Articles on dengue outbreak in pakistan

Dengue: Facts And Prevention Measures

Jayakrishnan
With dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains.Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the diseaseWith dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.Facts about the Aedes mosquitoesThe Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, peoothingUse mosquito repellents, especially during the monsoon seasonSince dengue is caused by a virus, it is the symptoms that are treated and the chronic phase of the illness with fever and myalgias lasts approximately one to two weeks.The symptoms:Severe joint and muscle painSwollen lymph nodesHeadacheFeverExhaustion - RashesThe risk of complications is in less than 1% of dengue cases The danger of dengue lies in dehydration, so it is vital to consume a lot of fluids and to only opt for a platelet transfusion if there is active bleeding or your platelet count is below 10,000.

Dengue Management and Prevention by Homeopathy

Dr. Abhay S Patil, Homeopath
Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rashthat is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome,According to statistical data there had been rise of 22 % cases of Dengue in Maharashtra in 2014 than 2013Prevention, Symptomatic  treatment after diagnosis, rest and lots of fluid can help to combat this diseaseThere are no approved vaccines for the dengue virus. Prevention thus depends on control of and protection from the bites of the mosquito that transmits it.The primary method of controlling A. aegypti is by eliminating its habitats. This is done by getting rid of open sources of water, or if this is not possible, by adding insecticides or biological control agents to these areas.Reducing open collections of water through environmental modification is the preferred method of control, given the concerns of negative health effects from insecticides and greater logistical difficulties with control agents.People can prevent mosquito bites by wearing clothing that fully covers the skin, using mosquito netting while resting,However, these methods appear not to be sufficiently effective, as the frequency of outbreaks appears to be increasing in some areas, probably due to urbanization increasing the habitat of A. aegypti. The range of the disease appears to be expanding possibly due to climate changeHome remedies1. Papaya for dengue:Juice made of papaya and its leaves is considered as one of the best home remedy. Papaya leaves are packed with enzymes that normalize platelet count, improve clotting factor, improves liver function thereby helping the person to recover.Have the juice with little water as it is bitter to taste2. Dragon fruit juice:This fruit once enjoyed as an expensive and exotic smoothic or juice is supposed to help for dengue fever.The vitamin c in this fruit aid in  improving immunity and prevent dengue hemorrhagic fever. It is good for bones, boost hemoglobin and has high antioxidant property3. High Protein Diet:To restore the vitamins,minerals,proteins and fats in body, high protein diet is required after  recovery. So eating fish, eggs,moong dal khichdi,buttermilk and vegetables soups will get patient to normal activities fastHomoeopathy can help you to get relief from the acute  symptoms and also prevent further  complications. Remedies indicatedEupatorium:Bone breaking pain with feverChill every 7-9am morning preceded by great thirstNausea, vomiting at close of chill.Periodical Headache and vomiting, chill 7-9 am, fever 3rd -4th day.Craving for cold drinks, acid drinks, ice creams.Moaning with all complaints.Aranea Diadema:Periodicity and suceptibility to Dampness with coldness present in every synptom.Throbbing pains in the long bones, feels cold to the very bones.Wakes up at night with hands twice their natural size.All complaints better by Smoking.Hammemilis:Haemorrhages Capillary which causes Undue weakness.Headache esp left temple feels as if bolt were pushed inside.Eyes feels sore, blood shot eyes, better by pressure on eyes.Hastens Absorption of haemorrhage inside the body.Forgetful , but egoistic remedy wants the respect to be shown.• Other remedies: gel, Rhus veneta, Secale cor, Podophyllum, Ipecac , Crotallus horridus are often used as per the symptoms

Dengue, Chickungunya and Homeopathy.

