The effects of hormonal levels on the gingival status of pregnant women may be accompanied by increased levels of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas (Type of microorganism). Signs of gingivitis (eg, bleeding, redness, swelling, tenderness) are evident in the second trimester and peak in the eighth month of pregnancy, with anterior teeth affected more than posterior teeth. These findings are exacerbated by poor plaque control and mouth breathing. Increased tooth mobility has been associated with microbial shifts from aerobic to anaerobic bacteria.These bacterial shifts are accompanied by increased inflammation in the attachment apparatus, as well as mineral disturbances in the lamina dura, causing tooth mobility. This condition appears to reverse postpartum.
2. Increase caries activity
An increase in caries has been associated with carbohydrate loading as snacking becomes more frequent. In some instances, morning sickness and vomiting/reflux may contribute to the onset of perimyolysis, an erosion of the lingual surfaces of the teeth caused by exposure to gastric acids.
A confounding factor is that pregnancy-associated hormonal changes may cause dryness of the mouth. Approximately 44 percent of pregnant participants in one study reported persistent xerostomia.
4. Preterm/low birthweight deliveries
The study of periodontitis during pregnancy and its effect on preterm, low birth weight infants is ongoing. Early studies noted an increase rate of preterm/low birthweight deliveries associated with periodontal disease. studies also showed increased odds of the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preeclampsia, fetal immune response and very early preterm birth.
5. Gestational diabetes
During pregnancy. In some women, hormones from the placenta block insulin — a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the body's metabolism of fats and carbs and helps the body turn sugar into energy — from doing its job, resulting in high glucose levels. This causes hyperglycemia (or high levels of sugar in the blood), which can damage the nerves, blood vessels and organs in your body.