS, SO I SHOULD NOT WORRYYour sugar level at other times of the day or on other days may not be within limits. Hence, you need to do a blood test called as HbA1c every 3 months which will tell you if you are well controlled in general over the past 3 monthsApart from that, lipid profile, kidney function tests, liver function tests, eye examination, feet examination should be done at least once a year or in some cases, more frequently, to detect any complications of diabetes at an early stage        4. DIABETES AFFECTS ONLY THOSE WHO EAT MORE SUGARUnfortunately, all Indians have a  risk of developing type 2 diabetes ( we are genetically more prone). However, it is not only the sugar intake but an unhealthy lifestyle which decides whether you will develop diabetes or not. This includes irregular meal and sleep timings, over intake of fast food/ oily food leading to weight gain, lack of adequate exerciseHealthy habits need to be inculcated right from childhood. For all the mothers out there, a chubby child is NOT a healthy child!      5. A SPECIAL DIET IS REQUIRED FOR DIABETICSThis may be true in certain special cases as decided by your doctor. However, most diabetics need to follow a healthy dietary and lifestyle pattern which should be followed even by non-diabeticsWhat is more important is to have small frequent meals rather than 3 heavy meals, increasing fibre intake in the form of fresh fruits and vegetables, avoiding processed food( tinned/ready to eat meals/ bakery foods), increasing water intake, ensuring adequate sleep and having a brisk walk for 30-40 minutes daily with appropriate footwearCrash diets should not be attempted as they will do more harm than good      6. INSULIN WILL DAMAGE MY BODYInsulin is an injection which needs to be taken daily in some individuals with diabetes. Your doctor will prescribe it only if your diabetes cannot be controlled by tablets, either on a temporary or a permanent basisIt is the best medicine to control blood sugar levels and if taken in the right dose and if precautions are followed, it will cause no harmNowadays, better varieties of insulins and insulin needles with a very fine tip are available which make the injections almost painless

Common Myths About Diabetes

Dr. Sudhindra Kulkarni, Diabetologist
The World Health day is celebrated on 7th of April every year. The theme this year is Beat Diabetes. The number of people being diagnosed with diabetes is on the rise and so are the myths surrounding the condition. Here, we help you break some common misbeliefs to help you manage diabetes better.Diabetes is not a serious disease.You cannot afford to take diabetes lightly. But this doesn't mean that life comes to an end once you are diagnosed with it. In fact, I suggest that you don’t wait to get diagnosed with diabetes, to take it seriously. This is especially true for people who are at high risk of developing diabetes.If you are overweight or obese, you will eventually develop Type-2 diabetes.People, who have a genetic propensity, are overweight, follow a sedentary lifestyle and are suffering from hypertension should not wait for diabetes to be diagnosed and then take control measures.People with diabetes should completely eliminate sugar, starchy foods like rice and potato from their diet.Even if you are diagnosed with diabetes, there is no need to completely eliminate anything from your diet. What you presently eat—the type and quality, your activity and stress levels and your weight will primarily determine number of calories you need, which will be the basis for your diet plan. Control and moderation are the key words.Once I begin to take medicines to control sugar, my diabetes will always be under control and I won’t have to visit the doctor.Taking medicines does not eliminate the need for regular monitoring and consulting the doctor.In fact, the need increases because the doctor will need to evaluate how your body is responding to the medicines and will accordingly alter the dosage.