Dr. Manu Gupta, Homeopath
DENGUE, CHICKUNGUNYA AND HOMEOPATHY.Dengue fever and chickungunya is a virus-caused disease that is spread by the bite of mosquitoes (Aedes-aegypti). This is also known as Break bone fever. the severity of symptoms like bodyaches, joints pain are more in chickenguinya .WHO currently estimates there may be 50–100 million dengue and chickungunya infections worldwide every year. Symptoms: Dengue and chickungunya are not transmitted directly from person-to-person. Its symptoms range from mild fever to fatigue, headache, joint and muscle aches, nausea or vomiting, swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases hemorrhage dengue fever which is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding and breathing difficulty; can be fetal due to blood loss.Treatment: There is no specific treatment available in Orthodox medicine for such conditions. You will need Intravenous fluids and electrolytes if there are signs of dehydration. In case of dengue hemorrhagic fever a transfusion of fresh blood or platelets can be helpful.Prevention: Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Traveling during periods of minimal mosquito activity can also be helpful.Homeopathic management: Homeopathy has been used successfully in the others countries such as India to tackle this epidemic. The selection of homoeopathic remedies depends upon the individual response to infection. In repertory there are about 25 homoeopathic remedies are mention for the treatment of dengue and chickungunya fever. Above all of them Eupatorium perfoliatum and Echinacea angustifolia were found most effective remedies for dengue fever and it has been widely used in 1996 during epidemic of dengue in Delhi.Prevention and Treatment with HomeopathyNormal Dengue and chickungunya Fever: Eupatorium perf 200 or 1M can be taken once daily for three days and subsequently at least two doses a week at the interval of three to four day till the epidemic persist for the prevention of dengue fever. Furthermore Arsenic alb + Bryonia + Echinacea angustifolia + Ledum pal + Rhus tox in 30 potency should be taken once in a day for at least 2 weeks.In case of high Fever: Take Aconite 1M and Eupatorium 1M alternatively, after every 30 minutes immediately on start fever. Just take 3 doses of each remedy. If the symptoms persist then contact your homeopath or your physician. Above mention formula can also be use in case of normal dengue fever with more frequent intervals.Dengue haemorrhagic fever: Ipecac + Eupatorium + Crotalis-hor + Hamamelis + Dengue fever 30 can be given five times a day and two doses a week in all the patients those who have already suffered with the dengue fever and are prone for dengue hemorrhagic fever.There are very good preventive medicines also available which are helpful in immunity booster and help to prevent such complications. you can contact your Homeopathy physician regarding that also.

This Monsoon, Let's Fight Dengue

Dr. Puneet Gupta, Pulmonologist
Rain has come and its time to relax after hot climate. Rain brings joy to everyone but it also brings some troubles in the form of dengue, malaria, chickungunya, viral respiratory illness, diarrhoea etc.Today, we will talk about dengue, how to prevent, identify it and the various treatment options available. With multiple cities including Delhi recording a high number of dengue related cases, it is important that you know about the disease and how to prevent it.Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of an Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus. Mosquito can bite any time in day but it is more in early morning hourr & in evening.Symptoms of Dengue FeverSymptoms, which usually begin four to six days after infection and last for up to 10 days, may includeSudden, high feverSevere headachesPain behind the eyesSevere Bone, joint and muscle painFatigueNauseaVomitingBreathlessnessSkin rash, which appears two to five days after the onset of feverMild bleeding (such a nose bleed, bleeding gums, or easy bruising)Sometimes, symptoms are mild and can be mistaken for those of the flu or another viral infection. However, serious problems can develop. These include dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by high fever, damage to lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms may progress to massive bleeding, shock, and death. This is called dengue shock syndrome (DSS)People with weakened immune systems as well as those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever.Diagnosing dengue infectionDoctors can diagnose dengue infection with a blood test to check for the virus or antibodies to it.Treatment for dengue feverThere is no specific medicine to treat dengue infection. If you think you may have dengue fever, you should use only Paracetamol for Fever. Avoid medicines with aspirin, Ibuprofen, Nemuslide, pain killers, etc. (NSAIDS), which could worsen bleeding. You should also rest, drink plenty of fluids, and see your doctor. If you start to feel worse after 24 hours or if fever goes up, you should get to a hospital immediately to be checked for complications.Preventing dengue feverThere is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever yet in market. The best way to prevent the disease is to prevent bites by infected mosquitoes.To protect yourself:Stay away from heavily populated residential areas, if possible.Use mosquito repellents, mosquito repellents cream, while going out and even indoors.When outdoors, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks.Use mosquito nets.If you have symptoms of dengue, speak to your doctor.Avoid collection of water in places where mosquitoes can breed. These include old tires, cans, or flower pots that collect rain. Regularly change the water in cooler, outdoor bird baths and pets' water dishes.If someone in your home gets dengue fever, be especially vigilant about efforts to protect yourself and other family members from mosquitoes. Mosquitoes that bite the infected family member could spread the infection to others in your home.Stay Alert... Stay Healthy...

