Metabolic syndrome is defined as constellation of an interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical and metabolic factors that directly increase the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.It was previously referred to as “syndrome X”.

Criteria and Risk Factors

1. Obesity: Waist circumference >40 inches in males or >35 inches in females    

2. Elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dl    

3. Decreased HDL <40 mg/dl in males and <50 mg/dl in females    

4. Hypertension: BP >130/85 mm ug    

5. Hyperglycemia: Fasting blood sugar >100 mg/dl    

6. At Least 3 of the above criteria should be present to diagnose Metabolic Syndrome 

Culprits behind Metabolic Syndrome

High sugar level, obesity, hormonal imbalance, and an unhealthy lifestyle are some of the causes of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome and Skin

Various skin conditions related to metabolic syndrome are:    

1. Acanthosis Nigricans    

2. Skin tags    

3. Xanthoma    

4. Xanthelasma    

5. Psoriasis    

6. Hidradenitis suppurativa    

7. Acne    

8. Hirsutism    

9. Androgenetic alopecia    

10. Lichen planus    

11. Striae or stretch marks

The association between psoriasis and Metabolic Syndrome is directly correlated with the severity of psoriasis. More severe the psoriasis, more likely the patient will have metabolic syndrome. 

The metabolic components such as hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and abdominal obesity are in the higher range of psoriatic patients. Heart diseases are more prevalent in severe psoriasis. Therefore, patients of severe psoriasis should be investigated for Metabolic syndrome parameters (triglyceride, high-density lipid, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, waist circumference). 

Disorders of the sebaceous gland and apocrine glands are also correlated with Metabolic syndrome such as acne, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa. Male and female pattern hair loss has increased incidence in relation to Metabolic Syndrome (hypertension and obesity).

Management Plan

Lifestyle changes should be the initial step to deal with Metabolic Syndrome which includes eating a healthy diet such as fruits, vegetables, consume less salt and avoid a diet rich in saturated fats. Indulge in some moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes every day.

Medical treatment includes anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering agents and antihypertensive drugs. These medical treatments aim to treat the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.