Treatment and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Dr. Anirban Chakraborty, Internal Medicine
‘Beat Diabetes’ by Prevention and Better ManagementWorld Health Day 2016 is about prevention and better management of diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes, which is around 90% of all Diabetes, is a largely preventable condition that is rapidly increasing throughout the world; mostly among the affluent in countries like India and in the economically deprived sections of the developed world. Obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise are the main reasons for this rise.Simple lifestyle measures including doing regular exercise, eating healthy diet and maintaining normal body weight have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes by up to 50%.If a patient has developed diabetes, then the emphasis should be on better management of their condition by early diagnosis, regular check-up of various organ dysfunctions and appropriate treatment to prevent complications of diabetes. Treatment of type 2 diabetes can be inexpensive if international and national guidelines are followed, and the total initial monthly cost of effective first line treatment can be as low as under Rs. 50 per month.Reduce risk of developing Type 2 DiabetesThere are three main ways to reduce risk of developing diabetes: Not being overweight, having a healthy diet and exercising regularly.Healthy WeightTry to keep your Body Mass Index (BMI) under 25 if you are overweight. Waist measurement should be kept under 80cm (31.5inches) for Women and 90cm (35inches) for Indian men to be within the healthy range.Eat fewer calories and burn more energy through physical activity to achieve these targets.Balanced DietTry and achieve a balanced healthy diet over a day or even a week incorporating the following principles in your diet:Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and boiled or steamed vegetables a day.Drink plenty of water between 3 and 4 litres a day during summer.Keep total volume of carbohydrate intake under 1/3rd of your total daily food portion.Choose low-fat and low-sugar option of dairy or dairy alternatives (e.g. yoghurts)Regularly have beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other protein in moderation.Choose unsaturated oils and spreads and eat in small amounts.Eat foods high in fat, salt and sugar like chocolate, cakes, biscuits, sugary soft drinks, butter, ghee       and ice cream less often and in very small amounts.Avoid comfort snacking if you are stressed, having late nights or watching TV or reading books.Avoid eating out frequently. One full meal at a restaurant can have more than a whole day’s recommended calorie intake. Order smaller portions only and have either starters or desserts, but not both. To compensate for the excess calorie intake, try and be more active and avoid high calorie foods for the next few days.ExerciseAn easy way to exercise is to make activity part of everyday life, like walking to work, taking stairs or cycling to get around, doing household chores like washing clothes by hand, dusting or mopping the floor (moderate intensity activities). Participating in sports including swimming or exercising in a gym (vigorous intensity activities) are even better – try and combine these two types of activities over a week to total at least 150 minutes.Avoid excessive sedentary behaviour like watching TV and using a computer or smartphone for long hours. If you have exercising equipment at home, try to use it regularly while watching your favourite programme on TV.Better Management of Type 2 DiabetesEarly DiagnosisEarly diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is very important to prevent organ damage and further complications. If you have risk factors including being overweight, sedentary, over 25, having a close family member (parent, brother or sister) who has type 2 diabetes etc or you have symptoms suggestive of diabetes like excessive urination, excessive thirst, blurring of vision, tiredness, wound infections etc, you should get tested immediately.In the early stages, lifestyle changes can be sufficient and you may not need any medication to treat your condition.Better TreatmentYou may eventually need to take medication to help control your blood glucose levels. Initially, this will usually be in the form of tablets, and can sometimes be a combination of more than one type of tablet. The cost for vast majority of patients should be low if they are on the recommended medications. Doctors should follow National and International guidelines in prescribing medicines. That will keep cost and medical complications low and will help patients in long term.To reduce the risk of developing other serious health conditions, patients may be advised to take other medicines, including medicines to control high blood pressure and high cholesterol, low-dose aspirin to prevent stroke and other medications if you have the early signs of diabetic kidney disease. Your doctor should be able to tell you your risk of developing heart attack and stroke and prescribe medicines accordingly.If you have type 2 diabetes, you will need to take a reading of your average blood glucose level about every two to three months by the HbA1c test to help guide your treatment. You may need other tests depending on your condition and medications used.Remember, ‘prevention is better than cure’, and it is very true for type 2 diabetes. Together we can beat diabetes by prevention and better management.

10 Home Remedies to Control Diabetes

Ms. Silky Mahajan, Dietitian/Nutritionist
Diabetes is basically caused due to the lack of production of insulin or improper use of the produced insulin, which eventually leads to a deficiency in the blood glucose level. Diabetes is of two types, one where the insulin production is insufficient therefore the glucose level cannot be balanced; two when the body cannot produce insulin at all and therefore patients must inject insulin to maintain close levels. Apart from synthetic drugs, you can use various home remedies to cure or at least improve your diabetic condition. Here are some great home remedies to effectively maintain your blood sugar level:Bitter gourd – Have juice extracted from bitter gourd every morning on an empty stomach. Having this everyday for a few months will help maintain blood sugar levels.Guava - Have guava every day after peeling the skin off. It contains Vitamin C and fiber which help maintain the standard blood glucose level. Excessive guava eating is not recommended.Mango leaves - Soak fresh mango leaves in water (say a one litre bottle) over night and consume first thing in the morning. You could even let them dry out, powder the leaves and have half a teaspoon everyday.Basil leaves – Have 2 tablespoons of juice extracted from basil leaves empty stomach, in the morning. These are loaded with antioxidants that relieve stress and also contain oils that help lower blood sugar levels.Jamun - Jamun’s leaves, seeds and berries are effective in improving blood sugar levels and they also prevent spikes in the level of insulin. You could eat a handful of the berries or powder the leaves and seeds- which you should consume twice a day.Amla – Combine 2 teaspoons of amla juice in water and have it as soon as you wake up. Make this a part of your everyday routine to maintain blood sugar levels.Flaxseeds - Eat one tablespoon of flaxseed powder with a glass of warm water every morning, on an empty stomach. Flax seed can bring down your sugar level by almost 28%. But be careful not to have more than 2 tablespoons per day, as that could be bad for health.Neem – Neem enhances insulin receptor sensitivity, improves circulation and lowers blood sugar levels thereby reducing your dependency on synthetic drugs. Drink the juice of the need shoot everyday on an empty stomach for best results.Fruits – Fruits are rich in fiber and other minerals which help stabilize blood sugar levels of the body. Consume at least 5 fruits a day! Choose fruits like banana’s, blackberries, cranberries, grape fruit, blueberries, kiwi and other citrus fruits.Apple cider vinegar - Mix 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in a class water and consume before every large meal. The nutritional components in apple cider will help control the rise in blood sugar levels after eating.