Dengue - Myths v/s Facts

Dr. Vivek Goswami, Pediatrician
Dengue Myths vs. FactsMyth: We are facing a dengue epidemicFact: Delhi is at present going through a dengue outbreak, and it is not yet an epidemicMyth: All dengue cases are the same and must be dealt with in the same mannerFact: Dengue can be classified as dengue fever and severe dengue. A person is said to be suffering from severe dengue when there is capillary leakage. Patients who have dengue fever do not have capillary leakage. Type 2 and type 4 dengue are more likely to cause capillary leakage.Myth: Everyone suffering from dengue must be hospitalizedFact: Dengue fever can be managed on an outpatient basis and patients who do not have severe abdominal pain or tenderness, persistent vomiting, abnormal mental status or extreme weakness, do not need hospitalization. Only patients suffering from severe dengue need hospitalization basis the discretion of their consulting doctor. One must always remember that 70% of the dengue fever cases can be cured just through the proper administration of oral fluids. Patients must be given 100-150 ml of safe water every hour, and it must be ensured that they must pass urine every 4-6 hours.Myth: Dengue can never re-occur if you have had it once in the pastFact: There are four types of dengue infections, which exist in our country.While dengue from the strain cannot re-occur, that from a different strain can. A second occurrence dengue (secondary) is more serious than first infection (primary). In the primary infection, IgM or NS1 will be positive and in secondary infection IgG will also be positive.Myth: This is the worst outbreak of dengue that Delhi has ever witnessedFact: The present outbreak of dengue in the Capital is that of Dengue 4. The reason for a large number of cases is that Dengue 4 has spread in the capital for the first time. The outbreak of Dengue 2 in 2013 was more dangerous than the present Dengue 4 outbreak.Myth: Platelet transfusion is the primary treatment option for people suffering from dengue feverFact: Platelet transfusion is only needed in cases where the patient's counts are less than 10,000, and there is active bleeding. Unnecessary platelet transfusion can cause more harm than good. The best treatment for dengue is to administer large amounts of oral fluids to patients. For patients who are unable to take oral fluids, intravenous administration may be necessary.Myth: Machine platelet count is accurateFact: Machine platelet count reading may be less than the actual platelet count, and a difference of about 30,000 can occurMyth: Testing platelet levels alone accounts for complete and effective management of dengueFact: A complete blood count (especially hematocrit) is needed to monitor prognosis and increased capillary permeability, which is the starting point of all complications. Falling platelet counts with rising hematocrit levels are most important

How to Prevent Dengue in Your Child?

Dr. Chetan Shende, Pediatrician
How To Prevent Dengue in your loved ones?Dengue can be prevented. Act fast! Act Now! Follow simple preventive things given below & Fight with Dengue.Monsoon has set in and it is the time again to fight against the most rapidly spreading and deadly viral fever, Dengue. Though there is no specific treatment for dengue, there are active preventive measures which effectively helps to protect ourselves, our family and community. Eliminating the breeding places of mosquitoes and personal protection measures forms the mainstay for Dengue Prevention. Here are a few measures:Personal protectionProtective Clothing – Wear full sleeved shirts and long trousers so that your full body is covered and there is no exposed part for the mosquitoes to feast uponUse mosquito repellents – When you are outdoors or cannot wear protective clothing, then never forget to apply mosquito repellent creamsChoose right repellent – Right repellent, rides away mosquitoes. Choose repellents that contain DEET, PICARDIN OR OIL OF EUCALYPTUSProper Housing – Screen doors and windows with insecticide treated mesh with mesh hole area less than 0.04 inch. Air conditioning also helps to avoid mosquito bitesMosquito bed nets – Sleeping under mosquito bed nets acts as an added preventive measure.Control mosquito breeding:5 STEP MOSQUITO OUT:Change water in vases and bowls on alternate daysRemove water from flower pot plates on alternate daysTurn over all water storage containersCover water storage containersSpray insecticides around your house weeklyUse of Guppy fish in water storage areas, feeds on mosquito larva and helps in controlling the growth of mosquitoesMeasures are few but it offers good protection from Dengue. Prevention is better than cure, implement the measures and bid farewell to Dengue.“ Fight the bite to protect your life ”

Dengue and Chikungunya-Homoeopathy Is the Only Treatment

Dr. Shalini, Homeopath
Chikungunya virus is closely related to O’nyong’nyong virus. O’nyong’nyong virus caused a major epidemic of arthritis and rash involving at least 2 million people in Eastern and Central Africa in 1960s. After its mysterious emergence the virus virtually disappeared leaving only occasional evidence of its presence in Kenya.The chikungunya virus is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person infected with the chikungunya virus. Monkeys, and possibly other wild animals, may also serve as reservoirs of the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other humans when they bite.Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito), a household container breeder and aggressive daytime bitter which is attracted to humans, is the primary vector of chikungunya virus to humans. Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) may also play a role in human transmission is Asia, and various forest-dwelling mosquito species in Africa have been found to be infected with the virus.Aedes breeds in artificial accumulations of water. It needs only 2ml of water for breeding. It lays eggs singly. They do not fly over long distance, usually less than 100 metres. Eggs can resist desiccation for upto 1year. The eggs will hatch when flooded by deoxygenated water.Aedes can spread the infection to next generation.Aedes is the first proved vector of a virus disease- Yellow fever. Human blood is preferred over other animals with ankles as a favourite bite area.SymptomsAfter an incubation period of 3-12 days there is a sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including a severe headache, chills, fever (>40°C, 104°F), joint pain, backache, nausea, vomiting, petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunks. Migratory polyarthritis mainly affects the small joints of the hands, wrists, ankles and feet with lesser involvement of the larger joints. Joints of the extremities in particular become swollen and painful to the touch. Haemorrhage is rare. There can also be headache, conjunctival infection and slight photophobia.Redness of eyes may be the first symptom. There may be difficulty in looking upwardsIn the present epidemic in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, high fever and crippling joint pain is the prevalent complaint. Fever typically lasts for two days and abruptly comes down. The disease has a biphasic course also. Following 1-6 days of fever, the temperature returns to normal for 1-3 days and then there is a second period of fever for a few days. In the second phase of illness 80 % of people develop maculopapular rash on the trunk and extensor surfaces of the limbs. After 6 to 10 days patients recover completely. However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days. Rarely arthralgia and morning stiffness may persist for months.However joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days.Dermatological manifestations observed in a recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever are as follows:Maculopapular rash like ulcers over scrotum, crural areas and axilla.Nasal blotchy erythemaFreckle-like pigmentation over centro-facial areaFlagellate pigmentation on face and extremitiesLichenoid eruption and hyperpigmentation in photodistributed areasMultiple aphthous ulcersLympoedemaMultiple ecchymotic spots (Children)Vesiculobullous lesions (infants)Subungual haemorrhage.InvestigationsA few patients develop Leucopenia.Elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferace (AST) and C-reactive proteinMildly decreased platelet counts.Diagnosis1.Isolation of the virus from blood. It is possible in the first 4-5 days of illness.  Sudden severe headache, chills, fever, joint and muscle pain are the commonest symptoms. The diagnostic tests include detection of antigens or antibodies in the blood, using ELISA (or EIA – enzyme immunoassay) or molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibodies detected by serological assays like ELISA require an IgM capture assay to distinguish it from dengue feverDifferential Diagnosis1. Dengue FeverOf all the arthropod- borne viral diseases, Dengue fever is the most common. This infection may be asymptomatic or may lead to1. Classical Dengue Fever2 .Dengue Haemorrhagic fever without shock3. Dengue Haemorrhagic fever with shockThe main vector is Aedes aegypti mosquito. The illness is characterised by a incubation period of 3 to 10 days. The onset is sudden with chills and high fever, intense headache, muscle and joint pains which prevent all movement. Within 24 hrs retro-orbital pain and photophobia develops. Other symptoms include extreme weakness, anorexia, constipation, colicky pain and abdominal tenderness. Fever is typically but not inevitably followed by a remission of a few hrs to2 days. The rash may be diffuse flushing, mottling, or fleeting pin point eruptions on face, neck and chest during the first half of the febrile period and a conspicuous rash that may be maculopapular or scarlatiform on 3rd or 4th day. Fever lasts for about 5 days.Dengue haemorrhagic fever is confined exclusively to children less than 15 yrs of age. There may be plasma leakage and abnormal haemostasis, as manifested by a rising haematocrit value and moderate to marked thrombocytopenia.The fever may rise again producing a saddle-back fever curve. There may be generalised lymphadenopathy.In dengue shock syndrome shock is present along with all the above criteria.Homoeopathic ProphylaxisAs per the guidelines laid down by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in the Organon a Genus epidemics has to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best to be found out in the specific area and it could be the best prophylactic remedy.Many homeopaths consider Eupatorium perfoliatum as a preventive medicine for Chikungunya. The most commonly suggested potency as prophylaxis is 200C of Eupatorium perfoliatum. As per the reports the homoeopathic remedies useful for propylaxis are – Eupatorium Perfoliatum, Gelsemium, Rhustox, Bryonia Alba, Ars alb ,Aconite and Polyporus.Treatment Chikungunya fever is usually self-limiting and will resolve with time. Symptomatic treatment is recommended after excluding other more dangerous diseases. There is no vaccine currently available for Chikungunya. Supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms.Homoeopathic TreatmentAphorism 100-102 is dealing with the treatment of epidemic diseases. According to Dr.Hahnemann, a carefully observing physician can arrive so nearly at knowledge of the true state of the epidemic from the examination of even the first and second patients and can even find a suitable homoeopathic remedy for it. Dr. Hahnemann recommends investigating each epidemic disease as a new and unknown case and selecting medicine according to its symptom similarity.Homoeopathy has a very good scope in the treatment of chikungunya. Initially indicated acute remedies may give relief which may be followed by constitutional remedy in order to get rid of post fever arthralgia

How Can Homoeopathy Help in Chikungunya Outbreak

Dr. Renu Garg, Homeopath
Are you living under a constant fear of getting bitten by mosquitoes this season, that are ever so prevalent in the environment due to the degrading civic sense among us citizens and the apathetic authorities? Don’t panic! Every case doesn’t need to be hospitalized or treated with very strong medication. Homoeopathy can help!With monsoon, there has been an increase in mosquito-borne illnesses including Dengue and Chikungunya. Delhi in particular is witnessing an unprecedented rise in the number of chikungunya cases this year. Though most patients recovered and serious complications are rare. Generally one should feel better within a week but in some cases the joint pains may persist for weeks or months together. People at risk for a more severe illness include newborns infected around the time of birth, older adults  65 or above and people with medical conditions like high blood pressure,diabetes or heart disease.There is no specific vaccine or antiviral medicines to prevent/treat chikungunya virus. So the rule is to treat the symptoms like get plenty of rest, drink fluids to maintain hydration, don’t contribute to the transmission cycle: If you get infected, protect yourself from further mosquito bites in the first week of your illness. During the first week, chikungunya virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to a mosquito through bite and an infected mosquito can then spread the virus to the other people. It’s safer to take analgesics and antipyretics such as paracetamol to bring down high fever and pain. The symptoms are often difficult to differentiate from dengue, hence it is important not to take any NSAIDs (Non steroidal Anti inflammatory Drugs) like aspirin, ibuprofen till dengue is ruled out as these medicines can cause platelets to fall, increasing risk of bleeding in case of dengue.HOMOEOPATHY is undoubtedly effective option to tackle all kind of viral fevers including the monsoon maladies like chikungunya and Dengue, as it offers a gentler and a faster cure. There are number of medicines ( viz. Rhustox, Bryonia, Eupatoreum Perf, Pyrogenum, Gelsemium, MercSol, Ipecac, Arnica, Belladonna etc) that not only help bring down the active fever,they cut it short too. Also, they come with an added advantage of no side effects/a drop in your platelet counts causing bleeding! The terrible joint pains one experiences in Chikungunya, which may get disabling for weeks or months even after the recovery from fever, are very effectively controlled with homoeopathic medicines. Among many, Polyporous pinicola (Polyporous officinalis) is one of the specific medicines for these lingering pain in joints. Single dose of this medicine is enough to cure chikungunya pains. One more medicine which is helpful in completely alleviating joint pains even if the fever subsides is Kali mur, 1m, single dose which should be taken at least after one week of the first medicine. In higher doses it acts as a preventive.Some medicines like Phosphoric acid, Cinchona, Arsenic can take good care of weakness and fatigue making you up and about in just a couple of days. Euphrasia can very well take care of the conjunctivitis or any other eye symptoms if you develop them. I have personally used Eupt, Bry, RhusTox as preventives for the disease, so far it has helped the families in not contracting the disease and also cut short the intensity and duration of the disease.Homoeopathy has a very good scope in the treatment of chikungunya. Initially indicated acute remedies may give relief which may be followed by constitutional remedy in order to get rid of post fever arthralgias.Usually, one attack confers life long immunity.Note: Please do not self –medicate. Consult your physician if you have high fever, joint pains or any other signs that point towards the infection.